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Buildings, Volume 13, Issue 1 (January 2023) – 264 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study evaluates engineering mitigation strategies for five US Department of Energy prototype buildings (i.e., medium/large office, small hotel, retail, and secondary school). The CONTAM software was used, and the CONTAM-quanta approach was applied for risk assessments. The zonal quanta transmission and quanta fate were analyzed. Different mitigation strategies were implemented, and the efficacy was evaluated for the design occupancy of these buildings with/without the mask-wearing of occupants. Results show that for small spaces, in-duct air treatment would be insufficient, and additional in-room treatment air cleaning would be required. Correlations of infection risk as a function of building mitigation parameters were developed upon extensive parametric studies. View this paper
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30 pages, 3447 KiB  
Article
A BIA-Based Quantitative Framework for Built Physical Asset Criticality Analysis under Sustainability and Resilience
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010264 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2702
Abstract
Asset-intensive industries, such as the construction industry, have experienced major catastrophes that have led to significant operational disruptions. Physical asset failure has been the primary cause of these disruptions. Therefore, implementing proper asset management plans, including continuity plans, is crucial for the business [...] Read more.
Asset-intensive industries, such as the construction industry, have experienced major catastrophes that have led to significant operational disruptions. Physical asset failure has been the primary cause of these disruptions. Therefore, implementing proper asset management plans, including continuity plans, is crucial for the business continuity of companies active in these industries. However, companies often face severe resource limitations when implementing these plans for all of their physical assets. Therefore, those critical physical assets that are vital for providing their key products should be identified. Moreover, sustainability and resilience are inseparable parts of organizations’ strategies, including strategic asset management plans. Therefore, any proposed ranking methodology for physical asset prioritization should encompass sustainability and resilience measures to ensure its practicality. This paper proposes a novel framework for physical asset criticality analysis based on the so-called business impact analysis to ensure the continuity of providing products/services through the continuity of physical assets. A hybrid fuzzy BWM-TOPSIS method is first applied to identify the key products. Then, a hybrid fuzzy DEMATEL-Bayesian network is applied based on proper sustainability and resilience factors to determine the critical physical assets, while interdependencies among these factors are well captured. The normalized expected asset criticality index is defined to guide managers in taking appropriate directions while developing asset management plans. A case study of a gas company is provided to show the applicability of the proposed decision model. The data needed for each step of the framework is gathered through experts’ judgments, historical data available on the sites, or quantitative risk assessment scenarios. Full article
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22 pages, 1914 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Smart Home Services and Items: A Living Lab User Experience Study
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010263 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2708
Abstract
South Korea is expected to become a super-aged society by 2025, when more than 20% of its population will be aged 65 and over. One possible solution for minimizing the socioeconomic burden posed by this aging trend is smart home technology, which can [...] Read more.
South Korea is expected to become a super-aged society by 2025, when more than 20% of its population will be aged 65 and over. One possible solution for minimizing the socioeconomic burden posed by this aging trend is smart home technology, which can be used to support older adults’ daily routines. In this study, the aim is to suggest the direction of development on smart home technology and products to enhance our understanding of service and item needs for the optimal commercialization of smart homes for users. A living lab was set up to research the experience of using smart home technology in real environments. To obtain intuitive and specific evaluations, visitors of varying ages tested each item and living space and responded to a five-point scale questionnaire on importance (recognition) and performance (satisfaction). The recognition and satisfaction for each smart home item or service were then evaluated using basic statistical analysis, importance–performance analysis, and factor analysis using SPSS. It was determined that the importance and performance evaluations of smart home services and items differed by age group. The scores for the two categories exhibited evident similarities in the older adult group. More similarities were found in the evaluation of performance than importance across age groups. The results show that different age groups agree that the development of services/items that can constantly and automatically check residents’ health status should be prioritized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Energy Efficiency, Environment and Health)
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13 pages, 2430 KiB  
Article
Challenge and Awareness for Implemented Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) in Indonesian Projects
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010262 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2595
Abstract
Many projects in Indonesia have implemented new strategies in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. Many projects suffered unexpected losses during the COVID-19 pandemic, and conditions were unpredictable. This situation must be considered by all stakeholders participating in a project. Another problem in the [...] Read more.
Many projects in Indonesia have implemented new strategies in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. Many projects suffered unexpected losses during the COVID-19 pandemic, and conditions were unpredictable. This situation must be considered by all stakeholders participating in a project. Another problem in the implementation of construction is the fragmentation between project participants. Therefore, a strategy is needed in each phase of the project life cycle. In the absence of proper planning, the contractor is the party responsible for bearing the risk associated with this occurrence. Improved project performance is a shared responsibility among owners, contractors, designers, and subcontractors, all of whom need to tap into their own sources of creativity and innovation. The potential of partnering as a tool for achieving lean construction performance, it is still in its infancy as a means of enhancing project outcomes. In this study, we used qualitative methods and in-depth interviews enhanced by focus group discussions of 14 experts (owners, designers, contractors, and academics) using the Delphi method. The results illustrate the maturity of partnering in integrated project delivery (IPD); therefore, its guiding philosophy can be developed and implemented to improve the outcomes of construction projects in terms of cost, quality, schedule, health and safety, and environmental performance. The most important part of this research is related to the implementation of the 17th goal of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), i.e., partnerships to achieve the goals. This research contributes to a deepening of partnering practices that can drive performance in project implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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14 pages, 5815 KiB  
Article
An FPGA-Based Laser Virtual Scale Method for Structural Crack Measurement
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010261 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
Real-time systems for measuring structural cracks are of great significance due to their computational and cost efficacy, inherent hazards, and detection discrepancies associated with the manual visual assessment of structures. The precision and effectiveness of image measurement approaches increased their applications in vast [...] Read more.
