Next Article in Journal
Influence of Superabsorbent Polymer in Self-Compacting Mortar
Previous Article in Journal
Research on Loading Scheme for Large-Scale Model Tests of Super-Long-Span Arch Bridge
Previous Article in Special Issue
Double-Diffusive Mixed Convection and Radionuclides Removals from the Tail Gas Treatment Unit in Nuclear Medicine Building: Multiple Sifting Structures and Porous Medium
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Visualization Analysis and Knowledge Mapping the Research of Aerogels Applied in Buildings

Center for International Education, Philippine Christian University, Malate, Manila 1004, Philippines
Key Laboratory of Songliao Aquatic Environment Ministry of Education, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Jilin Jianzhu University, Changchun 130118, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Buildings 2023, 13(7), 1638;
Submission received: 19 April 2023 / Revised: 10 June 2023 / Accepted: 14 June 2023 / Published: 27 June 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient, Low Carbon and Energy Flexible Buildings)


With the deepening of aerogel research and the popularization of its application, the demands for energy saving in the construction field has brought aerogels into the limelight. To explore state-of-the-art research and development trends related to aerogels applied in construction, CiteSpace was used to conduct a quantitative analysis based on the Web of Science core database. Results show that: (1) in the past 10 years, the number of papers on aerogels in the field of constructions has increased significantly; (2) the top producing countries in the aerogel field are mainly China and the United States, and the top two research institutions are all Chinese institutions (Univ Sci & Technol China and Chinese Acad Sci); (3) the main publishing journals are ENERGY AND BUILDINGS, CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, and CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL; (4) the hot keywords are thermal insulation, silica aerogel, thermal conductivity, phase change material, mechanical property, graphene aerogel, self-assembly, energy saving, etc.; (5) aerogel is mostly used in building insulation, mainly in the form of aerogel glass, aerogel mortar, aerogel felt, and aerogel coating. In summary, in addition to systematically strengthening theoretical research, it is necessary to optimize the technical process and reduce costs in order to effectively promote aerogels in construction energy conservation and carbon reduction. Through this study, the current situation, hot spots, and development trend of aerogel application in construction can be revealed systematically. Overall, this study helps advance research on aerogels applied in buildings and help in tackling energy efficiency challenges.

1. Introduction

Aerogel (solid smoke or frozen smoke) has a three-dimensional mesh-like microstructure and is the lightest known solid material. This microstructure gives it unique properties such as low density, low thermal conductivity, high specific surface area, and high acoustic impedance [1,2]. Environmental degradation has been widespread since the 1990s, and more economical, energy-saving, environmentally friendly, and efficient materials have gradually become the key to solving the problem of high energy consumption in the construction industry. Currently, common and traditional inorganic thermal insulation materials include thermal insulation mortar, rock wool, and foam glass [3,4,5], while organic thermal insulation materials include extruded polystyrene board and foamed polyurethane [6,7]. These organic class insulation materials have low thermal conductivity and poor fire resistance, which are serious safety hazards in the face of a fire, and the gases released by combustion are harmful to human body and the environment. Aerogel materials have superior properties compared to these conventional materials [8,9]. Therefore, aerogels have a good prospect of replacing many construction materials. In addition, aerogels can be compounded with traditional materials, thus improving the energy efficiency of buildings, while effectively reducing the occurrence of safety hazards.
In summary, aerogels are an ideal new, lightweight and efficient thermal insulation material, with broad research prospects in thermal insulation, energy saving, and consumption reduction. With aerogel materials gradually gaining attention, the accumulation of related research literature has been grown too [10,11,12]. However, there is no comprehensive, quantitative, and in-depth analysis and generalization of this literature, which is not conducive to systematically comprehending the development status and research trends of aerogels in the field of construction. In addition, traditional review writing is more subjective comments without quantitative analysis and cannot accurately grasp the knowledge base and frontier trends in the field of aerogel. In the face of the rapidly growing research in the field of aerogels applied in construction, it is important to provide a quantitative summary of research evolution and trends using new methods.
Bibliometrics is a discipline that uses mathematical and statistical measures to quantitatively study the characteristics of literature and can explore the trends and hot frontier areas of the discipline from the evolution of research [13,14]. This method can comprehensively and quickly extract knowledge structures, research hotspots, and topic distributions from the existing mass of academic data, and has been widely used in environmental, medical, management, materials, agricultural, and other disciplines [15,16,17,18,19]. With the explosive growth of knowledge, the method is expected to gain more widespread applications. However, there are still insufficient quantitative studies on the research hotspots and development trends of aerogels in the construction field.
In this study, a literature review of aerogel research in the construction field was conducted using a bibliometric approach. The research power (countries, institutions, authors), research themes, and evolutionary trends are discussed in terms of publication trends, cooperative network analysis, journal double stacking analysis, keyword mutation analysis, literature co-citation analysis, and theme clustering analysis, aiming to provide a basis for understanding the development process and hot topics of the field.

2. Methodology

2.1. Data Retrieval

Data were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoS) in the Science Citation Index Extension (SCI-E) web database. It is a literature search platform that includes the most authoritative scientific articles [20,21,22]. The data used was based on article paper titles, abstracts, and keywords containing the terms “aerogel”, “building”, “architecture”, or “construction” published up to 3 March 2023. A total of 862 articles were selected as raw data and downloaded under the name of “XXX_download. txt” for further bibliometric visual analysis.

