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Volume 11, February
 
 

Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2024) – 2 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Pharmacogenomics (PGx) can facilitate the transition to patient-specific drug regimens and thus improve their efficacy and reduce toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overlap of PGx classification for drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME)-related genes in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) PGx labeling and in the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) database. FDA-approved drugs and PGx labeling for ADME genes were identified in the CPIC database. Drugs were filtered by their association with ADME (pharmacokinetics)-related genes, PGx FDA labeling class, and CPIC evidence level. FDA PGx labeling was classified as either actionable, informative, testing recommended, or testing required, and varying CPIC evidence levels as either A, B, C, or D. View this paper
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11 pages, 1608 KiB  
Article
Triple Silencing of HSP27, cFLIP, and CLU Genes Promotes the Sensitivity of Doxazosin-Induced Apoptosis in PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells
by Jeong Man Cho, Sojung Sun, Eunji Im, Hyunwon Yang and Tag Keun Yoo
Medicines 2024, 11(3), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines11030007 - 21 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Background: This study investigated how the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP), and clusterin (CLU) affects the progression of cancer cells and their susceptibility to doxazosin-induced apoptosis. By silencing each of these genes individually, their effect on [...] Read more.
Background: This study investigated how the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP), and clusterin (CLU) affects the progression of cancer cells and their susceptibility to doxazosin-induced apoptosis. By silencing each of these genes individually, their effect on prostate cancer cell viability after doxazosin treatment was investigated. Methods: PC-3 prostate cancer cells were cultured and then subjected to gene silencing using siRNA targeting HSP27, cFLIP, and CLU, either individually, in pairs, or all together. Cells were then treated with doxazosin at various concentrations and their viability was assessed by MTT assay. Results: The study found that silencing the CLU gene in PC-3 cells significantly reduced cell viability after treatment with 25 µM doxazosin. In addition, the dual silencing of cFLIP and CLU decreased cell viability at 10 µM doxazosin. Notably, silencing all three genes of HSP27, cFLIP, CLU was most effective and reduced cell viability even at a lower doxazosin concentration of 1 µM. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings suggest that the simultaneous silencing of HSP27, cFLIP, and CLU genes may be a potential strategy to promote apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which could inform future research on treatments for malignant prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Anticancer Therapeutics)
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16 pages, 1221 KiB  
Article
ADME Gene-Related Pharmacogenomic Labeling of FDA-Approved Drugs: Comparison with Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Evidence Levels
by Subrata Deb, Robert Hopefl, Anthony Allen Reeves and Dena Cvetkovic
Medicines 2024, 11(3), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines11030006 - 20 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Pharmacogenomics (PGx) can facilitate the transition to patient-specific drug regimens and thus improve their efficacy and reduce toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overlap of PGx classification for drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME)-related genes in the U.S. [...] Read more.
Pharmacogenomics (PGx) can facilitate the transition to patient-specific drug regimens and thus improve their efficacy and reduce toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overlap of PGx classification for drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME)-related genes in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) PGx labeling and in the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) database. FDA-approved drugs and PGx labeling for ADME genes were identified in the CPIC database. Drugs were filtered by their association with ADME (pharmacokinetics)-related genes, PGx FDA labeling class, and CPIC evidence level. FDA PGx labeling was classified as either actionable, informative, testing recommended, or testing required, and varying CPIC evidence levels as either A, B, C, or D. From a total of 442 ADME and non-ADME gene–drug pairs in the CPIC database, 273, 55, and 48 pairs were excluded for lack of FDA labeling, mixed CPIC evidence level provisional classification, and non-ADME gene–drug pairs, respectively. The 66 ADME gene–drug pairs were classified into the following categories: 10 (15%) informative, 49 (74%) actionable, 6 (9%) testing recommended, and 1 (2%) testing required. CYP2D6 was the most prevalent gene among the FDA PGx labeling. From the ADME gene–drug pairs with both FDA and CPIC PGx classification, the majority of the drugs were for depression, cancer, and pain medications. The ADME gene–drug pairs with FDA PGx labeling considerably overlap with CPIC classification; however, a large number of ADME gene–drug pairs have only CPIC evidence levels but not FDA classification. PGx actionable labeling was the most common classification, with CYP2D6 as the most prevalent ADME gene in the FDA PGx labeling. Health professionals can impact therapeutic outcomes via pharmacogenetic interventions by analyzing and reconciling the FDA labels and CPIC database. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 10th Anniversary of Medicines: Future Directions)
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