Real-time systems for measuring structural cracks are of great significance due to their computational and cost efficacy, inherent hazards, and detection discrepancies associated with the manual visual assessment of structures. The precision and effectiveness of image measurement approaches increased their applications in vast regions. This article proposes a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based laser virtual scale algorithm for noncontact real-time measurement of structural crack images. The device first sends two parallel beams and then applies image processing techniques, including de-noising with median and morphological filtering, as well as Sobel-operator-based edge extraction, to process and localize the light spots. Afterwards, it acquires the scale of the pixel distance to the physical distance and then derives the actual size of the crack. By processing and positioning, the FPGA acquires the scale of the pixel distance to the physical space and then derives the actual size of the crack. The experimental study on crack measurements demonstrates that the proposed technique has precise and reliable results. The error rate is approximately 2.47%, sufficient to meet measurement accuracy criteria. Moreover, experimental results suggest that the processing time for one frame using an FPGA is about 54 ms, and that the hardware acceleration provided using an FPGA is approximately 120 times that of a PC, allowing for real-time operation. The proposed method is a simple and computationally efficient tool with better efficacy for noncontact measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Computing for Structural Health Monitoring)
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21 pages, 6393 KiB  
Article
Effects of Pounding and Abutment Behavior on Seismic Response of Multi-Span Bridge Considering Abutment-Soil-Foundation-Structure Interactions
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010260 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the longitudinal seismic performance of a typical multi-span continuous girder bridge with seat-type abutments under earthquake excitation, especially accounting for different abutment behaviors. Three-dimensional finite element models of typical multi-span bridges are built considering the nonlinearity of the [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the longitudinal seismic performance of a typical multi-span continuous girder bridge with seat-type abutments under earthquake excitation, especially accounting for different abutment behaviors. Three-dimensional finite element models of typical multi-span bridges are built considering the nonlinearity of the bridge columns, bearings, abutment-backfill interactions, pile-soil interactions, and the pounding at expansion joints. One of the models adopts a simplified bilinear model to express the force-displacement relationship of the abutment backwall. The other adopts a more practical multi-linear model, and the abutment backwall is used as a sacrificial component to control the damage to the abutment’s foundation by changing the strength of the abutment backwall. Comparisons of the results of the analysis of two bridge models with and without a sacrificial backwall indicate that it is more favorable for bridges with a sacrificial backwall to protect the foundation, but it is likely to arouse a larger displacement response of the main beam and even cause the unseating of girders. The recommendation for a sacrificial abutment in seismic design is that the right yield strength of the backwall should be selected to reach the balance point of force and displacement, and a collapse-proof system could be employed to prevent the beam from unseating. Full article
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20 pages, 1507 KiB  
Article
Effects of Organizational Leadership on Project Citizenship Behavior and Management Performance in Complex Construction Projects
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010259 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2468
Abstract
Organizational leadership is a key factor affecting the management performance of complex construction projects, but seldom have studies attempted to explore the effect mechanisms of organizational leadership on the project management performance, especially the mediating role of project citizenship behavior. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Organizational leadership is a key factor affecting the management performance of complex construction projects, but seldom have studies attempted to explore the effect mechanisms of organizational leadership on the project management performance, especially the mediating role of project citizenship behavior. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by investigating the effects of organizational leadership on project citizenship behavior and management performance in complex construction projects. The theoretical model is constructed based on a literature review, and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) are performed on 169 valid questionnaires collected to measure organizational leadership, then partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is used to test the hypotheses. The results show that (i) organizational leadership is measured as vision guiding, context interacting, team building, and systems thinking; (ii) vision guiding and context interacting have both direct and indirect effects on the project management performance, and team building can only improve the project management performance by influencing the project citizenship behavior, whereas systems thinking has no significant effect on project citizenship behavior and the project management performance in complex construction projects; (iii) and project citizenship behavior partly mediates the influence of organizational leadership on the project management performance, and the effect of organizational leadership on the project management performance is more realized through the mediating role of project citizenship behavior. The results have a significant theoretical and practical significance for improving the project management performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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17 pages, 5600 KiB  
Article
Development of a New Response Spectrum Analysis Approach for Determining Elastic Shear Demands on Shear-Dominated Steel Building Frames
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010258 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1444
Abstract
This research is focused on improving the conventional response spectrum analysis (CRSA) method for the elastic shear demands estimation of shear-dominated steel building frames. An alternative approach named the improved response spectrum analysis (IRSA) method is proposed and validated in this paper. A [...] Read more.
This research is focused on improving the conventional response spectrum analysis (CRSA) method for the elastic shear demands estimation of shear-dominated steel building frames. An alternative approach named the improved response spectrum analysis (IRSA) method is proposed and validated in this paper. A simplified procedure to capture the dynamic features of a continuous shear beam (CSB) with stepped stiffness is first presented, and then validated. The CSB is employed in IRSA to replace the original eigenvalue analysis in CRSA to provide the modal parameter estimation for the considered system. A modified SRSS (MSRSS) mode superposition based on a genetic algorithm is then proposed and employed in IRSA. Based on the analyses conducted in this research, it is found that using first three modes in MSRSS to execute mode superposition could provide a great estimation of the elastic shear demands distribution. The amplification of weighting coefficients for the second and third mode contribution indicates the underestimation of the high mode effect in CSRSS. Further, response history analyses (RHA) are performed on two demonstration building frames to evaluate the improvement of the IRSA. The results indicate that IRSA provides a more precise estimation on the elastic shear force demand distribution in shear-dominated steel building frames under seismic effects compared with that which was achieved by CRSA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Constructional Steel Research)
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21 pages, 6724 KiB  
Case Report
Digital-Twin-Based High-Precision Assembly of a Steel Bridge Tower
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010257 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Steel structures that benefit from having lightweight, ductility, and seismic behaviors are capable of improving the overall performance of civil engineering in environmental protection, project quality, process management, and ease of construction, making the procedure more feasible for builders. The application of steel [...] Read more.
