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Societies, Volume 13, Issue 8 (August 2023) – 22 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper will attempt to visualize adult refugees and migrants in a specific multilingual and multicultural educational setting in Greece. This research is a case study in a non-formal educational setting in Greece and aspires to present the plurilingual profiles, language needs, and challenges of L2 Greek students. In general, there were sequential multi-method procedures utilized in the research as the researchers followed a qualitative multi-method approach using multiple forms of qualitative data. In a complementary way, this research focuses on highlighting the value of language portraits, identity texts, and translanguaging in L2 Greek classrooms. Conditions regarding the educational process in the specific educational setting will also be discussed. View this paper
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18 pages, 618 KiB  
Concept Paper
Using ChatGPT in Education: Human Reflection on ChatGPT’s Self-Reflection
by Eugène Loos, Johanna Gröpler and Marie-Louise Sophie Goudeau
Societies 2023, 13(8), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080196 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 9305
Abstract
ChatGPT is a fascinating AI text generator tool. It is a language model developed by OpenAI, a research and deployment company with the mission, according to OpenAI’s website: “to ensure that artificial general intelligence benefits all of humanity”. ChatGPT is able to generate [...] Read more.
ChatGPT is a fascinating AI text generator tool. It is a language model developed by OpenAI, a research and deployment company with the mission, according to OpenAI’s website: “to ensure that artificial general intelligence benefits all of humanity”. ChatGPT is able to generate human-like texts. But how does it work? What about the quality of the texts it provides? And is it capable of being self-reflective? Information sources must be efficient, effective and reliable in education, in order to enhance students’ learning process. For this reason, we started a dialogue with ChatGPT-3 while using, among others, a SWOT analysis it generated about its own functioning in an educational setting. This enabled us, as human authors, to analyze the extent to which this AI system is able to practice self-reflection. Finally, the paper sketches implications for education and future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LLM Chatbots: Panacea or Pandora’s Box?)
15 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
“Scholar–Practitioners”, Reflexivity and the Illusio of the Field: Ethnography, Yoga Studies and the Social Scientific Study of Religion
by Matteo Di Placido
Societies 2023, 13(8), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080195 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1033
Abstract
This article dialogues with “yoga studies” and the social scientific study of religion (e.g., the sociology of religion and religious studies), arguing that both substantially neglect a thorough discussion of scholars’ engagement in the field despite being largely composed by “scholar–practitioners”. This is [...] Read more.
This article dialogues with “yoga studies” and the social scientific study of religion (e.g., the sociology of religion and religious studies), arguing that both substantially neglect a thorough discussion of scholars’ engagement in the field despite being largely composed by “scholar–practitioners”. This is problematic from a methodological point of view as well as from an ethical perspective. Moving in the interstices between biographical reflections, critical social theory and methodological notes on embodied ethnographic research, I self-reflexively discuss my “shifting positionality” from devoted yoga practitioner to critical scholar, mapping the most significant turning points that I encountered during my research on the pedagogies of modern forms of yoga (2017–current). In so doing, I also discuss my overall positioning, participation and ethical reflections in relation to the main object of inquiry of my research. From this, I posit that the positions of scholar and practitioner are, at least in some cases, incommensurable, while the scholar–practitioner may also foster a unique way of knowing based on reflexivity as a living engagement and on the linkages between theory and practice from which there is much to gain. Full article
15 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Teaching about Culture or Learning with and from Others?
by Nataša Ciabatti
Societies 2023, 13(8), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080194 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
This article reports on the findings of a qualitative study conducted in Victoria, Australia. The study examined the perceptions and implementation of the intercultural dimension in the language classroom following recent curriculum changes. Data were collected from individual in-depth interviews with seven pre-service [...] Read more.