2.2. Data Analysis

CiteSpace, one of the most popular bibliometric tools, is a citation visualization and analysis software for multivariate, time-stage, and dynamic literature information gradually developed in bibliometric, data, and information visualization. It has extremely powerful literature statistics and knowledge graph visualization capabilities [19,23,24,25]. In this study, CiteSpace 5.1 R3 software was used for visual mapping, using the options “Author”, “Institution”, “Country”, “Keyword”, “Cited Reference”, and other options in the software to analyze the current status and frontiers of published research literature on aerogels applied in buildings in terms of countries, institutions, journals, and research directions. In addition, the “Analyze Search Results” function of WOS was used to analyze the distribution of subjects and the number of articles published.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Publication Trend Analysis

The trend of the number of publications is an important indicator of research development in a particular area of the discipline, which can effectively assess the research status of the discipline in that area and further predict its development dynamics and trends. The average annual publication volume of aerogel-related research in the field of construction on Web of Science for the past 30 years was 29.7 (Figure 1).
Research on aerogels in the construction field has been developing and progressing continuously and can be divided into three stages. The first stage is the budding period, during the period from 1992–2010, in which aerogel research in the field of construction had just started, the average annual number of publications is only 3.63, and the academic community lacks attention to this field. The second stage is the stable development period, during the period from 2011–2017, in which the average annual number of aerogel publications in the field of construction reached 27.42. This shows that the research in this field was gradually gaining attention and its influence on the current academic and practical communities was gradually strengthening. The third stage is the explosive period, where the average annual publication volume reaches 118.8 articles in the period from 2018–2022. With the increasing requirements of low carbon and environmental protection in the construction industry and the in-depth research on aerogel applications, aerogels in buildings have now also become a research hotspot in the field, and many scholars have started to conduct comprehensive research on the technology, process, evaluation, and influencing factors of aerogels in construction [26,27,28,29,30]. By the third stage, the research of aerogels in the field of construction developed like never before and had a certain system and structure. Scholars focused on stable research directions and began to explore them in depth, leading to a certain steady growth rate of aerogel research in the field of construction in recent years. Meanwhile, according to the current research trend of aerogels in construction research, there will still be a great research space for this topic, and research will continue to grow in the next few years.

3.2. Analysis of Article Output Characteristics

3.2.1. Analysis of Countries

The global scientific communication and academic cooperation in various countries in this field can be explored through an econometric analysis of the posting countries. Country was selected as the analysis object in CiteSpace, the time slicing was set to “1995–2023”, the years per slice was 3, the threshold was top 50, and the final country analysis map was obtained (95 network nodes and 74 lines with a density of 0.0166).
The nodes and circles in China are the largest, and much larger than those in other countries, indicating that aerogels are more intensively studied in China (Figure 2). China is the country with the most publications in this field (294), which is much larger than other countries, which indicates that China pays significant attention to aerogels in the field of construction and has accumulated more experience in the research of aerogels (Table 1). The aerogel technology in China is in the leading position in the construction field, which creates favorable conditions for the promotion and application of aerogel materials around the world. In addition, the centrality of China is 0.44, indicating that China has more frequent transnational cooperation and often exchanges and cooperates with other countries. In addition, the United States ranked 2nd in frequency (frequency of 121) and Italy ranked 3rd (frequency of 38). France has a high per-center degree of 0.5, which indicates that France is developing faster within the field and has a close relationship with other countries. Moreover, French researchers tend to cooperate with other countries to research aerogels in the construction field. Meanwhile, the half-life of the United States reached 24, which indicates that the research in the United States is slow to decline in value in the future and still has some frontier and value.

3.2.2. Analysis of Institutions

The institution was used as an object of analysis in CiteSpace, and an institution analysis profile, with 161 network nodes and 140 connected lines with a density of 0.0109, was obtained (Figure 3). The nodes are relatively dense, with a total of 140 connected lines. This shows that communication and cooperation among institutions are relatively frequent and the geographical differences in cooperation are significant. In summary, cross-institutional research on construction aerogels needs to continue to maintain transnational cooperation, and academic exchanges in the field of aerogels still need to be further strengthened. The University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, University of Perugia, and Guangzhou University have larger nodal circles and are highly productive institutions for aerogel research in the field of construction.
Within the field of architecture, aerogels was included in the top 10 issuing institutions (Table 2). Among them, the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) has the highest number of publications, with 25, and Vrije Univ Brussel institution is in the top (centrality of 0.11), which indicates that USTC not only publishes more frequently, but also cooperates with other institutions more frequently. The late publication of USTC indicates that it has made a large contribution to aerogel research in the field of construction in recent years. The Chinese Academy of Sciences and the University of Debrecen ranked second (frequency of 24) and third (frequency of 18), and the publication time of both was in 2016 and 2017. These two structural universities are late in focusing on aerogel research in architecture, but they are currently ranked high in terms of the number of papers, indicating that these two institutions have conducted more in-depth research on aerogel in architecture in recent years. By the centrality ranking, Tsinghua University and the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences are 0.27 and 0.2, ranking in the top two, indicating that they are the most central institutions in this field, and the cooperation with other institutions has led to more research output.