Steel structures that benefit from having lightweight, ductility, and seismic behaviors are capable of improving the overall performance of civil engineering in environmental protection, project quality, process management, and ease of construction, making the procedure more feasible for builders. The application of steel structure techniques has been widely used in bridges, tall buildings, and complex projects around the world. Increasing demand for planning and design has led to structural projects upgrading in structural complexity and geometrical irregularity. However, steel structure projects are still limited by the principal disadvantage of susceptibility to deformation. Therefore, the challenges of the assembly and manufacturing process for steel structures are important. In this paper, to achieve full-loop tracking and control of the assembly and manufacturing process, we propose an integrated approach to undertake the aforementioned challenges via digital twin technology, which combines three modules: (1) deformation detection, (2) pose estimation and optimization, and (3) deformation correction and pose control. This proposed methodology innovatively merges gravitational deformation analysis with geometrical error analysis. Furthermore, the validity of this method’s implementation is demonstrated by the New Shougang Bridge project. The results show that the assembly precision satisfies the standard of less than H/4000, nearing H/6000. Moreover, the elevation difference is less than 20 mm, which satisfies the control precision of the geometric pose. The new method that we propose in this paper provides new ideas for structural deformation control and high-precision assembly, as it realizes dynamic deformation sensing, real-time deviation analysis and manufacturing, and efficient optimization of the assembly process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent and Computer Technologies Application in Construction II)
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20 pages, 19680 KiB  
Article
Introducing Concrete Fabrication into Ferrocement: A Study on the Shape-Making of Cement Mixture
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010256 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2623
Abstract
Widely used in the making of sculptures and prefabricated building components, ferrocement is considered to be beneficial to environmental preservation. However, there is still little attention paid to the making shape and design of the ferrocement in the literature. Moreover, there are some [...] Read more.
Widely used in the making of sculptures and prefabricated building components, ferrocement is considered to be beneficial to environmental preservation. However, there is still little attention paid to the making shape and design of the ferrocement in the literature. Moreover, there are some disadvantages associated with ferrocement, such as the lengthy and complex process of binding poles and nets together. The research question to solve in this paper is about how to study the making shape of ferrocement when solving these disadvantages, so as to improve the characteristics of ferrocement. In this research, a dialogue is conducted between concrete fabrication and ferrocement, the focus of which is placed more on the material and craft instead of robotics as the recent frontier of concrete fabrication. By replacing the standard wire mesh in the ferrocement with steel, how to make the steel plate from two dimensions to three dimensions, and then assemble them into a steel skeleton is explored. Then, the craft of casting is studied for integration of the cement mixture into the steel skeleton and its tight attachment onto the steel surface with spraying. Apart from that, a digital software is applied to the simulation and design accompanied by physical experimentation. To sum up, the research demonstrates the potential of free-forming of the ferrocement and its application in the (prefabricated) building technology, with questions raised for future study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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20 pages, 3023 KiB  
Article
Predicting California Bearing Ratio of Lateritic Soils Using Hybrid Machine Learning Technique
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010255 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
The increase in population has made it possible for better, more cost-effective vehicular services, which warrants good roadways. The sub-base that serves as a stress-transmitting media and distributes vehicle weight to resist shear and radial deformation is a critical component of the pavement [...] Read more.
The increase in population has made it possible for better, more cost-effective vehicular services, which warrants good roadways. The sub-base that serves as a stress-transmitting media and distributes vehicle weight to resist shear and radial deformation is a critical component of the pavement structures. Developing novel techniques that can assess the sub-base soil’s geotechnical characteristics and performance is an urgent need. Laterite soil abundantly available in the West Godavari area of India was employed for this research. Roads and highways construction takes a chunk of geotechnical investigation, particularly, California bearing ratio (CBR) of subgrade soils. Therefore, there is a need for intelligent tool to predict or analyze the CBR value without time-consuming and cumbersome laboratory tests. An integrated extreme learning machine-cooperation search optimizer (ELM-CSO) approach is used herein to predict the CBR values. The correlation coefficient is utilized as cost functions of the CSO to identify the optimal activation weights of the ELM. The statistical measures are separately considered, and best solutions are reported in this article. Comparisons are provided with the standard ELM to show the superiorities of the proposed integrated approach to predict the CBR values. Further, the impact of each input variable is studied separately, and reduced models are proposed with limited and inadequate input data without loss of prediction accuracy. When 70% training and 30% testing data are applied, the ELM-CSO outperforms the CSO with Pearson correlation coefficient (R), coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.98, 0.97, and 0.84, respectively. Therefore, based on the prediction findings, the newly built ELM-CSO can be considered an alternative method for predicting real-time engineering issues, including the lateritic soil properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning Applications for Engineered Geomaterials Development)
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30 pages, 3990 KiB  
Article
Modeling Performance and Uncertainty of Construction Planning under Deep Uncertainty: A Prediction Interval Approach
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010254 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
In construction planning, decision making has a great impact on final project performance. Hence, it is essential for project managers to assess the construction planning and make informed decisions. However, disproportionately large uncertainties occur during the construction planning stage; in the worst case, [...] Read more.