This article reports on the findings of a qualitative study conducted in Victoria, Australia. The study examined the perceptions and implementation of the intercultural dimension in the language classroom following recent curriculum changes. Data were collected from individual in-depth interviews with seven pre-service teachers with a migrant background enrolled in a graduate initial teacher education program who were undertaking the practicum component of this course in Victorian secondary schools. Findings from this study highlight discrepancies between interpretations of the intercultural capability in theory and the way it is taught. Remarkably, what emerged was the impact of personal experiences on pre-service teachers’ conceptualizations and implementation of intercultural pedagogies. This study suggests a new definition for intercultural capability that emphasizes the importance of not only teaching about cultural diversity, but also learning from and through it. The study also recognizes the need for critical and reflective discussions in teacher education so that teachers are supported to become agents of change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration and Multilingual Education: An Intercultural Perspective)
35 pages, 363 KiB  
Article
Experiences of Faith-Based Organizations as Key Stakeholders in Policy Responses to Human Trafficking
by Charles Hounmenou
Societies 2023, 13(8), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080193 - 16 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2199
Abstract
Faith-based organizations (FBOs) are substantially involved in the anti-human trafficking movement. Yet, limited research is available on their crucial roles in the field. This study explored their input in anti-trafficking policy implementation in the US by examining their motivations to engage in anti-human [...] Read more.
Faith-based organizations (FBOs) are substantially involved in the anti-human trafficking movement. Yet, limited research is available on their crucial roles in the field. This study explored their input in anti-trafficking policy implementation in the US by examining their motivations to engage in anti-human trafficking work, their distinctive competencies as stakeholders, and their experiences and challenges in providing anti-human trafficking services. A purposive sample of 16 leaders from 14 FBOs with anti-human trafficking work experience was recruited. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data. A thematic analysis of the data was conducted. The findings showed that FBOs have experience in various aspects of prevention, protection, and even assistance in prosecuting human trafficking cases and at multiple levels of intervention. The distinctive capacities of FBOs for policy advocacy, training, and housing services for trafficking survivors provide a glimpse of their leading roles in human trafficking policy implementation. Operating primarily outside public funding allows FBOs to develop short-term and long-term services for trafficking survivors without time constraints. The FBOs in the study reported using a non-discriminatory, survivor-centered, and trauma-informed approach in their anti-human trafficking service delivery. All the respondents in the study concurred that efforts by any FBOs to convert trafficking survivors to a particular faith are unethical and counterproductive. The implications for practice, policy implementation, and research are discussed. Full article
30 pages, 2679 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Family Complexity on the Risk of Developmental Delay and Socio-Emotional Difficulties in Early Childhood
by Judit Monostori, Laura Szabó and Krisztina Kopcsó
Societies 2023, 13(8), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080192 - 16 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2086
Abstract
The aim of this research is to examine how developmental progress and socio-emotional difficulties in early childhood are influenced by family complexity, and how socioeconomic status (SES) and interparental conflict influence these effects. To measure family complexity, full biological families, two-biological-parent families with [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to examine how developmental progress and socio-emotional difficulties in early childhood are influenced by family complexity, and how socioeconomic status (SES) and interparental conflict influence these effects. To measure family complexity, full biological families, two-biological-parent families with half- and/or step-siblings, step-parent families, and single-parent families were separated. Dependent variables include the risk of developmental delay (based on ASQ-3) and socio-emotional difficulties (based on SDQ) at age 3. The data come from four waves of the Cohort ’18 Growing Up in Hungary longitudinal birth cohort study (n = 5788). Based on the results, children in all non-intact family types have a higher risk of developmental delay than do children from full biological families, when controlled only for the basic socio-demographic characteristics of children and mothers. However, controlling for family SES or interparental conflict as well, only children raised by a step-parent have a higher risk. Considering socio-emotional difficulties, children living with their biological parents but also with half- or step-siblings, or in a single-parent family, were at higher risk, even adjusted for interparental conflict. After controlling for family SES, however, only children in single-parent families have a higher risk. Parental conflict and low family SES have significant negative effects on both child outcomes, even in intact families, and together these seem to explain the adverse effect of non-intact family types. To conclude, children’s outcomes in the early years depend not only on whether they live with both their biological parents, but also on whether they are raised with half- and/or step-siblings or by a step-parent. That said, in many cases the negative impacts are due to selection effects, i.e., the fact that children of low-status parents are more likely to live in non-intact families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family and Social Environment on Shaping Juvenile Growth)
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10 pages, 780 KiB  
Article
The Global Institutionalization of Multicultural Education as an Academic Discourse
by Saerom Lee, Yun-Kyung Cha and Seung-Hwan Ham
Societies 2023, 13(8), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080191 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
Multicultural education has been widely recognized as an educational approach to deal with social and cultural diversity towards a more inclusive and just society. Conventional perspectives tend to assume that multicultural education would be of greater interest as a research topic in countries [...] Read more.
