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Limnol. Rev., Volume 24, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 6 articles

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21 pages, 4821 KiB  
Article
Diagnosis of the Condition of Aquatic Ecosystems Using a Partial Assessment of Ecological and Trophic States: An Example of Small Lakes in Northern Poland
by Maciej Markowski and Barbara Wojtasik
Limnol. Rev. 2024, 24(1), 105-125; https://doi.org/10.3390/limnolrev24010006 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 625
Abstract
The current state of aquatic ecosystems was assessed for lakes in two river–lake systems: Święta Struga (Święte and Ocypelek) and Kałębnica (Czarne Południowe and Kałębie). Trophic states were determined using the Vollenweider, Nürnberg, and Carlson methods. Additionally, shoreline changes were analyzed for all [...] Read more.
The current state of aquatic ecosystems was assessed for lakes in two river–lake systems: Święta Struga (Święte and Ocypelek) and Kałębnica (Czarne Południowe and Kałębie). Trophic states were determined using the Vollenweider, Nürnberg, and Carlson methods. Additionally, shoreline changes were analyzed for all lakes concerning their natural character, and physicochemical parameters were utilized as auxiliary elements in the assessment of the ecological state following the guidelines of Directive 2000/60/EC. Supplementary to these methods, the ecological evaluation of the littoral zone utilized meiobenthic organism grouping as an indicator. The results indicate significant differences among the studied reservoirs. Lake Święte is a reservoir bordering mesotrophy and eutrophy, with the ecological state of the littoral zone showing ongoing trophic development. Lake Ocypelek exemplifies a eutrophic reservoir undergoing progressive degradation. The lakes in the Kałębnica system also exhibit advanced trophic conditions, with Lake Kałębie being a eutrophic reservoir. Its shoreline has been significantly altered due to the development of the direct catchment area. In contrast, Lake Czarne Południowe serves as an example of a mesotrophic reservoir, with a substantially changed shoreline. Considering physicochemical elements and chlorophyll a concentration, the water quality for all examined lakes was found to be below the good category. The diagnosis of the condition of lake aquatic ecosystems requires an individualized approach to each of them. Therefore, employing various methods for their assessment, encompassing physico-chemical, biological, and morphological parameters, provides the opportunity to initiate potential remedial actions that will effectively contribute to their improvement. Conducting low-cost research involving a multidisciplinary approach to diagnose the state of aquatic ecosystems is becoming a crucial element in lake monitoring. Full article
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29 pages, 1676 KiB  
Review
Overview of the Eutrophication in Romanian Lakes and Reservoirs
by Gabriela Elena Dumitran, Liana Ioana Vuta and Bogdan Popa
Limnol. Rev. 2024, 24(1), 76-104; https://doi.org/10.3390/limnolrev24010005 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 715
Abstract
In this paper, attention is drawn to the deterioration of Romanian surface water ecosystems due to eutrophication, an important environmental issue both at national and international levels. An inventory of existing studies dealing with the issue of the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs [...] Read more.
In this paper, attention is drawn to the deterioration of Romanian surface water ecosystems due to eutrophication, an important environmental issue both at national and international levels. An inventory of existing studies dealing with the issue of the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs in Romania is made, aiming to identify the main problems Romania is facing in monitoring, classifying, and managing eutrophic ecosystems. On Web of Science, the keyword “Eutrophication”, with “Romania” as country/region, leads to 50 publications, which are analyzed in this review. The number of articles found does not reflect the real environmental issue represented by eutrophic lakes and reservoirs in Romania. At a national level, only 126 lakes and reservoirs have been monitored and assessed between 2018 and 2020, in terms of ecological status/ecological potential. Thus, at a global evaluation, 77% of natural lakes and 33% of artificial ones do not reach the quality objectives. The results of this study showed that the frequency of measurements taken by water quality indicators is not the strongest point of measurement campaigns, as it is not sufficient for the diagnosis of eutrophic lakes, and supplementary measures must be undertaken to better understand and mitigate this phenomenon. Full article
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23 pages, 4731 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Two Lagoons in the Coastal Area of the Baltic Sea
by Oskars Purmalis, Laura Grinberga, Linda Dobkevica, Agnija Skuja, Davis Ozolins, Ivars Druvietis, Viesturs Ozols and Jana Paidere
Limnol. Rev. 2024, 24(1), 53-75; https://doi.org/10.3390/limnolrev24010004 - 24 Jan 2024
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Abstract
The proposed study is focused on an ecological analysis of Latvian coastal lagoons, emphasizing their unique but vulnerable nature. Coastal lagoons are recognized as fragile ecosystems of significant ecological, social, and economic value, as recognized by the European Directive 92/43/EEC (Habitats Directive). Despite [...] Read more.