3.2.3. Analysis of authors

The metrological analysis of authors can identify the core authors of aerogel research in the field of architecture and reflect the academic communication and cooperation among researchers in this field. Author was used as the analysis object in CiteSpace, the time slicing was set to “1995–2023”, years per slice was 3, the threshold was top = 50, and the analysis map with 326 network nodes, 559 connections, and a density of 0.0106 was constructed (Figure 4).
There are more nodes of authors, and most of them have collaborative relationships, indicating that authors in this field cooperate more closely. According to Price’s law, when the number of core authors in a field reaches more than 50% of the total number of articles published in that field, a more stable core group of authors can be considered to have formed in that field [31]. In the same field, half of the papers are authored by a group of highly productive authors, and this set of authors is approximately equal to the square root of the total number of all authors. From 1995 to 2023, the total number of authors engaged in research on aerogels in construction was 3887, whose square root is 62.3, indicating that the number of core authors in our field is 63. Statistically, the number of publications of these core authors is 407, accounting for about 47.2% of the total number of papers, indicating that aerogels are gradually forming a stable core group of authors in this field. The top three most prolific authors are Buratti C (17 publications), Lakatos A (15 publications), and Moretti E (12 publications). Zhang Y has a centrality of 0.34, the highest centrality in the field (Table 3), which indicates that Zhang Y is the most central author in the field and the author who has made the highest contribution promoting the research in this field.

3.2.4. Analysis of Subject and Journals

From the bibliometric point of view, the disciplinary association analysis mainly establishes the connection between the citer and cited literature by the discipline of the cited literature. We selected the JCR journal map in the overlay map option of CiteSpace and overlayed the information service data onto the original citation-citation literature discipline base map using addoverlay to obtain a two-map overlay map of discipline distribution (Figure 5). In this figure, the main distribution of which journals aerogels in construction research in Web of Science database is cited in can be identified, revealing the knowledge flow dynamics of foreign journals in this field.
The left side of Figure 5a refers to the main journal distribution clusters of aerogels in construction in Web of Science database, and the right side refers to the main cited journal clusters. It can be obtained that the research of aerogels in the field of construction is mainly concentrated in the journal groups of physics, chemistry, materials science, ecology, and science. The citations of aerogels in foreign architecture are concentrated in journal clusters of environmental, biological, chemical, physical, mathematical, computer, and systematics journal clusters. Among them, physical, chemical, and material sciences have two out-citation paths in the citation field, and this category is the most dominant citation category. Meanwhile, when the category environmental, toxicology and nutrition was used as a source journals, the corresponding category physics, chemistry and materials had the highest number of citations with the highest z-value (7.128).
The journals with more than 20 publications in this field are ENERGY AND BUILDINGS, CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, and CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, whose frequencies are 64, 27, and 20, respectively (Table 4). The number of publications in the table accounts for 26.45% of the total number of article tables, which to some extent indicates the lack of concentration of articles published in this field. The average impact factor of the top 10 journals is 10.07, and some journals even exceed 15, such as the impact factors of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL (16.744) and ACS NANO (18.027). This shows that the research of aerogels in the field of construction is concerned by highbrow press. In general, the research fields of high yielding journals are mainly concentrated in architecture, chemistry, and materials.

3.3. Analysis of Research Hotspots

3.3.1. Analysis of KEYWORD NETWORK

The keyword co-occurrence graph includes 163 nodes, 196 connection lines, and a density of 0.0148 (Figure 6). The color change shows the characterization of the studied keyword nodes at different time periods; a color closer to purple indicates the nearest hot topic to the current research. The size of the keyword node label represents the frequency of the keyword, while the large node circles and tags characterize the high frequency keywords. The co-occurrence frequency and year between the keywords were characterized by the thickness of the lines and the line color, respectively.
The nodes and tags for thermal insulation, silica aerogel, and thermal conductivity are large, indicating that they are current hot topics in the field of aerogels in construction (Figure 6). The key words in the outer circle, insulation and silica aerogel, are closest to purple, indicating that these research topics are the current frontiers of aerogels in the construction field. Thermal insulation was the most frequent term (84), silica aerogel ranked 2nd (62), and thermal conductivity ranked 3rd (60), all three of which are important topics of interest (Table 5). In addition, thermal insulation has the highest centrality (0.64) and is closely related to other keywords. Self-assembly has the second highest centrality (0.57) and thermal conductivity has the third highest centrality (0.54). Silica aerogel has the highest half-life (12), indicating that it still has much room for development.

3.3.2. Analysis of Keyword Clustering

CiteSpace software was used for clustering analysis of keywords, the cluster option was selected, and the pathfinder algorithm was used to crop the concatenation to ensure the classification rationality of clusters [20,32,33]. The research themes in the field of aerogels in the last 30 years were revealed by Figure 7, and a total of 11 clusters were obtained (Table 6). Q and S values are indicators that describe the network structure and clustering, where Q represents the module value and S represents the average profile value. Q > 0.3 indicates a clear delineation structure and S > 0.7 indicates valid clustering results [34,35]. The clustering results of this study were reasonable (Q = 0.8269, S = 0.828) and could be followed up for analysis.
A total of 14 research themes were generated from this study as #0 thermal performance, #1 thermal management, #2 chitosan, #3 self-assembly, #4 reaction kinetics, #5 thermal insulation, #6 graphene aerogel, #7 radiative cooling, #8 energy saving, #9 thermal conductivity, and #10 geopolymer (Table 6). The mean profile values were all greater than 0.7, indicating that the effect of each cluster is consistent with the study. The average year for group 10 is 2021, indicating to some extent that cluster 10 research topics are relatively close to cutting-edge research. However, the average year for cluster 0 and cluster 7 is 2016, indicating that these two groups are more traditionally studied. In a word, the theme of aerogels is the development and application of thermal insulation properties in different fields.