Multicultural education has been widely recognized as an educational approach to deal with social and cultural diversity towards a more inclusive and just society. Conventional perspectives tend to assume that multicultural education would be of greater interest as a research topic in countries with growing levels of diversity. However, based on a macro-phenomenological perspective, this study accounts for influences from the wider institutional environment that gives collective meaning and value to legitimize multiculturalism as an academic discourse topic. Using a cross-national research design, this study examined the national-level characteristics associated with the formation of academic discourse on multicultural education. Scholarly articles on multicultural education published in the field of education by 2020 were collected using the research platform Web of Science. A total of 105 countries with 14,220 articles were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Our results showed that countries with stronger ties to global civil society were more likely to have articles on multicultural education, indicating a higher institutionalization level of relevant academic discourse within the country. These findings suggest that the popularity of multicultural education as an academic discourse may not solely be in response to national-level societal demands but rather may be an institutional embodiment of universalistic norms and values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration and Multilingual Education: An Intercultural Perspective)
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24 pages, 5690 KiB  
Article
Introducing “Trans~Resistance”: Translingual Literacies as Resistance to Epistemic Racism and Raciolinguistic Discourses in Schools
by Madjiguene Salma Bah Fall
Societies 2023, 13(8), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080190 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Translingual students’ identities transcend multiple languages and cultural allegiances. Sociolinguistics widely discusses the linguistic and racial oppressions these students face in schools due to epistemic racism, which is often observed in the tension between their multilingual and multimodal communicative styles and language perspectives [...] Read more.
Translingual students’ identities transcend multiple languages and cultural allegiances. Sociolinguistics widely discusses the linguistic and racial oppressions these students face in schools due to epistemic racism, which is often observed in the tension between their multilingual and multimodal communicative styles and language perspectives rooted in monolingual and monocultural ideologies. This paper expands on the literature that denounces epistemic racism, uses Raciolinguistics and New Literacy Studies as theoretical frameworks, and reports on the following inquiries: What are the characteristics of delegitimizing school stakeholders who become agents of epistemic racism in their interactions with translingual students? How do translingual students reject these agents’ marginalization? Critical focus groups, semi-structured and arts-based interviews, and emplaced observations were used to collect data, centering the identities and voices of participants. Two key findings emerged. First, school stakeholders with various roles, social power, and degree of impact epitomize epistemic racism through ideological discourses. Second, “Translinguals” resist through novel concepts for which I have coined the terms "Covert and Overt Transresistance,” enacted by the means of resisting transliteracies. The theoretical, research, and practical implications of these findings, along with recommendations for future research, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration and Multilingual Education: An Intercultural Perspective)
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10 pages, 220 KiB  
Concept Paper
Reflections for Transforming the Perspectives of Teacher-Directed Practices towards Community-Based Ethnographic Practices with Migrant and Minority Students
by Martha Montero-Sieburth
Societies 2023, 13(8), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080189 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
This conceptual paper represents the retrospective/current reflections and findings from teacher education research of an intercultural educator gathered over 45 years of research in country-specific schools. Considered are the perspectives of primary and secondary school teachers who teach migrant/minority students and who are [...] Read more.