The proposed study is focused on an ecological analysis of Latvian coastal lagoons, emphasizing their unique but vulnerable nature. Coastal lagoons are recognized as fragile ecosystems of significant ecological, social, and economic value, as recognized by the European Directive 92/43/EEC (Habitats Directive). Despite their protected status, the existence of these ecosystems can be threatened by morphological, hydrological, and anthropogenic changes. The uniqueness of these ecosystems can be determined by the large number of influencing factors and their dynamics. They are affected by seawater, their level of fluctuation, wind exposure, overgrowing with macrophytes, freshwater sources, and water flow generated streams affecting sediment transport and accumulation. All the influencing factors determine a highly trophic ecosystem, which in the studied lagoons is rated as medium to poor ecological status, which confirms the above-mentioned vulnerability and fragility. The aim of this study was to analyze two lagoons in the coastal area of the Baltic Sea in the Riga Gulf, by characterizing, for the first time, their current conditions and ecological parameters because understanding such ecosystems is only partial. The physicochemical composition of lagoon sediments and water shows the impact of seawater by increased electrical conductivity and the concentration of SO42− and Cl in water, while the presence of detritus in sediments is almost non-existent; thus, the content of organic matter is low with relatively variable pH. The results show that the diversity of studied benthic macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, zooplankton, and even phytoplankton species is low, but there is higher diversity in lagoons and their parts with regular water exchange with the sea. The study provides valuable insight into the ecological dynamics of coastal lagoons in Latvia, shedding light on their current conditions, anthropogenic impact, and the need for sustainable management measures. Full article
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23 pages, 7248 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemistry and Irrigation Quality of High-Altitude Lakes: A Case Study of the Ramaroshan Lake Complex, Nepal Himalayas
by Bina Thapa, Laxman Khanal, Ramesh Raj Pant, Chet Raj Bhatta, Prekshya Subedi, Laxmi Prasad Upadhyaya, Chandra Bahadur Sunar, Janaki Poudel, Naresh Pandey, Pensri Kyes, Ankit Kumar Singh, Kiran Bishwakarma and Randall C. Kyes
Limnol. Rev. 2024, 24(1), 30-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/limnolrev24010003 - 08 Jan 2024
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Abstract
The Ramaroshan Lake Complex (RLC) in Sudurpaschim Province, Nepal, is a Himalayan lake cluster that holds significant ecological, economic, religious, and esthetic importance. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive characterization of the hydrochemical properties of water within the RLC and assess its [...] Read more.
The Ramaroshan Lake Complex (RLC) in Sudurpaschim Province, Nepal, is a Himalayan lake cluster that holds significant ecological, economic, religious, and esthetic importance. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive characterization of the hydrochemical properties of water within the RLC and assess its suitability for irrigation purposes. A total of 38 water samples were collected from seven different lakes of the complex. The physicochemical parameters and major ions were then analyzed. The water samples from the RLC were alkaline, and based on total hardness, they ranged from soft to moderately hard categories. The presence of major ions included the following: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Fe3+ > NH4+ and HCO3 > Cl > SO42− > NO3 > PO43−. The alkaline earth metals (Ca2+ and Mg2+) dominated the alkali metals (Na+ and K+) and weak acids (HCO3) dominated the strong acids (Cl and SO42−). The dominant hydrochemical facies of the lake water was a Ca-HCO3 type indicating a calcium carbonate type of lithology. Carbonate rock weathering was the most dominant process in influencing the hydrochemistry of the water. A high ratio of (Ca2++ Mg2+)/Tz+ and a lower ratio of (Na+ + K+)/Tz+ revealed the dominance of Ca2+ and Mg2+ resulting from carbonate weathering, with little contribution from silicate weathering. Different irrigation indices revealed the suitability of the RLC water for irrigation. The insights derived from this study are pivotal in safeguarding water quality and bolstering sustainability efforts. The study also furnishes foundational data crucial to an array of stakeholders including researchers and policymakers and significantly contributes to advancing water management strategies and fostering ecosystem conservation in the Himalayan freshwater lakes, particularly in the face of the overarching challenge posed by global climate change. Full article
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13 pages, 3630 KiB  
Article
The Possible Use of Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Signal and Spectral Analysis to Identify Habitat Condition of Aquatic Plants
by Eugeniusz Pronin
Limnol. Rev. 2024, 24(1), 17-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/limnolrev24010002 - 31 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Many macrophyte species exhibit a high degree of plasticity, enabling them to thrive in various aquatic ecosystems. Identifying the growth conditions of individual aquatic plant species during research or specimen collection is not always possible. In many cases, the nature of the planned [...] Read more.