3.4. Analysis of Research Trends

3.4.1. Research Frontiers

The bursts detection algorithm of the CiteSpace software was employed to obtain the keyword hotspot evolution mapping of aerogels in the field of construction domain processing, i.e., keyword emergence (Table 7).
A total of 25 top keywords of aerogels in construction domain emergent intensity were generated in this study. The duration of the research hotspots was 1995–2021. However, the earliest hotspot studies from 1995–2013 are search terms, so 2013–2021 was used as the hotspot duration in this study. Silica aerogel, concrete, gold nanoparticle, sol–gel processes, durability, and aerogel glazing were the hot spots of research during the period from 2013–2015 [36,37,38,39], with emergent intensities of 1.3316, 1.2686, 1.2686, 1.2686, 1.2686, 1.2686, and 1.2686, respectively. The intensity of the emergence of each hotspot is relatively close and the duration is 2 years, indicating that the research on these hot topics was relatively even at this stage. Windows, historical building, nanocomposite, u-value, ambient pressure drying, aerogel blanket, historical building, thermal comfort, building insulation were the main research focuses during 2016–2018 [40,41,42,43,44,45], with emergent intensities of 2.2113, 1.2686, 1.7491, 1.6713, 1.3431, 1.3431, 2.2447, 1.3431, and 1.508, respectively. The highest emergent intensity of historic building and window indicates that these two themes were focused on during this phase [42,46,47].
The major themes during 2019–2021 include thermal property, porosity, thermal performance, aerogel glazing system, vacuum insulation panel, cellulose nanofiber, building envelope, flame retardance, and cellulose aerogel, with emergent intensities of 1.278, 1.4412, 1.6651, 1.6401, 2.1903, 1.5603, 1.5603, 1.399, and 1.687, respectively. During this period, vacuum insulation panel had the highest emergent intensity and continued to until 2021, indicating that vacuum insulation panel is the current frontier topic for aerogels in construction [48].

3.4.2. Research Trends

The keyword time series evolution of aerogels in buildings is shown in Figure 8, where years per slice is 2, the threshold is g-index = 5, the number of nodes is 119, the number of connections is 259, and the density is 0.0369.
In terms of distribution, the keywords of aerogels for construction are concentrated in 1995–2023, which indicates that the research on aerogels for construction was more adequate and abundant in this time period. Specifically, in the period of 1992–2010, the research of aerogels in the field of construction was in the early stage of research and received less attention and lower frequency of key words, and research themes such as low dielectric constant, SiO2 aerogel, intermetal dielectrics, and drift chamber appeared in the field of construction research [49,50,51], indicating that the structure and basic properties of the material are the basic research of aerogel. There are various types of aerogels, such as silica, carbon, metal, and cellulose systems. At present, the most common is SiO2 aerogel, with density of 0.003–0.15 g/cm3, more than 90% nanoscale porosity, and size less than 50 nm, which shows superior properties in thermal acoustics and optics. Thermodynamically, SiO2 aerogel at room temperature has efficient thermal insulation and very low thermal conductivity (0.02~0.03 W/(m K)); its unique pore grid structure can play an effective role in suppressing the heat conduction of solid and gas, and this porous network structure can be well maintained at high temperature of 950 °C. It can be seen that SiO2 aerogel is currently recognized as the optimal lightweight thermal insulation or super insulation material, which has broad research prospects and application development value in building energy saving and emission reduction.
During 2011–2017, aerogel research in the construction field began to develop gradually, with the emergence of thermal conductivity, thermal insulation self-assembly, energy saving, mechanical property, graphene aerogel, thermal performance, thermal insulation, composite, graphene, and other research topics [52,53,54,55,56]. Moreover, the amount of literature in this field was steadily increasing, and scholars began deepening and expanding the applications of aerogels in different building fields during this period. During 2018–2023, with the advent of the nano-age, various new materials have been continuously applied in the construction industry, and research on aerogels in construction has emerged with phase change material, carbon aerogel, vacuum insulation panel, graphene oxide, energy efficiency, cellulose nanofibril, composite material, cellulose, and other research topics in the field of construction [29,30,57,58,59,60,61].