In construction planning, decision making has a great impact on final project performance. Hence, it is essential for project managers to assess the construction planning and make informed decisions. However, disproportionately large uncertainties occur during the construction planning stage; in the worst case, reliable probability distributions of uncertainties are sometimes unavailable due to a lack of information before construction implementation. This situation constitutes a deep uncertainty problem, making it a challenge to perform a probability-based uncertainty assessment. The current study proposes a modeling approach that applies prediction intervals for construction planning via the integration of discrete-event simulation (DES), fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM), Bayesian regularization backpropagation neural networks (BRBNNs), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The DES is used to perform data sampling of the construction alternatives and assess their performances under uncertainty. Based on the generated samples, the FCM, BRBNN, and PSO are integrated in a machine learning algorithm to model the prediction intervals that represent relationships between construction planning schemes, performances, and the corresponding uncertainties. The proposed approach was applied to a case project, with the results indicating that it is capable of modeling construction performance and deep uncertainties with a defined 95% confidence level and fluctuation within 1~9%. The presented research contributes a new and innovative option, using prediction intervals to solve deep uncertainty problems, without relying on the probability of the uncertainty. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach in construction planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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17 pages, 3644 KiB  
Article
A Method for Predicting the Corrosion Behavior of Structural Steel under Atmosphere
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010253 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1404
Abstract
The durability and safety of steel structures during their life cycle are affected by steel corrosion. Limited test conditions and time hinder the reproduction of actual atmospheric steel corrosion. Most test studies have focused on the effect of pitting or uniform corrosion of [...] Read more.
The durability and safety of steel structures during their life cycle are affected by steel corrosion. Limited test conditions and time hinder the reproduction of actual atmospheric steel corrosion. Most test studies have focused on the effect of pitting or uniform corrosion of steel structures, leading to the development of vague engineering methods that make it difficult to design steel structures with excellent corrosion resistance. In this study, a method involving three-dimensional cellular automata and a genetic algorithm was developed for predicting the corrosion behavior of structural steel. The calculation efficiency of three-dimensional cellular automata was improved by small iterative steps and adaptive activation for potential corrosion. Furthermore, the proposed method was tested with published tests, and the results showed that the method can simulate atmospheric corrosion with excellent accuracy and efficiency. The simulation results were used to calculate the structural steel cross-sectional performance with greater accuracy than that of the method of assuming uniform corrosion. Meanwhile, with accurate material parameters, the proposed method can also simulate the atmospheric corrosion of high-performance steel of different strengths and properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Steel Structures)
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16 pages, 8630 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Vortex-Induced Vibration of Steel Tubes in Transmission Towers at Various Inflow Conditions
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010252 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
With the extensive construction of ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission lines, the fatigue damage of steel tube members caused by vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in tubular towers has received growing attention. Although some progress has been made in the research of the VIV of steel [...] Read more.
With the extensive construction of ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission lines, the fatigue damage of steel tube members caused by vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in tubular towers has received growing attention. Although some progress has been made in the research of the VIV of steel tubes in uniform flow, there is still relatively scarce research on the VIV of steel tubes at various inflow conditions. In this paper, a series of wind tunnel tests are conducted to investigate the VIV of the steel tube subjected to uniform, turbulent, and oblique flows. Three turbulence intensities (Iu = 5.9%, 9.7%, and 12.6%), and four yaw angles (α = 10°, 20°, 30°, and 40°) are considered. The results show that the VIV response of the steel tube in the in-line (IL) direction is negligible compared to that in the cross-flow (CF) direction. The displacement amplitude gradually decreases as the turbulence intensity increases, accompanied by a more unstable response. For the inclined steel tube, the VIV maximum amplitude almost remains constant when α ≤ 20°, while it sharply decreased in the case of α = 30° and α = 40°. Furthermore, it was found that the so-called independent principle is applicable for α ≤ 10°. Full article
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21 pages, 2753 KiB  
Article
Influence of Safety Experience and Environmental Conditions on Site Hazard Identification Performance
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010251 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
Improving the hazard identification ability of workers is an important way to reduce safety accidents at construction sites. Although previous studies have succeeded in improving hazard identification performance, an important gap is that they consider only two factors, the worker’s safety experience and [...] Read more.
Improving the hazard identification ability of workers is an important way to reduce safety accidents at construction sites. Although previous studies have succeeded in improving hazard identification performance, an important gap is that they consider only two factors, the worker’s safety experience and objective environmental conditions, to analyze the impact on hazard identification performance. To fill the above gap, a visual cognitive model of hazard identification was established. Sixteen field scenes were selected to represent construction sites in each environmental condition. Eye-movement data were extracted through eye-tracking experiments, and the differences between experts’ and novices’ gazes during danger recognition in these scenes were analyzed. The results indicate the following: bright construction sites can significantly improve the correct recognition rate and information processing in hazard identification; tidy construction sites can improve the search efficiency and correct recognition rate of hazard identification; safety experience can improve workers’ correct recognition rates and information processing; and reducing distractions can effectively improve the correct identification rate of hazards. Overall, optimal site brightness needs to be further studied to improve the efficiency of hazard search and reduce the distraction effect. This study provides recommendations for the direction of safety training and safety management on site. Full article
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21 pages, 7195 KiB  
Article
Impact of Derived Features from the Controlled Environment Agriculture Scenarios on Energy Consumption Prediction Model
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010250 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1310
Abstract
The high energy consumption CEA building brings challenges to the management of the energy system. An accurate energy consumption prediction model is necessary. Although there are various prediction methods, the prediction method for the particularity of CEA buildings is still a gap. This [...] Read more.
The high energy consumption CEA building brings challenges to the management of the energy system. An accurate energy consumption prediction model is necessary. Although there are various prediction methods, the prediction method for the particularity of CEA buildings is still a gap. This study proposes some derived features based on the CEA scenarios to improve the accuracy of the model. The study mainly extracts the time series and logical features from the agricultural calendar, the botanical physiological state, building characteristics, and production management. The time series and logical features have the highest increase of 2.8% and 3.6%, respectively. In addition, four automatic feature construction methods are also used to achieve varying degrees of influence from −9% to 8%. Therefore, the multiple feature extraction and feature construction methods proposed in this paper can effectively improve the model performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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23 pages, 1529 KiB  
Article
Citizen Perception and Ex Ante Acceptance of a Low-Emission Zone Implementation in a Medium-Sized Spanish City
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010249 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
The public decision-making process at the municipal level becomes extremely complicated for government managers when unpopular measures must be adopted. In this sense, citizen participation processes become a tool of undoubted added value that allows municipalities to adapt their policies to the needs [...] Read more.