Many macrophyte species exhibit a high degree of plasticity, enabling them to thrive in various aquatic ecosystems. Identifying the growth conditions of individual aquatic plant species during research or specimen collection is not always possible. In many cases, the nature of the planned research does not necessitate recognizing environmental conditions. However, the scope of identifying the habitat parameters of the collections of submerged aquatic plant herbariums provides an opportunity for further research. This paper explores the possibilities of using isotopic signals of plants, supported by spectral analyses of powdered plant materials, to ascertain the environmental conditions from which the samples were collected. The results obtained from the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions (δ13CORG and δ15NORG) and the analysis of spectral spectra via FTIR-ART (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflectance) of plant material (Elodea canadensis Michx. species) collected from various habitat ecosystems, including rivers and both hard- and softwater lakes, exhibited significant distinctions between these habitats. Particularly high values of δ15NORG were recorded in the material from rivers. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions did not differentiate between the material collected from softwater and hardwater lakes. Nevertheless, when comparing the isotopic findings with the FTIR-ATR spectral analysis focused on identifying characteristic peaks associated with the presence of calcium carbonate, noticeable differences were observed in the presence and intensity of calcium carbonate peaks in the material. These differences were only evident when nondecarbonated plant material from hardwater lakes was used for the FTIR-ATR analysis. To the best of the author’s knowledge, the combination of methods applied in this study to identify the origin of E. canadensis from various freshwater environments is the first application of its kind that could enable the rapid identification of plant material origin. Such identification could prove useful in environmental, ecological, and paleoenvironmental research. The increased knowledge of macrophytes’ δ13CORG and δ15NORG values might also be essential in further tracking accelerated eutrophication based on aquatic vegetation’s isotopic signals. This might be important due to the assumption that the increased rate of eutrophication influences organic matter sedimentation in aquatic ecosystems, especially lakes. Full article
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16 pages, 2132 KiB  
Article
A Modelling Approach for the Management of Invasive Species at a High-Altitude Artificial Lake
by Dimitrios K. Moutopoulos, Alexandra S. Douligeri, Athina Ziou, Nikolaos Kiriazis, Athanasios Korakis, Nikolaos Petsis and George N. Katselis
Limnol. Rev. 2024, 24(1), 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3390/limnolrev24010001 - 30 Dec 2023
Viewed by 734
Abstract
The ecosystem structure of a Mediterranean high-altitude artificial lake (Aoos Springs, Northwest Greece) was assessed and quantified using the Ecopath with Ecosim model. The artificial lake was created in 1990 for hydroelectric production and the fish fauna has been enriched across years due [...] Read more.
The ecosystem structure of a Mediterranean high-altitude artificial lake (Aoos Springs, Northwest Greece) was assessed and quantified using the Ecopath with Ecosim model. The artificial lake was created in 1990 for hydroelectric production and the fish fauna has been enriched across years due to deliberate or accidental fish stockings, as well as the introduction of the invasive pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), which may cause adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and their biota. The model considered 20 species/taxa groups with biological data gathered during 2021–2022 from field surveys, interviews with recreational anglers and literature. The results revealed that the artificial lake of Aoos is a resilient ecosystem to unexpected events with low intensity of fisheries exploitation. The biomass of the introduced invasive species Lepomis gibbosus is low, due to the low biomass level of its diet, Chironomidae and zoobenthic organisms as well as other fish species. Full article
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