4. Conclusions

In the past 10 years, the number of papers on aerogels in the field of construction has increased significantly, and the academic influence has gradually improved. As far as the development trend is concerned, the field involves multidisciplinary cross-fertilization, and the journals also tend to be diversified and multidisciplinary, with a greater potential for development. China is the country with the highest number of publications in this field (294), and the output and impact of the results are outstanding internationally, contributing greatly to the development of this research field. Univ Sci & Technol China is the most published institution and Buratti C is the most published author, though there is still a need to further improve international cooperation among institutions and scholars. The research of aerogels in the field of construction involves multidisciplinary cross-fertilization. ENERGY AND BUILDINGS is the journal with the largest number of articles and a high impact in this field. Research on the thermal insulation properties of silica aerogel is a hot research topic in the field of aerogels in construction. Research on graphene, cellulose modification, nanotechnology, self-assembly, flame retardance, and aerogel glazing systems of existing materials is becoming the frontier. In addition, future research should focus on elasticity that does not change with temperature, highly stable aerogels with high fatigue resistance, and the development of low-cost aerogel preparation technologies, such as inexpensive raw materials and normal temperature and pressure preparation. With the development of the field of building energy saving, the performance of aerogel insulation materials is gradually subjected to a great test, and the development of more systematic basic research on aerogel materials, as well as engineering application technology, is the top priority to promote energy saving and carbon reduction in the building field.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, X.Y.; methodology, X.Y.; software, X.Y.; formal analysis, X.Y.; investigation, X.Y.; resources, X.Y.; data curation, L.W.; writing—original draft preparation, L.W.; writing—review and editing, L.W. and M.L.; visualization, X.Y.; supervision, L.W. and M.L. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Wan, C.; Jiao, Y.; Wei, S.; Zhang, L.; Wu, Y.; Li, J. Functional nanocomposites from sustainable regenerated cellulose aerogels: A review. Chem. Eng. J. 2019, 359, 459–475. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Sun, H.; Xu, Z.; Gao, C. Multifunctional, ultra-flyweight, synergistically assembled carbon aerogels. Adv. Mater. 2013, 25, 2554–2560. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Yan, Q.; Meng, Z.; Luo, J.; Wu, Z. Experimental study on improving the properties of rock wool and glass wool by silica aerogel. Energy Build. 2021, 247, 111146. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Zhang, J.; Chen, B.; Yu, F. Preparation of EPS-Based Thermal Insulation Mortar with Improved Thermal and Mechanical Properties. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 2019, 31, 04019183. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Smirnov, Y.M.; Baidzhanov, D.O.; Imanov, E.K.; Zhurunova, M.A. Energetics Metrics for Foam-Glass Concrete Building Products. Glas. Ceram. 2020, 77, 267–271. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Zhang, W.; Zhang, J.; Ding, Y.; He, Q.; Lu, K.; Chen, H. Pyrolysis kinetics and reaction mechanism of expandable polystyrene by multiple kinetics methods. J. Clean. Prod. 2021, 285, 125042. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Amaral, C.; Vicente, R.; Ferreira, V.; Silva, T. Polyurethane foams with microencapsulated phase change material: Comparative analysis of thermal conductivity characterization approaches. Energy Build. 2017, 153, 392–402. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Huang, Y.; Gong, L.; Pan, Y.; Li, C.; Zhou, T.; Cheng, X. Facile construction of the aerogel/geopolymer composite with ultra-low thermal conductivity and high mechanical performance. RSC Adv. 2018, 8, 2350–2356. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. He, J.; Li, X.; Su, D.; Ji, H.; Wang, X. Ultra-low thermal conductivity and high strength of aerogels/fibrous ceramic composites. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 2016, 36, 1487–1493. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Cuce, E.; Cuce, P.M.; Wood, C.J.; Riffat, S.B. Toward aerogel based thermal superinsulation in buildings: A comprehensive review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2014, 34, 273–299. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Baetens, R.; Jelle, B.P.; Gustavsen, A. Aerogel insulation for building applications: A state-of-the-art review. Energy Build. 2011, 43, 761–769. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  12. Sheng, Z.; Liu, Z.; Hou, Y.; Jiang, H.; Li, Y.; Li, G.; Zhang, X. The Rising Aerogel Fibers: Status, Challenges, and Opportunities. Adv. Sci. 2023, 10, e2205762. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Li, M.; Han, N.; Zhang, X.; Wang, S.; Jiang, M.; Bokhari, A.; Zhang, W.; Race, M.; Shen, Z.; Chen, R.; et al. Perovskite oxide for emerging photo(electro)catalysis in energy and environment. Environ. Res. 2022, 205, 112544. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Chen, C. Searching for intellectual turning points: Progressive knowledge domain visualization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2004, 101, 5303–5310. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  15. Pierre, M.S.; Grawe, P.; Bergstrom, J.; Neuhaus, C. 20 years after To Err Is Human: A bibliometric analysis of ‘the IOM report’s’ impact on research on patient safety. Saf. Sci. 2022, 147, 105593. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Li, Y.; Feng, T.-T.; Liu, L.-L.; Zhang, M.-X. How do the electricity market and carbon market interact and achieve integrated development?—A bibliometric-based review. Energy 2023, 265, 126308. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Shi, C.; Qu, L.; Zhang, Q.; Li, X. A systematic review on comprehensive sloping farmland utilization based on a perspective of scientometrics analysis. Agric. Water Manag. 