Conceptual Model of Differentiated-Instruction (DI) Based on Teachers’ Experiences in Indonesia
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design
2.2. Study Participants
2.3. The Study Context
2.4. Study Instruments: Unstructured Interview Guide
2.5. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
2.5.1. Coding Process
2.5.2. Research Result Formation
2.5.3. Textual Description Arrangement Formation (Textual Narrative)
2.5.4. Structural Description Formation
3.1. Developing a Positive Learning Environment
3.1.1. No Bullying
In my experience, students will be more cheerful and enthusiastic about learning when they get good treatment from the teacher and fellow students in class. This is a challenge for us as teachers to be able to build a sense of security and comfort physically and mentally so that students can learn well; the most obvious way is to ensure that there is no bullying in schools.(P1, lines 5–7)
During the learning process, as a teacher, I always [emphasize] the importance of respecting fellow human beings, respecting one’s efforts, and respecting yourself by avoiding bullying, physically and verbally. At the beginning of learning, children are always accustomed to making class agreements so that learning runs accordingly. One of the agreement’s contents is not to bully anyone. With the guarantee that there will be no bullying from anyone, students feel more confident to be active in class during the learning process, either asking questions, criticizing, or even providing solutions. Students are also always directed to have a positive reaction to others; thus, the learning environment becomes a positive environment for children’s development even though they have various conditions and different learning readiness(P2, lines 11–23).
At the beginning of every lesson, apart from praying, I always start learning with mutual agreement about class rules, learning procedures, and attitudes that need to be developed during the learning process. This method is quite effective in creating a conducive learning environment, especially in building mutual respect, self-confidence, discipline awareness, and anti-bullying. Based on my experience so far, making mutual agreements before learning is very effective in controlling student behavior and building a conducive classroom atmosphere without forcing the teacher’s will(P9, lines 6–10).
Bullying is a major problem that often causes mental problems and a loss of confidence in its victims. So that all children have confidence in class and dare to express their thoughts without being ashamed or afraid of anyone, I always remind them to keep away from verbal and physical bullying toward anyone(P12, lines 7–11).
3.1.2. Building a Two-Way Respect
To build mutual respect between friends, I have a program called ‘My Day’ during distance learning. This program is one of the strategies that I do to raise the awareness of each child that everyone has a different life, so everyone must respect each other. The strategy I use to get students used to respecting other people is that in every first 10 min of class, I ask the children to take turns telling stories about themselves and their experiences. Other friends listen well, then they give a response via emoticons on the zoom layer or respond to it positively. Every time we meet, at least one child tells a story(P1, lines 15–26).
In implementing differentiated learning, I make an effort to grow students’ respect for fellow human beings. Respect comes from the heart because there is empathy for others. So, in learning, I often do role-playing practices to foster empathy and respect among students. Indeed, it is not an easy thing and cannot be done once and immediately succeed. It takes patience to do it(P5, lines 11–16).
3.1.3. Building a Learning Community
For the past two years, during the COVID-19 period, I have always tried to have a group learning process, even if only through Zoom meetings or video calls. I ask the children to hold regular meetings between group members to do the tasks together. According to the reports that the children gave, during independent group work, the students carried out peer mentoring and peered lessons. Students who are good at guiding students who have not succeeded in mastering the teaching material. These activities help children learn more easily, eliminate the feeling of loneliness, and make it easier for me as a teacher because the peer guidance process in each study group makes learning easier for students to understand(P6, lines 17–25).
Even though during the COVID-19 pandemic, learning was carried out online, I still encouraged children to form learning communities, whether with classmates or with friends from different classes. For grade 9, they have also succeeded in forming a learning community with fellow grade 9 students from other schools. I do it by working with fellow teachers in other schools to connect students to get to know each other and then form inter-school social studies learning community. From the responses and reflections made by the children, they are happy to join this learning community program(P11, lines 15–22)
3.2. Varying Teaching Methods
3.2.1. Promoting Student Engagement
Schools were closed during the COVID-19 period, and learning was carried out from home online. So that the children do not feel alone, I always set learning in the form of project-based group work. Since the first meeting, I have given the project learning steps every week. In the student worksheets, I set them so that individually, they report what was done in their group. So even though they work as a group, they individually have their own responsibilities.