This conceptual paper represents the retrospective/current reflections and findings from teacher education research of an intercultural educator gathered over 45 years of research in country-specific schools. Considered are the perspectives of primary and secondary school teachers who teach migrant/minority students and who are influenced by national policies which expose them to new local intercultural classroom practices. Its intent is to question the use of homogenized teacher-directed practices that not only essentialize these students’ traditions, customs, cultures, religions, and languages but also project a deficit model in classrooms which minimalizes their contributions. Proposed is the deconstruction of homogenized, rigid teacher-directed practices arising from their professional training, classroom teaching, and pedagogy, towards community-based ethnographic (CBE) practices so that teachers, students, and ethnographers can immerse themselves in classroom participatory inquiry and critical thinking that unpacks students’ lives and creates dialogical processes that identify, utilize, and legitimize local “funds of knowledge”. By implementing a CBE approach, a more realistic understanding of the educational contexts, experiences, and perspectives of migrant/minority students and their teachers can be identified to develop interculturally ladened learning activities and content that concretely address diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration and Multilingual Education: An Intercultural Perspective)
15 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
Resilient Communities in Disasters and Emergencies: Exploring their Characteristics
by Carl Milofsky
Societies 2023, 13(8), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080188 - 12 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1197
Abstract
This paper discusses the capacity of communities to be resilient in the face of disasters. This is the question of what allows communities to rebuild after a major destructive event and preferably to “build back better.” The paper lists six qualities of resilient [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the capacity of communities to be resilient in the face of disasters. This is the question of what allows communities to rebuild after a major destructive event and preferably to “build back better.” The paper lists six qualities of resilient communities drawn from the literature researching these events: organizations are flexible; they have strong leadership; there is strong community learning; they are effective at collective problem solving and cooperation; social capital and civil society are strong; and communities effectively engage with helping institutions beyond their boundaries. The paper relates each quality to social capital, to the ways the three types of social capital—bonding, bridging, and linking—are interconnected, and to preparatory methods that might be used to strengthen social capital so that communities may be more resilient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Communities)
9 pages, 1362 KiB  
Article
German Language Teaching in a Multicultural Class in Greece: A Case Study about Students’ and Parents’ Perceptions of Plurilingualism
by Charikleia Liakou
Societies 2023, 13(8), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080187 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
After many decades of research, publications, and exchange of good practices, the debate about intercultural pedagogy, the importance of bilingual education and the promotion of existing multiculturalism in school classes remains topical in the public educational system in Greece. My ongoing research interest [...] Read more.
After many decades of research, publications, and exchange of good practices, the debate about intercultural pedagogy, the importance of bilingual education and the promotion of existing multiculturalism in school classes remains topical in the public educational system in Greece. My ongoing research interest focuses on the inclusive education of students with migrant backgrounds, taking into account the foreign language lessons in public education in Greece, specifically the teaching of German as a second foreign language. The empirical part of the study took place in a public primary school in a Province of the city of Karditsa during the school year 2021/2022. A class of 18 students of the 6th Grade, where 7 of them were bilingual/multilingual with a migrant background, was under research during the second and third trimester in the German language lesson. The research work is based on the methodology of the Functional-Pragmatics language theory by Ehlich and Rehbein. The data analysis is in progress; however, questionnaires were given to all participant students, and interviews were conducted with all bilinguals parents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration and Multilingual Education: An Intercultural Perspective)
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15 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Method Profiling of Adult Refugees and Migrants in an L2 Non-Formal Educational Setting: Language Needs Analysis, Linguistic Portraits, and Identity Texts
by Argyro Kyrligkitsi and Anna Mouti
Societies 2023, 13(8), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080186 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
This paper will attempt to visualize adult refugees and migrants, as well as a specific multilingual and multicultural educational setting in Greece. This study aspires to depict/present the plurilingual profiles, language needs, and challenges of L2 Greek students through a variety of tools/methods, [...] Read more.