2021, 244, 106564. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Li, M.; Wang, Y.; Xue, H.; Wu, L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, C.; Gao, X.; Li, Z.; Zhang, X.; Hasan, M.; et al. Scientometric analysis and scientific trends on microplastics research. Chemosphere 2022, 304, 135337. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Jiang, H.; Wang, M.; Shu, X. Scientometric analysis of post-occupancy evaluation research: Development, frontiers and main themes. Energy Build. 2022, 271, 112307. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Cai, M.; An, C.; Guy, C. A scientometric analysis and review of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions: Research hotspots, new frontiers, and environmental implications. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2021, 149, 111317. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Fu, C.; Zhang, X. Progress in urban metabolism research and hotspot analysis based on CiteSpace analysis. J. Clean. Prod. 2021, 281, 125224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Liu, H.; Hong, R.; Xiang, C.; Lv, C.; Li, H. Visualization and analysis of mapping knowledge domains for spontaneous combustion studies. Fuel 2020, 262, 116598. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Li, M.; Wang, Y.; Shen, Z.; Chi, M.; Lv, C.; Li, C.; Bai, L.; Thabet, H.K.; El-Bahy, S.M.; Ibrahim, M.M.; et al. Investigation on the evolution of hydrothermal biochar. Chemosphere 2022, 307, 135774. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Kamali, M.; Jahaninafard, D.; Mostafaie, A.; Davarazar, M.; Gomes, A.P.D.; Tarelho, L.A.; Dewil, R.; Aminabhavi, T.M. Scientometric analysis and scientific trends on biochar application as soil amendment. Chem. Eng. J. 2020, 395, 125128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Wei, J.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Wang, X. Hot Topics and Trends in Zero-Energy Building Research—A Bibliometrical Analysis Based on CiteSpace. Buildings 2023, 13, 479. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Berardi, U. Aerogel-enhanced systems for building energy retrofits: Insights from a case study. Energy Build. 2018, 159, 370–381. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Cuce, E.; Cuce, P.M.; Wood, C.J.; Riffat, S.B. Optimizing insulation thickness and analysing environmental impacts of aerogel-based thermal superinsulation in buildings. Energy Build. 2014, 77, 28–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Liu, K.S.; Zheng, X.F.; Hsieh, C.H.; Lee, S.K. The Application of Silica-Based Aerogel Board on the Fire Resistance and Thermal Insulation Performance Enhancement of Existing External Wall System Retrofit. Energies 2021, 14, 4518. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Zhou, Y. Artificial neural network-based smart aerogel glazing in low-energy buildings: A state-of-the-art review. iScience 2021, 24, 103420. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Ahankari, S.; Paliwal, P.; Subhedar, A.; Kargarzadeh, H. Recent Developments in Nanocellulose-Based Aerogels in Thermal Applications: A Review. ACS Nano 2021, 15, 3849–3874. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Chen, C. CiteSpace II: Detecting and visualizing emerging trends and transient patterns in scientific literature. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 2006, 57, 359–377. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  32. Li, Q.; Long, R.; Chen, H.; Chen, F.; Wang, J. Visualized analysis of global green buildings: Development, barriers and future directions. J. Clean. Prod. 2020, 245, 118775. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Carve, M.; Allinson, G.; Nugegoda, D.; Shimeta, J. Trends in environmental and toxicity research on organic ultraviolet filters: A scientometric review. Sci. Total. Environ. 2021, 773, 145628. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Chen, C. Science Mapping: A Systematic Review of the Literature. J. Data Inf. Sci. 2017, 2, 1–40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  35. Li, M.; Jia, X.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, Y.; Shen, M.; Xue, H. Quantitative Analysis of the Research Development Status and Trends of Tannery Wastewater Treatment Technology. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1317. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Tan, H.; Ma, X.; Fu, M. Preparation of continuous alumina gel fibres by aqueous sol-gel process. Bull. Mater. Sci. 2013, 36, 153–156. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  37. Gao, T.; Jelle, B.P.; Gustavsen, A.; Jacobsen, S. Aerogel-incorporated concrete: An experimental study. Constr. Build. Mater. 2014, 52, 130–136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Heiligtag, F.J.; Cheng, W.; de Mendonca, V.R.; Süess, M.J.; Hametner, K.; Günther, D.; Ribeiro, C.; Niederberger, M. Self-Assembly of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Nanowires into a Macroscopic Ternary Aerogel Monolith with Tailored Photocatalytic Properties. Chem. Mater. 2014, 26, 5576–5584. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Gao, T.; Jelle, B.P.; Ihara, T.; Gustavsen, A. Insulating glazing units with silica aerogel granules: The impact of particle size. Appl. Energy 2014, 128, 27–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  40. Zhou, X.; Carmeliet, J.; Derome, D. Influence of envelope properties on interior insulation solutions for masonry walls. Build. Environ. 2018, 135, 246–256. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Dong, L.-Y.; Zhu, Y.-J. A New Kind of Fireproof, Flexible, Inorganic, Nanocomposite Paper and Its Application to the Protection Layer in Flame-Retardant Fiber-Optic Cables. Chem.—A Eur. J. 2017, 23, 4597–4604. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Lolli, N.; Andresen, I. Aerogel vs. argon insulation in windows: A greenhouse gas emissions analysis. Build. Environ. 2016, 101, 64–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Lv, Y.; Wu, H.; Liu, Y.; Huang, Y.; Xu, T.; Zhou, X.; Huang, R. Quantitative research on the influence of particle size and filling thickness on aerogel glazing performance. Energy Build. 