Oh… yes, in the context of classroom learning, I realize that students will absorb teaching materials more quickly if they are actively involved in learning, starting from concept building or in the form of applications. Well, based on my experience in teaching, the things that students like are when at the beginning of the lesson, the teacher explains in advance what is being assessed, how the learning steps are carried out, and the work is done in groups(P8, lines 45–49).
3.2.2. Placed on Learning How to Learn
I often show children various motivational videos, especially videos that can provide understanding and awareness of how our minds learn new concepts biologically and demonstrate strategies for effective learning(P6, lines 67–69).
3.2.3. Adaptive Learning System
In a condition like this, yes, ma’am, I have difficulty controlling whether the students have mastered the learning competencies. So to overcome this, I tried to adopt various free learning apps. These apps are handy and flexible. I can control students whenever they come to class, work, and do what they do individually(P10, lines 71–74).
To provide educational services that follow the potential of each student, I try to implement a different instructional system for each student according to the readiness of each student to learn. This is still an experimental process, ma’am... I use the diagnostic assessment results to develop a range of instructional instruction suitable for individual students. I did this process with the help of a simple application that I created based on excel. In the future, I plan to develop this adaptive learning system more professionally so that learning is more effective and efficient(P9, lines 67–75).
3.3. Learning Outcomes That Focus on Individual Students
3.3.1. True Learner Student
The ideal learning outcomes are outcomes that are beneficial to the lives of students and others. So, when teaching, I always try to instill the attitude of a true learner. I often tell children that the best way to become a true learner is to learn to listen to other people talk even though you know it already. From what we hear from other people, at least we can learn something new or something different from before. Even when you listen to other people’s wrong statements, you will know how so you don’t make the same mistake in understanding something(P3, lines 58–63).
A statement made by P7 supports P3’s statement:
I believe that students need the ability to become true learners, not only as long as they are students but also to equip them for life. They need to be educated with adaptive skills and abilities. A true learner is someone who can see learning opportunities and then differentiate effectively to focus only on those that will add value to their knowledge and development, as is needed today(P7, lines 56–60).
3.3.2. Student Well-Being
Whenever I teach, I often ask the children what they need, what they want to do, and how they feel. Students tend to be more open when we listen to them well and provide feedback on what they have to say. Children give a signal that when wishes come true, they can feel proud and happy. Well… a teacher’s job is to nurture children to have positive expectations so that student well-being becomes genuine well-being, not a momentary pleasure(P4, lines 89–94).
4.1. Teachers Provide a Sense of Physically and Emotionally Safe for Student
4.2. Students Work on Their Respective Routes
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Hasanah, E.; Suyatno, S.; Maryani, I.; Badar, M.I.A.; Fitria, Y.; Patmasari, L. Conceptual Model of Differentiated-Instruction (DI) Based on Teachers’ Experiences in Indonesia. Educ. Sci. 2022, 12, 650. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12100650
Hasanah E, Suyatno S, Maryani I, Badar MIA, Fitria Y, Patmasari L. Conceptual Model of Differentiated-Instruction (DI) Based on Teachers’ Experiences in Indonesia. Education Sciences. 2022; 12(10):650. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12100650Chicago/Turabian Style
Hasanah, Enung, Suyatno Suyatno, Ika Maryani, M Ikhwan Al Badar, Yanti Fitria, and Linda Patmasari. 2022. "Conceptual Model of Differentiated-Instruction (DI) Based on Teachers’ Experiences in Indonesia" Education Sciences 12, no. 10: 650. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12100650