Primary osteosarcomas of the jaw (OSJ) are rare, accounting for 6% of all osteosarcomas. This study aims to determine the value of SATB2 and MDM2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) in differentiating OSJ from other jawbone mimickers, such as benign fibro-osseous lesions (BFOLs) of the jaw
[...] Read more.
Primary osteosarcomas of the jaw (OSJ) are rare, accounting for 6% of all osteosarcomas. This study aims to determine the value of SATB2 and MDM2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) in differentiating OSJ from other jawbone mimickers, such as benign fibro-osseous lesions (BFOLs) of the jaw or Ewing sarcoma of the jaw. Certain subsets of osteosarcoma harbor a supernumerary ring and/or giant marker chromosomes with amplification of the 12q13–15 region, including the murine double-minute type 2 (MDM2) and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) genes. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is an immunophenotypic marker for osteoblastic differentiation. Cases of OSJ, BFOLs (ossifying fibroma and fibrous dysplasia) of the jaw, and Ewing sarcoma of the jaw were retrieved from the Departments of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University and Lagos State University College of Medicine, Nigeria. All OSJ retrieved showed histologic features of high-grade osteosarcoma. IHC for SATB2 (clone EP281) and MDM2 (clone IF2), as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for MDM2 amplification, were performed on all cases. SATB2 was expressed in a strong intensity and diffuse staining pattern in all cases (11 OSJ, including a small-cell variant, 7 ossifying fibromas, and 5 fibrous dysplasias) except in Ewing sarcoma, where it was negative in neoplastic cells. MDM2 was expressed in a weak to moderate intensity and scattered focal to limited diffuse staining pattern in 27% (3/11) of cases of OSJ and negative in all BFOLs and the Ewing sarcoma. MDM2
amplification was negative by FISH in interpretable cases. In conclusion, the three cases of high-grade OSJs that expressed MDM2 may have undergone transformation from a low-grade osteosarcoma (LGOS). SATB2 is not a dependable diagnostic marker to differentiate OSJ from BFOLs of the jaw; however, it could serve as a valuable diagnostic marker in differentiating the small-cell variant of OSJ from Ewing sarcoma of the jaw, while MDM2 may be a useful diagnostic marker in differentiating OSJ from BFOLs of the jaw, especially in the case of an LGOS or high-grade transformed osteosarcoma.