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Children, Volume 4, Issue 7 (July 2017) – 9 articles

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231 KiB  
Review
Sildenafil in Infants and Children
by Larisa Simonca and Robert Tulloh
Children 2017, 4(7), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4070060 - 24 Jul 2017
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6318
Abstract
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) management has been transformed in recent times with the advent of cheap and effective diagnostic tools and therapy. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-V inhibitor, has been at the centre of this treatment, and its success in treating PAH has led to [...] Read more.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) management has been transformed in recent times with the advent of cheap and effective diagnostic tools and therapy. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-V inhibitor, has been at the centre of this treatment, and its success in treating PAH has led to its widespread uptake in adult and paediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH), as a first line treatment choice. This might apply to persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as to more complex diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Although recent data regarding long-term mortality and the repeal of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval has complicated the issue, Sildenafil continues to be the major treatment option for paediatric PH for patients in a variety of contexts, and this does not seem likely to change in the foreseeable future. In this review, we provide a summary of pulmonary hypertension in infants and children and the use of Sildenafil for such diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trend in Pediatric Cardiology: Pulmonary Hypertension)
1937 KiB  
Article
One Size Does Not Fit All: Contextualising Family Physical Activity Using a Write, Draw, Show and Tell Approach
by Robert J. Noonan, Stuart J. Fairclough, Zoe R. Knowles and Lynne M. Boddy
Children 2017, 4(7), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4070059 - 14 Jul 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6530
Abstract
Understanding family physical activity (PA) behaviour is essential for designing effective family-based PA interventions. However, effective approaches to capture the perceptions and “lived experiences” of families are not yet well established. The aims of the study were to: (1) demonstrate how a “write, [...] Read more.
Understanding family physical activity (PA) behaviour is essential for designing effective family-based PA interventions. However, effective approaches to capture the perceptions and “lived experiences” of families are not yet well established. The aims of the study were to: (1) demonstrate how a “write, draw, show and tell” (WDST) methodological approach can be appropriate to family-based PA research, and (2) present two distinct family case studies to provide insights into the habitual PA behaviour and experiences of a nuclear and single-parent family. Six participants (including two “target” children aged 9–11 years, two mothers and two siblings aged 6–8 years) from two families were purposefully selected to take part in the study, based on their family structure. Participants completed a paper-based PA diary and wore an ActiGraph GT9X accelerometer on their left wrist for up to 10 weekdays and 16 weekend days. A range of WDST tasks were then undertaken by each family to offer contextual insight into their family-based PA. The selected families participated in different levels and modes of PA, and reported contrasting leisure opportunities and experiences. These novel findings encourage researchers to tailor family-based PA intervention programmes to the characteristics of the family. Full article
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252 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins in Stored Maize Grains Consumed by Infants and Young Children in Nigeria
by Modupeade C. Adetunji, Olusegun O. Atanda and Chibundu N. Ezekiel
Children 2017, 4(7), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4070058 - 10 Jul 2017
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 5203
Abstract
Maize is a major complimentary food for infants (0–4years) and young children (5–12years) in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the risk of exposure of infants and young children (IYC) to some major mycotoxins in stored maize grains from five agro-ecological zones of [...] Read more.
Maize is a major complimentary food for infants (0–4years) and young children (5–12years) in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the risk of exposure of infants and young children (IYC) to some major mycotoxins in stored maize grains from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The probable daily intake approach was employed to determine exposure to five mycotoxins while the margin of exposure (MOE) and population at risk of primary hepatocellular carcinoma approaches were used to characterize the risk of consuming aflatoxin contaminated maize. Infants and young children in the Derived Savannah zone are more exposed to aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone while those in the Northern Guinea Savanna zone are mainly exposed to deoxynivalenol and fumonisins. The mean national MOE for infants and children were 0.12 and 0.3 respectively while the risk of developing primary liver cancer was estimated at 152.7 and 61.1 cancer/year/100,000 population of infants and children, respectively. Infants and young children consuming mycotoxin contaminated maize in Nigeria are therefore vulnerable to the adverse health effects. Mycotoxin contamination of maize is still a challenge in Nigeria; mitigation efforts should target the value chain and stricter tolerable limits should be enforced. Full article
170 KiB  
Review
The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children
by Anna Di Sessa, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano and Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice
Children 2017, 4(7), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4070057 - 7 Jul 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4717
Abstract
The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) even at an early [...] Read more.