The public decision-making process at the municipal level becomes extremely complicated for government managers when unpopular measures must be adopted. In this sense, citizen participation processes become a tool of undoubted added value that allows municipalities to adapt their policies to the needs and feelings of their inhabitants. The aim of this research was to focus on addressing the point of view of the citizens of a medium-sized Spanish city in the face of the imminent implementation of a low-emission zone, in order to identify which aspects were of concern to citizens. The methodology used in the research was based on a declared preferences survey that allowed us to determine the daily behaviour of the user in terms of urban mobility and to anticipate the citizen’s reaction to the implementation of socially unacceptable initiatives, such as restrictions on access, circulation, and the parking of vehicles. The results obtained in relation to the consultation on alternative measures to tackle pollution, noise and traffic jams showed that citizens are receptive to improvements in universal accessibility, subsidies for public transport, increased road safety for PMV’s infrastructure, subsidies for the purchase of environmentally friendly vehicles and PMV, and the promotion of pedestrianisation. However, there are undoubted threats to the implementation of the LEZ, such as the lack of acceptance of the measure. Therefore, it is considered imperative for public administrations to work on the search for sustainable actions that contribute to improving the degree of compliance with the measure, while at the same time making an effort to disseminate the advantages of the LEZ for the quality of life and health of citizens (through information campaigns). There is a knowledge gap in scientific research on the ex ante assessment of the effects of possible transport measures to improve air quality in city centres and consultation through citizen participation. It is estimated that the resolution of this research gap could contribute to a more feasible, reasonable, and effective implementation of various urban mobility policies in medium-sized Spanish cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable and Smart Cities)
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18 pages, 3897 KiB  
Article
Effect of Combining the Aggregate Grading with Cementitious Composition on Mechanical Properties of Ultra-High Performance Concrete
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010248 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1923
Abstract
Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) improves the bearing capacity as well as the durability of structural concrete. This study aims to investigate the constituents of UHPC in both phases: aggregate and cementitious materials. The proper ratio of the mixture was chosen based on combining [...] Read more.
Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) improves the bearing capacity as well as the durability of structural concrete. This study aims to investigate the constituents of UHPC in both phases: aggregate and cementitious materials. The proper ratio of the mixture was chosen based on combining an aggregate gradation of quartz sand and crushed stone. In addition, the compressive strength of the hardened cement paste was investigated to achieve the optimal ratio of silica powder and blast furnace slag. The combination of aggregate (quartz sand and crushed stone) and cement paste (cement, silica fume, silica powder, and blast furnace slag) showed ultra-high performance. The compressive strength of UHPC reached 135.74 MPa at 7 days, corresponding to 90% of 28 days’ strength (150.98 MPa). The results of the present study provide a new mixture-proportioning for UHPC with economic efficiency. Moreover, the use of slag enhances concrete performance and reduces the negative environmental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advanced Concrete Materials in Construction)
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31 pages, 8828 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Risk Prognosis and Control of Foundation Pit Excavation Based on Digital Twin
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010247 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Timely risk information acquisition and diagnosis during foundation pit excavation (FPE) processes are vital for ensuring the safe and effective construction of underground urban infrastructures. Unfortunately, diverse geological and hydrogeological conditions and complex shapes of the foundation pit create barriers for reliable FPE [...] Read more.
Timely risk information acquisition and diagnosis during foundation pit excavation (FPE) processes are vital for ensuring the safe and effective construction of underground urban infrastructures. Unfortunately, diverse geological and hydrogeological conditions and complex shapes of the foundation pit create barriers for reliable FPE risk prognosis and control. Furthermore, typical support systems during FPE use temporary measures, which have limited capacity to confront excessive loads, large deformations, and seepage. This study aims to establish an intelligent risk prognosis and control framework based on digital twin (DT) for ensuring safe and effective FPE processes. Previous studies have conducted extensive experimental and numerical analyses for examining unsafe conditions during FPE. How to enable intelligent risk prognosis and control of tedious FPE processes by integrating physics-based models and sensory data collected in the field is still challenging. DT could help to establish the interaction and feedback mechanisms between the physical and virtual space. In this study, the authors have established a DT model that consists of a physical space model and a high-fidelity physics-based model of a foundation pit in virtual space. As a result, a mechanism for effective acquisition and fusion of heterogeneous information from both physical and virtual space is established. Then, the authors proposed an integrated model and data-driven approach for examining safety risks during FPE. In the end, the authors have validated the proposed method through a case study of the FPE of the Wuhan Metro Line. The results show that the proposed method could provide theoretical and practical support for future intelligent FPE. Full article
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21 pages, 40026 KiB  
Article
Modernist Heritage versus Contested Legacy: The Case of “Radio City”
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010246 - 15 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1637
Abstract
The industrial legacy of the Soviet period in Lithuania has become an object of social tension. Even though the industrial heritage of the Soviet period is not directly related to the crimes of the occupying authorities, the conversion of industrial objects in the [...] Read more.
The industrial legacy of the Soviet period in Lithuania has become an object of social tension. Even though the industrial heritage of the Soviet period is not directly related to the crimes of the occupying authorities, the conversion of industrial objects in the historical parts of cities or of buildings with symbolic significance is contentious among members of the public. For this reason, the conversion of industrial areas in Lithuania has become not only an economic challenge, but also a problem of adaptating to society’s needs, changing society’s attitude toward this type of heritage, and organically integrating that heritage into the city structure. The “Radio City” conversion project is being developed in the context of this social tension but has become an example of adaptation in harmony with the architectural heritage that occupies a dominant position on the block, which is located in one of the historically formed residential districts of Kaunas city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Built Heritage Conservation in the Twenty-First Century)
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16 pages, 5361 KiB  
Article
Behavior of Cross-Laminated Timber Panels Made from Fibre-Managed Eucalyptus nitens under Short-Term Serviceability Loads
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010245 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
In this study, the preliminary serviceability performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels constructed from fibre-managed Eucalyptus nitens (E. nitens) was investigated via bending and vibration tests. Linear four-point bending tests were performed to determine the stiffness and deflection of all CLT [...] Read more.