This paper will attempt to visualize adult refugees and migrants, as well as a specific multilingual and multicultural educational setting in Greece. This study aspires to depict/present the plurilingual profiles, language needs, and challenges of L2 Greek students through a variety of tools/methods, e.g., questionnaires, portraits, narratives, needs analysis, and assessment tools. In a complementary way, this research focuses on highlighting the value of language portraits, identity texts, and translanguaging in L2 Greek classrooms. Conditions regarding the educational process in the specific educational setting will also be discussed. This was a case study conducted in an open school for migrants in Greece. Eight volunteer teachers at the school and twenty students participated in this research through a multimethod research design. Multilingual profiles and learners’ needs and goals became visible, and the teachers managed to “hear” the multilingual voices of their students and understand their multilingual profiles. Overall, it is clear that these findings pave the way for large-scale research to investigate in depth everything presented in this research. Using language portraits and identity texts as group activities helps to conduct a productive discussion in the classroom, through which students gain access to the use of concepts such as “multilingualism”, “multiculturalism”, and “diversity”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration and Multilingual Education: An Intercultural Perspective)
20 pages, 3445 KiB  
Review
European Tendencies of Territorialization of Income Conditional Policies to Insertion: Systematic and Narrative Review
by Ana Filipa Pinto and Hermínia Gonçalves
Societies 2023, 13(8), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080185 - 9 Aug 2023
Viewed by 868
Abstract
(1) Background: ICIP territorialization has been a trend in European countries. Evidence shows that local monitoring is effective in the process of social inclusion; however, territorial differences may cause different results in social and professional trajectories. This systematic and narrative review aims to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: ICIP territorialization has been a trend in European countries. Evidence shows that local monitoring is effective in the process of social inclusion; however, territorial differences may cause different results in social and professional trajectories. This systematic and narrative review aims to understand the territorialized elements in income conditional policies to insertion and envisage challenges of national organizations for efficient socio-employment insertion. (2) Methods: Data collection was carried out using Scopus. In addition, a manual search of gray literature by reference authors was used. As a methodology, bibliometric analysis was performed using Vosviewer. (3) Results: The results indicate an increase in the number of publications and citations, especially since 2004. The journals whose articles have the highest citation and co-citation rates belong to the social sciences field. It was possible to detect a strong interconnection between authors, sources, and keywords co-occurrence. The four clusters reveal that the research trends meet the need to restructure the Welfare State, around the new social risks, with the territorialization of the ICIP being a proximity response strategy. Social and professional insertion vary according to territorial cohesion, strong conditionalities with real insertion opportunities and degree of decentralization (4) Conclusions: The degree and effectiveness of ICIP decentralization and socio-employment insertion vary according to the trajectories of European welfare state models and the degree of coverage and generosity of the social protection system. Territorialization tends to reduce the costs of social protection, but these measures remain hostage to different territorial opportunities and real conditions of insertion. Full article
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15 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Healthism vis-à-vis Vaccine Hesitancy: Insights from Parents Who Either Delay or Refuse Children’s Vaccination in Portugal
by Joana Mendonça and Ana Patrícia Hilário
Societies 2023, 13(8), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080184 - 5 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Although healthism appears to be at the heart of the decision-making process of vaccine hesitancy, this matter has been understudied. We believe that the concept of healthism may be key to lessen the polarization of discourses around vaccination, offering a broad understanding of [...] Read more.