2018, 174, 190–198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Martinez, R.G.; Goiti, E.; Reichenauer, G.; Zhao, S.; Koebel, M.; Barrio, A. Thermal assessment of ambient pressure dried silica aerogel composite boards at laboratory and field scale. Energy Build. 2016, 128, 111–118. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Wakili, K.G.; Remhof, A. Reaction of aerogel containing ceramic fibre insulation to fire exposure. Fire Mater. 2017, 41, 29–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Lucchi, E.; Becherini, F.; Di Tuccio, M.C.; Troi, A.; Frick, J.; Roberti, F.; Hermann, C.; Fairnington, I.; Mezzasalma, G.; Pockelé, L.; et al. Thermal performance evaluation and comfort assessment of advanced aerogel as blown-in insulation for historic buildings. Build. Environ. 2017, 122, 258–268. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. Stahl, T.; Wakili, K.G.; Hartmeier, S.; Franov, E.; Niederberger, W.; Zimmermann, M. Temperature and moisture evolution beneath an aerogel based rendering applied to a historic building. J. Build. Eng. 2017, 12, 140–146. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Buratti, C.; Belloni, E.; Merli, F.; Zinzi, M. Aerogel glazing systems for building applications: A review. Energy Build. 2021, 231, 110587. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Leventis, N.; Sotiriou-Leventis, C.; Zhang, G.; Rawashdeh, A.-M.M. Nanoengineering Strong Silica Aerogels. Nano Lett. 2002, 2, 957–960. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  50. Jo, M.H.; Hong, J.K.; Park, H.H.; Kim, J.J.; Hyun, S.H.; Choi, S.Y. Application of SiO2 aerogel film with low dielectric constant to intermetal dielectrics. Thin Solid Film 1997, 308, 490–494. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. De Lange, D.J.J.; Steijger, J.J.M.; De Vries, H.; Anghinolfi, M.; Taiuti, M.; Higinbotham, D.W.; Norum, B.E.; Konstantinov, E. A large acceptance spectrometer for the internal target facility at NIKHEF. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers Detect. Assoc. Equip. 1998, 406, 182–194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Buratti, C.; Moretti, E.; Zinzi, M. Cinzia Buratti, High Energy-Efficient Windows with Silica Aerogel for Building Refurbishment: Experimental Characterization and Preliminary Simulations in Different Climate Conditions. Buildings 2017, 7, 8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  53. Huang, H.; Chen, P.; Zhang, X.; Lu, Y.; Zhan, W. Edge-to-edge assembled graphene oxide aerogels with outstanding mechanical performance and superhigh chemical activity. Small 2013, 9, 1397–1404. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. Scaffaro, R.; Maio, A.; Lopresti, F.; Giallombardo, D.; Botta, L.; Bondì, M.L.; Agnello, S. Synthesis and self-assembly of a PEGylated-graphene aerogel. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2016, 128, 193–200. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Chen, K.; Neugebauer, A.; Goutierre, T.; Tang, A.; Glicksman, L.; Gibson, L. Mechanical and thermal performance of aerogel-filled sandwich panels for building insulation. Energy Build. 2014, 76, 336–346. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Liang, Y.; Wu, H.; Huang, G.; Yang, J.; Wang, H. Thermal performance and service life of vacuum insulation panels with aerogel composite cores. Energy Build. 2017, 154, 606–617. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Shah, S.N.; Mo, K.H.; Yap, S.P.; Radwan, M.K. Towards an energy efficient cement composite incorporating silica aerogel: A state of the art review. J. Build. Eng. 2021, 44, 103227. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  58. Zheng, D.; Chen, Y.; Liu, Y.; Li, Y.; Zheng, S.; Lu, B. Experimental comparisons on optical and thermal performance between aerogel glazed skylight and double glazed skylight under real climate condition. Energy Build. 2020, 222, 110028. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. Zhai, T.; Li, J.; Wang, X.; Yan, W.; Zhang, C.; Verdolotti, L.; Lavorgna, M.; Xia, H. Carbon-based aerogel in three-dimensional polyurethane scaffold: The effect of in situ unidirectional aerogel growth on piezoresistive properties. Sens. Actuators A Phys. 2022, 333, 113306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  60. Cao, Z.; Zhang, C.; Yang, Z.; Qin, Q.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, X.; Shen, J. Preparation of Carbon Aerogel Electrode for Electrosorption of Copper Ions in Aqueous Solution. Materials 2019, 12, 1864. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  61. Zhao, K.; Ren, C.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Wu, Q.; Wang, S.; Dai, C.; Zhang, W.; Huang, J. Cellulose nanofibril/PVA/bamboo activated charcoal aerogel sheet with excellent capture for PM2.5 and thermal stability. Carbohydr. Polym. 2022, 291, 119625. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. The distribution of the annual publications and citation from 1992 to 2023.
Figure 1. The distribution of the annual publications and citation from 1992 to 2023.
Buildings 13 01638 g001
Figure 2. Visualization of country network analysis.
Figure 2. Visualization of country network analysis.
Buildings 13 01638 g002
Figure 3. Visualization of institution network analysis.
Figure 3. Visualization of institution network analysis.
Buildings 13 01638 g003
Figure 4. Visualization of author network analysis.
Figure 4. Visualization of author network analysis.
Buildings 13 01638 g004
Figure 5. (a) Discipline double stacking, (b) discipline categories based on Web of Science top 10. Note: The left half takes the distribution of cited literature disciplines as the current research status of aerogels in construction; the right half takes the discipline to which the cited literature belongs as the research base of aerogels in construction. The wave curve connects the relationship between the research status and the research base, and the inner numbers of the oval indicate the number of publications in each discipline.