In this study, the preliminary serviceability performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels constructed from fibre-managed Eucalyptus nitens (E. nitens) was investigated via bending and vibration tests. Linear four-point bending tests were performed to determine the stiffness and deflection of all CLT panels under serviceability loads. The dynamic response of CLT panels was tested using a basketball and an accelerometer. The fundamental natural frequencies of all tested panels were above the minimum frequency limit (8 Hz) when extrapolated to spans of up to 4.4 m. The configurations of E. nitens CLT panels were based on different modulus of elasticity (MOE) values for each board. Using higher MOE timber boards as the top and bottom layers can significantly increase the serviceability performance of both bending and vibration tests. The same experiments were carried out on two CLT panels made of strength class C24 Spruce-Pine-Fir to compare the serviceability performance of E. nitens CLT. The results demonstrated that E. nitens is a reliable resource for CLT manufacturing, and exhibits better serviceability performance compared to Spruce CLT. This provides more sustainable options for a species traditionally destined for pulp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adoption of Engineered Wood Products in Building Applications)
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20 pages, 8048 KiB  
Article
Study on Summer Overheating of Residential Buildings in the Severe Cold Region of China in View of Climate Change
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010244 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
Due to global warming, the overheating risk in the severe cold region of China has attracted attention, but so far, no studies have examined summer overheating in this region. This paper aims to reveal the overheating risk in recent and future climates in [...] Read more.
Due to global warming, the overheating risk in the severe cold region of China has attracted attention, but so far, no studies have examined summer overheating in this region. This paper aims to reveal the overheating risk in recent and future climates in the severe cold region of China. An 18-storey residential building in the severe cold region of China was monitored from May to September 2021 to validate the simulation data of the indoor temperature. Weather files of the typical meteorological year (TMY) from 2007 to 2020, observations in 2021, and forecasts for the climate in different carbon emission scenarios (2030, 2060) were used to simulate the indoor temperature and assess the overheating risk. The results revealed the severity of the overheating risk; the overheating hours in the south-facing bedroom were recorded as 884 h (24.07%) with the TMY weather data and 1043 h (28.40%) in 2030 and 1719 h (46.81%) in 2060 under the RCP8.5 carbon emission scenario. Thus, the low carbon emissions policy may significantly alleviate overheating. Moreover, to cope with climate change, it is suggested that the Chinese local design standards should consider the summer overheating risk and make the necessary adjustments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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21 pages, 8378 KiB  
Article
New Method for Solving the Inverse Thermal Conduction Problem (θ-Scheme Combined with CG Method under Strong Wolfe Line Search)
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010243 - 15 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Most thermal researchers have solved thermal conduction problems (inverse or direct) using several different methods. These include the usual discretization methods, conventional and special estimation methods, in addition to simple synchronous gradient methods such as finite elements, including finite and special quantitative methods. [...] Read more.
Most thermal researchers have solved thermal conduction problems (inverse or direct) using several different methods. These include the usual discretization methods, conventional and special estimation methods, in addition to simple synchronous gradient methods such as finite elements, including finite and special quantitative methods. Quantities found through the finite difference methods, i.e., explicit, implicit or Crank–Nicolson scheme method, have also been adopted. These methods offer many disadvantages, depending on the different cases; when the solutions converge, limited range stability conditions. Accordingly, in this paper, a new general outline of the thermal conduction phenomenon, called (θ-scheme), as well as a gradient conjugate method that includes strong Wolfe conditions has been used. This approach is the most useful, both because of its accuracy (16 decimal points of importance) and the speed of its solutions and convergence; by addressing unfavorable adverse problems and stability conditions, it can also have wide applications. In this paper, we applied two approaches for the control of the boundary conditions: constant and variable. The θ-scheme method has rarely been used in the thermal field, though it is unconditionally more stable for θ∈ [0.5, 1]. The simulation was carried out using Matlab software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling for Smart Buildings Design)
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19 pages, 2130 KiB  
Article
Introduction of an Integrated System for Measuring the BSC and DEA-Based Performance of Social Systems Using Uncontrollable Factors: A Case Study of Shahriar Municipalities
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010242 - 15 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1359
Abstract
Today, achieving managerial success and ongoing improvement depend greatly on the performance evaluation of service and economic units. On the other hand, we are aware that strategy is the primary driver of an organization’s long-term development and that, even if the right strategies [...] Read more.
Today, achieving managerial success and ongoing improvement depend greatly on the performance evaluation of service and economic units. On the other hand, we are aware that strategy is the primary driver of an organization’s long-term development and that, even if the right strategies are adopted, this effort will be ineffective if the strategy is not effectively executed. A balanced scorecard is an essential tool for strategy implementation. The network data envelopment analysis model, on the other hand, is recommended for the relative analysis and assessment of decision-making units in evaluating and improving the organizations’ performance with multiple inputs and outputs. The four components of the balanced scorecard are financial (retrospective indicators), and processes, customers, and learning and growth (prospective indicators). According to investigations, in addition to the four previously mentioned fields, a balanced scorecard for urban services (municipality) also encompasses the social responsibility field. In order to design performance evaluation indicators, this article attempted to use BSC while also attempting to evaluate performance using DEA. The Shahriar city municipal units of Ferdowsieh, Vahidie, Sabashahr, Shahedshahr, Andisheh, Baghestan, and Shahryar have all adopted this hybrid model. The findings indicate that the municipality of Andisheh city is efficient, while the remaining municipalities are inefficient. Nevertheless, the Baghestan municipality performs well and is effective in terms of social responsibilities. Full article
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19 pages, 5004 KiB  
Article
Investigation on the Influence of Active Underpinning Process on Bridge Substructures during Shield Tunnelling: Numerical Simulation and Field Monitoring
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010241 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
The pile foundation cutting and underpinning process during shield tunnelling significantly impacts the stability of bridge substructures. In this paper, the shield tunnel area from Hongguzhong Avenue Station to Yangming Park Station of Nanchang Metro Line 2 was taken as the research subject, [...] Read more.