The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
204 KiB  
Article
Incidence of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Critically Ill Children Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
by Ali Amanati, Abdollah Karimi, Alireza Fahimzad, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri, Fatemeh Fallah, Alireza Mahdavi and Mahshid Talebian
Children 2017, 4(7), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4070056 - 3 Jul 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6435
Abstract
Background: Among hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in children, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common after blood stream infection (BSI). VAP can prolong length of ventilation and hospitalization, increase mortality rate, and directly change a patient’s outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). Objectives: [...] Read more.
Background: Among hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in children, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common after blood stream infection (BSI). VAP can prolong length of ventilation and hospitalization, increase mortality rate, and directly change a patient’s outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). Objectives: The research on VAP in children is limited, especially in Iran; therefore, the identification of VAP incidence and mortality rate will be important for both clinical and epidemiological implications. Materials and Methods: Mechanically ventilated pediatric patients were assessed for development of VAP during hospital course on the basis of clinical, laboratory and imaging criteria. We matched VAP group with control group for assessment of VAP related mortality in the critically ill ventilated children. Results: VAP developed in 22.9% of critically ill children undergoing mechanical ventilation. Early VAP and late VAP were found in 19.3% and 8.4% of VAP cases, respectively. Among the known VAP risk factors that were investigated, immunodeficiency was significantly greater in the VAP group (p = 0.014). No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding use of corticosteroids, antibiotics, PH (potential of hydrogen) modifying agents (such as ranitidine or pantoprazole), presence of nasogastric tube and total or partial parenteral nutrition administration. A substantial number of patients in the VAP group had more than four risk factors for development of VAP, compared to those without VAP (p = 0.087). Mortality rate was not statistically different between the VAP and control groups (p = 0.477). Conclusion: VAP is still one of the major causes of mortality in PICUs. It is found that altered immune status is a significant risk factor for acquiring VAP. Also, occurrence of VAP was high in the first week after admission in PICU. Full article
589 KiB  
Article
Sleep Apnea and Hypoventilation in Patients with Down Syndrome: Analysis of 144 Polysomnogram Studies
by Zheng Fan, Mihye Ahn, Heidi L. Roth, Leping Li and Bradley V. Vaughn
Children 2017, 4(7), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4070055 - 30 Jun 2017
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 5377
Abstract
Patients with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk for both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA); however, it is unclear how these components evolve as patients age and whether patients are also at risk for hypoventilation. A retrospective review of [...] Read more.
Patients with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk for both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA); however, it is unclear how these components evolve as patients age and whether patients are also at risk for hypoventilation. A retrospective review of 144 diagnostic polysomnograms (PSG) in a tertiary care facility over 10 years was conducted. Descriptive data and exploratory correlation analyses were performed. Sleep disordered breathing was common (seen in 78% of patients) with an average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 10. The relative amount of obstructive apnea was positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI). The relative amount of central sleep apnea was associated with younger age in the very youngest group (0–3 years). Hypoventilation was common occurring in more than 22% of patients and there was a positive correlation between the maximum CO2 and BMI. Sleep disordered breathing, including hypoventilation, was common in patients with DS. The obstructive component increased significantly with age and BMI, while the central component occurred most in the very young age group. Due to the high risk of hypoventilation, which has not been previously highlighted, it may be helpful to consider therapies to target both apnea and hypoventilation in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child Neurology)
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965 KiB  
Article
Sino-Nasal 5 Questionnaire is Associated with Poor Asthma Control in Children with Asthma
by Sasikumar Kilaikode, Prateek J. Shukla, Gurpreet Phull, James H. Jackson, Dominique C. Prue, Claudia Martinez, Krista Scheffey and Dinesh K. Pillai
Children 2017, 4(7), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4070054 - 28 Jun 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4806
Abstract
Up to 80% of asthmatic children may experience upper airway symptoms which are often perceived as coming from the lower airways. Currently, there are no validated questionnaires to assess upper airway contribution to pediatric asthma symptoms. The Sino-Nasal 5 (SN-5) questionnaire was previously [...] Read more.