Figure 5. (a) Discipline double stacking, (b) discipline categories based on Web of Science top 10. Note: The left half takes the distribution of cited literature disciplines as the current research status of aerogels in construction; the right half takes the discipline to which the cited literature belongs as the research base of aerogels in construction. The wave curve connects the relationship between the research status and the research base, and the inner numbers of the oval indicate the number of publications in each discipline.
Buildings 13 01638 g005
Figure 6. Visualization of keyword network analysis.
Figure 6. Visualization of keyword network analysis.
Buildings 13 01638 g006
Figure 7. Co-occurrence clusters of the keyword.
Figure 7. Co-occurrence clusters of the keyword.
Buildings 13 01638 g007
Figure 8. Time zone view of keywords.
Figure 8. Time zone view of keywords.
Buildings 13 01638 g008
Table 1. Top 10 countries based on rank.
Table 1. Top 10 countries based on rank.
RankFrequencyCentralityCountryYearHalf-Life Period
10150.06SOUTH KOREA20163
Note: The location of the country and the richness of the research are represented by centrality. The greater the centrality, the greater the richness, and the location matters.
Table 2. Top 10 institutions in terms of number of articles issued and centrality.
Table 2. Top 10 institutions in terms of number of articles issued and centrality.
1252016Univ Sci & Technol China0.272019Tsinghua Univ
2242016Chinese Acad Sci0.22016Chinese Acad Sci
3182017Univ Debrecen0.182017Nanjing Forestry Univ
4182012Univ Perugia0.162018Jiangsu Univ
5172015Guangzhou Univ0.132015Guangzhou Univ
6152018Xi An Jiao Tong Univ0.122020Donghua Univ
7152012Empa0.112016Univ Sci & Technol China
8142015Hong Kong Polytech Univ0.112019Jiangnan Univ
9142013Southwest Univ Sci & Technol0.092015Hong Kong Polytech Univ
10142019Tsinghua Univ0.052019Hunan Univ
Table 3. Author ranking with higher number and centrality of publication.
Table 3. Author ranking with higher number and centrality of publication.
1172012Buratti C0.342015Zhang Y
2152017Lakatos A0.212019Wang J
3122012Moretti E0.192017Liu H
4112015Zhang Y0.162019Zhang C
5112017Wu HJ0.112022Liu CY
6102016Li Y0.092016Li Y
792018Hu Y0.092022Wang YJ
892017Liu Y0.082018Hu Y
992019Zhang H0.082019Li Q
1092019An L0.082022Feng J
Table 4. Top 10 journals of publication.
Table 4. Top 10 journals of publication.
6ACS NANO171.97%18.027
9APPLIED ENERGY151.74%11.446
Table 5. Keywords with high search frequency.
Table 5. Keywords with high search frequency.
RankFrequencyCentralityCountryHalf-Life Period
1840.64thermal insulation7
2620.38silica aerogel12
3600.54thermal conductivity7
4190.1phase change material2
5190.05mechanical property5
6160.02graphene aerogel4
8130.16energy saving4
9120.22thermal performance4
10120.12thermal insulation4
13100.12thermal conductivity2
14100thermal property3
1590.38porous material4
1790.2carbon aerogel2
1870.02graphene oxide3
1970.02vacuum insulation panel2
Table 6. Cluster information.
Table 6. Cluster information.
#SizeSilhouetteYearRepresentative Terms
0210.9382016thermal performance; historic building; internal insulation
1200.9482019thermal management; SiO2 aerogel; emi shielding;
2180.8532019chitosan; sensing; electromagnetic interference shielding;
3160.8072018self-assembly; nanofibrillated cellulose; flexibility;
4160.952018reaction kinetics; heat transfer; building insulation materials;
5150.9782018thermal insulation; envelope; annual energy consumption;
6140.9282019graphene aerogel; thermal energy storage; cellulose aerogel;
7140.982016radiative cooling; advanced glazing; aerogel;
880.9912017energy saving; energy performance; aerogel glazing system;
970.9462018thermal conductivity; graphite polystyrene; specific heat capacity;
1060.9852021geopolymer; microstructure; composite aerogel
Table 7. Top 25 keywords with the strongest citation bursts (1995–2023). The time period of the citation burst is indicated by the red line.
Table 7. Top 25 keywords with the strongest citation bursts (1995–2023). The time period of the citation burst is indicated by the red line.
silica aerogel1.331620132014▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂
gold nanoparticle1.268620142015▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▂▂▂▂▂▂▂
sol-gel processes1.268620142015▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▂▂▂▂▂▂▂
aerogel glazing1.268620142015▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▂▂▂▂▂▂▂
historical building1.268620142015▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▂▂▂▂▂▂▂
ambient pressure drying1.343120162018▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▃▂▂▂▂
aerogel blanket1.343120162018▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▃▂▂▂▂
historic building2.244720162018▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▃▂▂▂▂
thermal comfort1.343120162018▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▃▂▂▂▂
building insulation1.50820172018▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▂▂▂▂
thermal property1.27820182021▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▃▃
thermal performance1.665120192021▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▃
aerogel glazing system1.640120192020▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▂▂
vacuum insulation panel2.190320192021▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▃
cellulose nanofiber1.560320192021▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▃
building envelope1.560320192021▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▃
flame retardance1.39920192020▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃▂▂
cellulose aerogel1.68720202021▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▃▃
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, X.; Wu, L.; Li, M. Visualization Analysis and Knowledge Mapping the Research of Aerogels Applied in Buildings. Buildings 2023, 13, 1638.

AMA Style

Yu X, Wu L, Li M. Visualization Analysis and Knowledge Mapping the Research of Aerogels Applied in Buildings. Buildings. 2023; 13(7):1638.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yu, Xin, Lei Wu, and Ming Li. 2023. "Visualization Analysis and Knowledge Mapping the Research of Aerogels Applied in Buildings" Buildings 13, no. 7: 1638.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop