# An Analysis of Air Flow in the Baking Chamber of a Tunnel-Type Electric Oven

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

^{2}K. The coefficient was calculated with the relation [36]:

^{2}K); T is the absolute temperature (for this analysis it was considered 230 °C for the temperature inside the oven; this value can be adjusted); C is the characteristic constant of each gas (for air C = 122 K) [36].

^{3}); $v$—fluid velocity (for analysis the air velocity was determined at $v$ = 2.4 m/s); $p$—atmospheric pressure ($p=1$ atm); $\mu $—fluid dynamic viscosity (for air $\mu $ = 1.84 × 10

^{−5}kg/ms) [40].

## 3. Results

## 4. Validation of the Air Flow Simulation inside the Baking Chamber of the Analyzed Electric Oven

_{1}); for the output area on the lower midline, the temperature value was 226 °C (A

_{2}); for the upper- middle zone, the temperature value was 249 °C (A

_{3}); and for the lower middle area, the temperature value was 249 °C (A

_{4}). The obtained temperatures validate the simulation results with a maximum error of 7.6%, a lower value than the one obtained by Suvanjumrat and Loksupapaiboon in [45], which was 8.99% for the analysis on a batch furnace.

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 4.**The assembly used in airflow analysis. 1. conveyor; 2. fan; 3. electrical resistance for heating.

**Figure 7.**The choice of the fluid circulating inside the baking chamber, as well as the flow characteristics in the “Flow Simulation” module.

**Figure 14.**Distribution of air currents inside the baking chamber: (

**a**) top view; (

**b**) view from the feeding area with baking product; (

**c**) view from the outlet area of the baked product; (

**d**) front view; (

**e**) isometric view.

**Figure 15.**Temperature distribution in the oven for some characteristic sections: (

**a**) temperature distribution at the conveyor belt level; (

**b**) temperature distribution in the supply area of air in the baking chamber (longitudinal section); (

**c**) temperature distribution in the area opposite to the air supply in the baking chamber (longitudinal section); (

**d**) temperature distribution in the three areas shown above along with the trajectories of the air currents (isometric view); (

**e**) temperature distribution in the feeding area of the baking chamber (cross section); (

**f**) temperature distribution in the outlet area of the baking chamber (cross section); (

**g**) temperature distribution in the middle zone of the baking chamber (cross section); (

**h**) temperature distribution in the three areas shown above along with the trajectories of the air currents (isometric view).

**Figure 16.**Variation along the length of the baking chamber from some physical parameters: heat transfer coefficient (

**a**), air temperature (

**b**), air pressure (

**c**) and specific heat (

**d**).

**Figure 17.**The lines used to collect the numerical values defining the curves of variation of the heat transfer coefficient, the air temperature, the air pressure and the specific heat of the air along the length of the baking chamber.

**Figure 19.**Variation across the width of the baking chamber for some physical parameters: heat transfer coefficient (

**a**), air temperature (

**b**), air pressure (

**c**) and specific heat (

**d**).

**Figure 21.**Diagram of the baking chamber of the electric oven and the areas where the temperature measurements were made. A

_{1}—down feeding area; A

_{2}—lower evacuation area; A

_{3}—upper middle area; A

_{4}—lower middle area.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Constantin, G.-A.; Munteanu, M.-G.; Voicu, G.; Paraschiv, G.; Ștefan, E.-M.
An Analysis of Air Flow in the Baking Chamber of a Tunnel-Type Electric Oven. *Computation* **2023**, *11*, 236.
https://doi.org/10.3390/computation11120236

**AMA Style**

Constantin G-A, Munteanu M-G, Voicu G, Paraschiv G, Ștefan E-M.
An Analysis of Air Flow in the Baking Chamber of a Tunnel-Type Electric Oven. *Computation*. 2023; 11(12):236.
https://doi.org/10.3390/computation11120236

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Constantin, Gabriel-Alexandru, Mariana-Gabriela Munteanu, Gheorghe Voicu, Gigel Paraschiv, and Elena-Madalina Ștefan.
2023. "An Analysis of Air Flow in the Baking Chamber of a Tunnel-Type Electric Oven" *Computation* 11, no. 12: 236.
https://doi.org/10.3390/computation11120236