Up to 80% of asthmatic children may experience upper airway symptoms which are often perceived as coming from the lower airways. Currently, there are no validated questionnaires to assess upper airway contribution to pediatric asthma symptoms. The Sino-Nasal 5 (SN-5) questionnaire was previously validated for identifying radiographic confirmed sinus disease in children. In this study, we hypothesize that significant SN-5 scores (≥3.5) are associated with abnormal National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) based asthma impairment and control in asthmatic children. Retrospective data collected on children with asthma referred for pulmonary evaluation included age, gender, ethnicity, NAEPP asthma severity, asthma control (Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) < 5 years, Asthma Control Test (ACT) 5 years) and pulmonary function testing. Associations between SN-5 scores and asthma impairment and control were identified. Seventy-six children were evaluated; 38% were female with a mean age of 6.9 years. Significant SN-5 scores were associated with decreased control of daytime symptoms (odds ratio (OR): 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06–0.44)), night time awakenings (0.09 (0.03–0.29)), activity interference (0.2 (0.06–0.68)), NAEPP defined asthma control (0.32 (0.12–0.85)) and poor asthma control based on TRACK (p < 0.001) and ACT (p < 0.001). This suggests upper airways may play a larger role in perceived lower airway symptoms, and SN-5 may be beneficial in assessing the contribution of upper airway conditions on asthma control. Full article
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228 KiB  
Review
Surgical Outreach for Children by International Humanitarian Organizations: A Review
by J. Matthew Kynes, Laura Zeigler and Kelly McQueen
Children 2017, 4(7), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4070053 - 28 Jun 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5080
Abstract
Low- and middle-income countries carry a disproportionate share of the global burden of pediatric surgical disease and have limited local healthcare infrastructure and human resources to address this burden. Humanitarian efforts that have improved or provided access to necessary basic or emergency surgery [...] Read more.
Low- and middle-income countries carry a disproportionate share of the global burden of pediatric surgical disease and have limited local healthcare infrastructure and human resources to address this burden. Humanitarian efforts that have improved or provided access to necessary basic or emergency surgery for children in these settings have included humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, short-term surgical missions, and long-term projects such as building pediatric specialty hospitals and provider networks. Each of these efforts may also include educational initiatives designed to increase local capacity. This article will provide an overview of pediatric humanitarian surgical outreach including reference to available evidence-based analyses of these platforms and make recommendations for surgical outreach initiatives for children. Full article
161 KiB  
Review
Immersive Virtual Reality for Pediatric Pain
by Andrea Stevenson Won, Jakki Bailey, Jeremy Bailenson, Christine Tataru, Isabel A. Yoon and Brenda Golianu
Children 2017, 4(7), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4070052 - 23 Jun 2017
Cited by 171 | Viewed by 20871
Abstract
Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have [...] Read more.
Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have access to a promising and engaging intervention for pediatric pain, both acute and chronic. In addition to providing relief from acute and procedural pain, virtual reality (VR) may also help to provide a corrective psychological and physiological environment to facilitate rehabilitation for pediatric patients suffering from chronic pain. The special qualities of VR such as presence, interactivity, customization, social interaction, and embodiment allow it to be accepted by children and adolescents and incorporated successfully into their existing medical therapies. However, the powerful and transformative nature of many VR experiences may also pose some risks and should be utilized with caution. In this paper, we review recent literature in pediatric virtual reality for procedural pain and anxiety, acute and chronic pain, and some rehabilitation applications. We also discuss the practical considerations of using VR in pediatric care, and offer specific suggestions and information for clinicians wishing to adopt these engaging therapies into their daily clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mind-Body Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
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