Although healthism appears to be at the heart of the decision-making process of vaccine hesitancy, this matter has been understudied. We believe that the concept of healthism may be key to lessen the polarization of discourses around vaccination, offering a broad understanding of parents’ decision to not vaccinate their children. This article aims to deepen the knowledge on the relation between healthism and vaccine hesitancy, using Portugal as a case study. A qualitative research approach was adopted, and therefore, in-depth interviews were conducted with 31 vaccine-hesitant parents. The findings showed that vaccine-hesitant parents usually adopt several strategies based on natural living to prevent and tackle their children’s potential health issues. There appears to be a common approach towards health and life (i.e., healthism) among vaccine-hesitant parents. Drawing upon the healthism ideology, vaccine-hesitant parents make choices to ensure the good health of their child. These choices nevertheless represent a privileged position as the pursuit of healthfulness is constrained by sociodemographic aspects. Using vaccine hesitancy as the starting point, our findings show that healthism and its focus on personal accountability under the umbrella of neoliberalism may jeopardize global public health. Healthcare professionals should pay particular attention to healthism when addressing vaccine hesitancy in Portugal and elsewhere. Research evidence advocates the need to be sensitive to the broad spectrum of vaccine hesitancy as this encompasses multiple views on the subject. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Lifestyle: The Relevance of Health Promotion for Society)
14 pages, 725 KiB  
Article
Memorizing Vocabulary in Multilingual Classrooms: Strategies Adopted by Teachers in Distance Education
by Thomais Rousoulioti and Eleftheria Seferiadou
Societies 2023, 13(8), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080183 - 5 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
The aim of this research is to investigate the usage and assessment of vocabulary memorization strategies adopted by teachers of Greek as a second/foreign language (L2) in multilingual classrooms. In particular, it investigates which vocabulary memorization strategies are adopted in distance education and [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to investigate the usage and assessment of vocabulary memorization strategies adopted by teachers of Greek as a second/foreign language (L2) in multilingual classrooms. In particular, it investigates which vocabulary memorization strategies are adopted in distance education and whether or not there are differences in the frequency of their usage within face-to-face education, as well as how effective teachers consider them to be. Research results show that the most popular strategies in distance education are the strategies of reading aloud (92%), linking the new word to students’ previous personal experiences (89%), and using synonyms–antonyms (87%), although there is no significant difference among the strategies that teachers adopt in face-to-face and distance education with some minor variations in statistics. Furthermore, it was shown that the frequency of a strategy’s usage is related to how important teachers consider it to be. Regarding the assessment of memorization strategies, it is of particular interest that in most cases the frequency of usage of a strategy is proportionate to the effectiveness attributed to it by teachers. After the teachers’ assessment, the strategies of reading aloud (89%), picture making (87%) and using synonyms–antonyms (86%) are in the top three. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration and Multilingual Education: An Intercultural Perspective)
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16 pages, 303 KiB  
Review
Domesticating the Global Discourse of Nationalism in Early Twentieth-Century Iran: A Sociological Institutionalist Account
by Amir Barjasteh
Societies 2023, 13(8), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080182 - 4 Aug 2023
Viewed by 990
Abstract
This article explores how nationhood was discursively constructed in early twentieth-century Iran. While most studies concentrate on micro-national causes, this study complements this literature by drawing on domestication theory to show how globally diffused nationalist discourse was localized and tailored to the Iranian [...] Read more.
This article explores how nationhood was discursively constructed in early twentieth-century Iran. While most studies concentrate on micro-national causes, this study complements this literature by drawing on domestication theory to show how globally diffused nationalist discourse was localized and tailored to the Iranian context at the turn of the twentieth century. It employs the methods of critical discourse analysis and critical metaphor analysis to investigate politics in the construction of nationhood in Iran. The data include all editorials and articles in three highly influential Iranian periodicals: Qanun, Tarbiyat, and Kaveh. By analyzing the shared premises in this data, the study highlights the transnational nature of the discourse to indicate how Iranian nationhood was embedded in world society yet adapted locally. The analysis then identifies three variations of Iranian nationhood, each woven into a particular national narrative at the time. These findings attest to the meso-level approach that addresses the discursive side of diffusion mechanisms and calls attention to the discursive politics in localization processes of nationhood. They point to new directions to understand contemporary Iran, not as an outlier or exception, but rather as discursively connected to world society. Given the discursive opportunities arising from these contentious notions of nationhood, the study calls for further critical investigations of identity-based appeals, often by authoritarian actors, in Iran’s modern politics. Full article
12 pages, 786 KiB  
Article
Authoritarian and Populist Challenges to Democracy Correspond to a Lack of Economic, Social, and Cultural Capitals
by Tea Golob, Maruša Gorišek and Matej Makarovič
Societies 2023, 13(8), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080181 - 4 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1775
Abstract
We explore attitudes toward democracy in relation to social divisions by focusing on the European Union member states and the corresponding EU political field. Positioning in the European political field is addressed through the theory of social fields as provided by Bourdieu and [...] Read more.