The pile foundation cutting and underpinning process during shield tunnelling significantly impacts the stability of bridge substructures. In this paper, the shield tunnel area from Hongguzhong Avenue Station to Yangming Park Station of Nanchang Metro Line 2 was taken as the research subject, which crosses the pile foundation underpinning project of the south approach section of Bayi Bridge. Through numerical simulation and on-site monitoring analysis, the influence of the active underpinning process of shield tunnelling pile foundation on the deformation of bridge substructure was studied. First, through analyzing on-site conditions and comparing technical solutions, an active gantry bridge pile foundation underpinning technology was proposed, and the specific construction steps were determined. On this basis, for the C15 pile foundation with the most complex working conditions, ABAQUS software was applied to simulate the jack-up, unloading and pile-cutting process during the pile foundation underpinning construction, and the displacement development of the bridge pier, underpinning beam and new pile during the whole construction process were analyzed. Finally, through on-site monitoring data analysis, the technology’s feasibility and safety were further verified. At the same time, according to the analysis of the monitoring results of the bridge piers, underpinning beams and new piles, the results from the finite element software were nearly the same as the trend shown by the monitoring results, and the displacement of the main structures of the lower part of the bridge was small and within the control range. The above research work verified the applicability of the active gantry type bridge pile foundation underpinning technology in the pile foundation underpinning condition of the single-column single-pile bridge in the narrow space curved bridge section, and is worthy of further promotion and application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Building Health Monitoring and Assessment)
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22 pages, 5329 KiB  
Article
A Proposed eFSR Blockchain System for Optimal Planning of Facility Services with Probabilistic Arrivals and Stochastic Service Durations
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010240 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
This research developed a framework for electronic planning and management of facility services utilizing blockchain technology. In this framework, an electronic Facility Service Record (eFSR) in blockchain form was developed to manage and control service orders received by its main service center from [...] Read more.
This research developed a framework for electronic planning and management of facility services utilizing blockchain technology. In this framework, an electronic Facility Service Record (eFSR) in blockchain form was developed to manage and control service orders received by its main service center from university facilities via an electronic system. Mathematical models were formulated to determine the optimal schedule and sequence of facility services under probabilistic service order arrivals and stochastic service durations. Each task of a facility service is treated as a block. The scheduling model then assigned blocks (service tasks) to skilled technicians on each scheduling period at a minimal total cost of delay, undertime, and overtime costs, while the sequencing model determined the start and finish times of each block during the planning period. The optimal information of blocks was then confirmed and shared through an electronic network among all relevant facilities and the service center. The developed framework was implemented in university facilities to plan and manage 47 service orders for a total of 140 tasks over a period of twelve days. The results showed that the proposed eFSR is effective in managing optimal service tasks and efficient in improving the utilization and performance of the service center resources. In conclusion, the proposed eFSR with the optimal facility service planning provides real-time assistance and decentralized technology to facilities managers when planning service tasks over multiple periods. These advantages will result in the effective management of facilities and a considerable savings in maintenance resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Approach Applications in Housing and Real Estate)
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18 pages, 3109 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Viscoelastic Damper by Applying Fractional Derivative Method and Internal Variable Theory
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010239 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Viscoelastic dampers are conventional passive vibration control devices with excellent energy dissipation performance. The fractional derivative has a simple form and high accuracy in the modelling of viscoelastic materials/dampers. The internal variables reflect the internal state evolution of materials, and are often used [...] Read more.
Viscoelastic dampers are conventional passive vibration control devices with excellent energy dissipation performance. The fractional derivative has a simple form and high accuracy in the modelling of viscoelastic materials/dampers. The internal variables reflect the internal state evolution of materials, and are often used to analyze the deformation and thermal process of materials. In the present work, the mechanical properties of a plate-shear-type viscoelastic damper at room temperature are tested under sinusoidal displacement excitations. The impacts of frequency and displacement amplitude on the dynamic properties of the viscoelastic damper in a wide frequency domain (0.1–25 Hz) are investigated. The higher-order fractional derivative model and the temperature–frequency equivalent principle are employed to characterize the frequency and temperature influence, and the internal variable theory considering the internal/microscale structure evolutions is introduced to capture the displacement affection. The higher-order fractional derivative model modified with the internal variable theory and temperature–frequency equivalent principle (ITHF) is accurate enough in describing the dynamic behaviors of viscoelastic dampers with varying frequencies and displacement amplitudes. Full article
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17 pages, 20584 KiB  
Article
Energy Evolution and Damage Characteristics of Rock Materials under Different Cyclic Loading and Unloading Paths
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010238 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
In order to study the deformation and failure characteristics of rocks under different cyclic loading and unloading paths, three stress path tests were conducted, and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was conducted simultaneously. The mechanical characteristics and AE characteristics under different stress paths were [...] Read more.
In order to study the deformation and failure characteristics of rocks under different cyclic loading and unloading paths, three stress path tests were conducted, and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was conducted simultaneously. The mechanical characteristics and AE characteristics under different stress paths were analyzed, and the influences of the different stress paths on the energy dissipation and deformation damage were investigated. The law of energy evolution considering viscoelasticity under different stress paths was obtained. The concept of ultimate damage energy and its calculation method was proposed. The results show that the “hardening effect” of sandstone and granite under the constant lower limit (CLLCL) is the most significant in maximizing the mechanical property. The CLLCL imparts a stronger elastic property to rocks than the variable lower limit (VLLCL) does, while the VLLCL causes more damage to rocks than the CLLCL. A significant linear relationship between the proportion of damage energy and the proportion of elastic energy was discovered. Based on this linear relationship, the ultimate damage energy can be calculated for sandstone and granite. The evolution of the damage variable based on damage energy was compatible with the real damage condition, which validates the ultimate damage energy calculation method. The research results lay a theoretical foundation for the design and construction of geotechnical engineering. Full article
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24 pages, 18887 KiB  
Article
Parametric Study on Built-Up Cold-Formed Steel Beams with Web Openings Connected by Spot Welding
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010237 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
This paper presents a numerical parametric study on cold-formed steel built-up beams subjected to bending. The cold-formed steel built-up elements are efficient structural elements that are easy to assemble during the construction process, ensuring material savings and potential for standardization, thus making them [...] Read more.
This paper presents a numerical parametric study on cold-formed steel built-up beams subjected to bending. The cold-formed steel built-up elements are efficient structural elements that are easy to assemble during the construction process, ensuring material savings and potential for standardization, thus making them more suitable for mass production. A new technological solution for built-up steel beams with webs made of corrugated steel sheets and flanges made of cold-formed steel profiles, assembled through two welding techniques, was proposed within the well-formed research project. This solution can be used as a component of single or low-rise multi-story frames, purlins, or secondary beams. The experimental program investigated seven full-scale beams, two of which have web openings. The web openings were introduced for the case when these members are used as secondary beams in floor systems. The paper investigates these types of beams with web openings using parametric numerical analyses. A numerical model validated against experimental tests was proposed to carry out a parametric study through nonlinear finite element analysis, considering initial imperfections and considering the strain-hardening characteristics of the steel components. The influence of different components was analyzed through the parametric study. Beams with three lengths were studied, i.e., (1) 6000 mm, (2) 7500 mm, and (3) 9000 mm. In total, 61 simulations were found. The article highlights the parameters that contribute significantly to the stiffness and capacity of the built-up cold-formed steel elements. The weakest component was concluded to be the thickness of the corrugated web, while the presence of the stiffened web opening reduced the bearing capacity by approximately 5–10%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Behaviour of Steel Structures)
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23 pages, 7589 KiB  
Article
More-Than-Human Perspective in Indigenous Cultures: Holistic Systems Informing Computational Models in Architecture, Urban and Landscape Design towards the Post-Anthropocene Epoch
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010236 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2418
Abstract
By studying Aboriginal maps, this speculative research discusses world heritage concepts about land and merges them into western urban contexts. Assumptions concerning spatial allocation and demarcation such as boundaries, divisions and geometric patterns are being contested by ideas pertaining to Indigenous narratives expressing [...] Read more.
By studying Aboriginal maps, this speculative research discusses world heritage concepts about land and merges them into western urban contexts. Assumptions concerning spatial allocation and demarcation such as boundaries, divisions and geometric patterns are being contested by ideas pertaining to Indigenous narratives expressing holistic views about community, and the ecosystem as integrated components of broader organisations. First, this paper introduces principles of the Indigenous culture spurring viable land management by shared, equal and inclusive schemes as ones that also respond to global socio-environmental challenges. Alternative strategies are being considered relating to the soft demarcation of distinct areas understood as malleable aggregates merging with each other and with the landscape’s topological features, with reference to the Aboriginal culture. The techniques being proposed are further compared with original approaches in architecture and urban design developed since late modernism, challenging enduring practices. Seen next to each other, these models of thought are suggestive of a paradigm shift by which architecture reinforces deeper connections with the intellectual, sociocultural, and natural resources of the greater cosmos. Furthermore, as these ideas are propelled by computing, they lead towards the dynamic linking of analysis with the design results producing all-sustainable structures that are widely applicable, as architecture’s contribution to the current socio-scientific discourse on holistic approaches with a more-than-human perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioclimatic Layers of Built Environment)
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20 pages, 8465 KiB  
Article
Influence of Different Industrial Waste Residues on Engineering Properties of High Liquid Limit Soil and Its Microscopic Mechanism
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010235 - 14 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1428
Abstract
High liquid limit soil has unfavorable engineering geological characteristics, such as strong disintegration, dry shrinkage and easy cracking, and easy uplift when encountering water, which will cause various problems to the engineering. At present, the relationship between the physical and mechanical properties of [...] Read more.
High liquid limit soil has unfavorable engineering geological characteristics, such as strong disintegration, dry shrinkage and easy cracking, and easy uplift when encountering water, which will cause various problems to the engineering. At present, the relationship between the physical and mechanical properties of high liquid limit soil and the characteristics of water-soil interaction is still not clear enough. In this study, the high liquid limit soil of Zhanjiang Avenue was selected to explore the influence of different ratios of three kinds of industrial waste residues (blast furnace slag, carbide slag, and tailing sand) on the high liquid limit soil. Aiming at the common adverse engineering geological phenomena of high liquid limit soil, such as easy disintegration, dry shrinkage crack, and easy uplift in water, the effects of different industrial waste residues on the water-soil interaction characteristics of high liquid limit soil are explored through disintegration and crack tests. In addition, the effects of different kinds and ratios on the free expansion rate, pH, unconfined compressive strength, and shear strength parameters of high liquid limit soil were studied. The improvement mechanism of different industrial waste residues on the engineering properties of high liquid limit soil is discussed in terms of mineral composition and microstructure. Based on the experimental results of this study and considering the cost and engineering practice, it is suggested that the modified carbide slag optimal ratio of high liquid limit soil of Zhanjiang Avenue is 8%. The results can provide certain guidance for the improvement and application of different industrial waste residues on high liquid limit soil to achieve the effect of sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Innovation of Materials and Technologies in Civil Construction)
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