Fresh and Hardened Properties of Cementitious Composites Incorporating Firebrick Powder from Construction and Demolition Waste
2. Experimental Program
2.2.1. Sample Preparation
2.2.2. Setting Time Test
2.2.4. Unit Weight, Water Absorption, and Porosity Tests
2.2.5. Determination of Flexural and Compressive Strengths and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity
2.2.6. Microstructure Analysis
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Setting Characteristics of Cementitious Composites
3.2. Consistency of Results
3.3. Unit Weight, Water Absorption, and Porosity Test Results
3.4. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Results
3.5. Flexural Strengths Results
3.6. Compressive Strength Results
3.7. Microstructure Analysis
- As the FBP ratio increased, the initial and final setting times got longer. This situation shows that the FBP retards the setting characteristics. The main reason for this situation is the delayed beginning of hydration and the prolongation of setting times of pozzolans. The flow diameters increased significantly with the increase of the replacement ratio of the FBP. This shows that the water requirement for workability can be reduced in cementitious composite mortar mixtures thanks to FBP. This situation can be attributed that the specific surface area of FBP being lower than cement.
- The mechanical strength results decreased as the replacement ratio of FBP increased. However, as the replacement ratio of FBP increased, a general increase in the strength gain rate was observed.
- It has been observed that the FBP obtained by grinding the waste firebrick can be used up to a 10% replacement ratio in cementitious composites that would require load-bearing properties to comply with the specification. However, FBP might be used up to 25% in some cases. Since cement production causes ~8% of the world’s CO2 emissions and energy, using waste FBP instead of cement would reduce the amount of cement used and lower the cost of producing cementitious composites.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Chemical Composition (%)||Cement||FBP|
|Specific surface area (cm2/g)||3410||2610|
|Loss on ignition (%)||1.83||6.87|
|Mix Coding||FBP (%)||FBP (g)||Cement (g)||Water (g)||Sand (g)|
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Sevim, O.; Alakara, E.H.; Guzelkucuk, S. Fresh and Hardened Properties of Cementitious Composites Incorporating Firebrick Powder from Construction and Demolition Waste. Buildings 2023, 13, 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010045
Sevim O, Alakara EH, Guzelkucuk S. Fresh and Hardened Properties of Cementitious Composites Incorporating Firebrick Powder from Construction and Demolition Waste. Buildings. 2023; 13(1):45. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010045Chicago/Turabian Style
Sevim, Ozer, Erdinc H. Alakara, and Selahattin Guzelkucuk. 2023. "Fresh and Hardened Properties of Cementitious Composites Incorporating Firebrick Powder from Construction and Demolition Waste" Buildings 13, no. 1: 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010045