We explore attitudes toward democracy in relation to social divisions by focusing on the European Union member states and the corresponding EU political field. Positioning in the European political field is addressed through the theory of social fields as provided by Bourdieu and further conceptualized by Fligstein and McAdam. Drawing on the data obtained from the European Social Survey, we conducted a principal component analysis of the attitudes toward democracy and a correspondence analysis between these attitudes and social, cultural, and economic capitals. We demonstrate that attitudes toward challenging the existing representative democratic order can be seen in terms of two distinct dimensions: authoritarianism and populism. The presence of both corresponds to the lack of one’s possession of economic, social, and cultural capitals and the related political habitus. Those who lack these forms of capital are more prone to support strong authoritarian leaders and are also more likely to endorse conspiracy theories. We can relate this to the problems of exclusion and deprivation related to the lack of political habitus required for effective agency in the political field. Full article
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12 pages, 447 KiB  
Article
Teaching the Greek Language in Multicultural Classrooms Using English as a Lingua Franca: Teachers’ Perceptions, Attitudes, and Practices
by Aretousa Giannakou and Kyriaki Karalia
Societies 2023, 13(8), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080180 - 3 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
The present study examines teachers’ perceptions, attitudes, and practices regarding the use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) to teach Greek as a second language (L2) in multicultural classrooms in Greece, a largely underexplored area in the field of applied linguistics. The [...] Read more.
The present study examines teachers’ perceptions, attitudes, and practices regarding the use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) to teach Greek as a second language (L2) in multicultural classrooms in Greece, a largely underexplored area in the field of applied linguistics. The research was based on self-reports collected through questionnaires, written accounts, metaphor elicitation, and semi-structured interviews provided by 20 teachers of young learners with a migrant background in public schools in Greece. The findings showed that the classroom discourse takes place mainly in the target language, i.e., Greek, and ELF was also reported to be used by both teachers and learners for specific functions, such as vocabulary translation, explanation of grammar rules, and checking for comprehension. As reported by the participants, both teachers and learners welcome the idea of ELF use because a sense of security and comfort is provided through its employment. The study suggests that ELF may allow a smooth transition into the new social reality of the host country and a better approach of L2 Greek for young learners with a migrant background in the context of multilingual and intercultural education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration and Multilingual Education: An Intercultural Perspective)
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12 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
Promoting Academic Success and Social Inclusion in Non-Formal Education Contexts: The Case of a North-East Region of Portugal
by Marta de Oliveira Rodrigues, Armando Loureiro, Paul Flynn, Muhammet Berigel and Sofia Marques da Silva
Societies 2023, 13(8), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080179 - 30 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
The processes leading to school failure and early school leaving are complex and involve multidimensional factors. In Portugal, as in other European countries, in the last decade, several policies, programmes, and practices have been developed to address this issue. This article focuses on [...] Read more.
The processes leading to school failure and early school leaving are complex and involve multidimensional factors. In Portugal, as in other European countries, in the last decade, several policies, programmes, and practices have been developed to address this issue. This article focuses on a socio-educational practice of the study support type developed within a national programme aimed at social inclusion and educational success located in the community. The data collected through a semi-structured interview and a focus group with socio-educational professionals allowed us to identify how the study support practice is characterised and perceived by these actors. Processes and factors of transformation that occurred in the practice regarding its mode of implementation, conceptual evolution, and specificities were also addressed. Results indicate that the practice promotes improvements in participants’ outcomes such as learning, social behaviour, integration, and autonomy; the construction of a strong and sustained relationship with significant adults from the learning point of view; and the completion of compulsory schooling and studies. Hence, the research findings highlight that participation in the practice leads to transformative processes in the academic pathways of children and young people involved in the practice concerning academic, individual, and social dimensions. Full article
16 pages, 956 KiB  
Article
A Configurational Evaluation of Spanish Teleworkers’ Perception and Nonperception of Stress during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Jorge de Andrés-Sánchez
Societies 2023, 13(8), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080178 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
This paper assesses the explanatory power of individual, environmental, and job factors on Spanish telecommuters’ presence and absence of stress in a home telework setting during the COVID-19 crisis. It uses a survey of the Spanish agency “Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas” on the [...] Read more.
This paper assesses the explanatory power of individual, environmental, and job factors on Spanish telecommuters’ presence and absence of stress in a home telework setting during the COVID-19 crisis. It uses a survey of the Spanish agency “Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas” on the perceptions of the Spanish population about several aspects of information communication technologies (ICTs) that was carried out in March 2021. We use fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to capture how factors combine to enable and inhibit stress feeling. The perception of stress is less covered by fsQCA configurations than the nonperception. However, fsQCA provides profiles that cause stress feelings and nonstress feelings with great consistency. We have checked that overload is the most important variable to explain stress. Likewise, fsQCA has also shown that while some variables, such as overload, isolation, non-adequacy, or organizational support, impact symmetrically on the presence and absence of stress perception, other factors, such as attaining a satisfactory work-home balance or gender, impact them asymmetrically. From a practical point of view, we can outline that clearer regulation of teleworking is needed to prevent imbalances in rights and obligations between companies and employees. However, there are also several challenges at the organization and worker level. Full article
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17 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Life Satisfaction in Employed Mothers of Children with Disabilities: The Importance of Personal, Family, Work, and Society Characteristics
by Matilda Nikolić Ivanišević, Ana Slišković, Jelena Ombla, Andrea Tokić and Theresa Brown
Societies 2023, 13(8), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080177 - 26 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1454
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the separate and joint contribution of individual, family, occupational, and social factors in explaining the life satisfaction of working mothers of children with developmental disabilities. Working mothers of children with disabilities participated in this study [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the separate and joint contribution of individual, family, occupational, and social factors in explaining the life satisfaction of working mothers of children with developmental disabilities. Working mothers of children with disabilities participated in this study (N = 508). They completed an online questionnaire to measure factors from personal (optimism and personal strength), family (satisfaction with family finances, parental stress, number of children, and support from family members related to work), work (job demands, control, and support) and society domain (satisfaction with the healthcare, educational and welfare system). All of them were employed (at least part-time) but also, they all had at least one child with disabilities under 19 years of age whose degree of disability was officially determined. Regression analysis indicated that factors from personal, family (satisfaction with family finances, parental stress, and support from family members related to work), and societal domain (satisfaction with the healthcare system) predicted mothers’ life satisfaction. Work-related variables did not. A comprehensive approach is very useful in studying the well-being of parents of children with disabilities. Future studies should also include fathers, as it is reasonable to assume that mothers and fathers differ in the influence of certain factors on their well-being. Considering the sample size and bias, these results have significant limitations in terms of generalizability. Full article
1 pages, 160 KiB  
Retraction
RETRACTED: Kumpikaitė, E.; Milašius, R. Lithuanian National Costume in the 19th Century and in the 2nd Half of the 20th Century: Cultural Pollution and Remains of Authenticity. Societies 2021, 11, 17
by Eglė Kumpikaitė and Rimvydas Milašius
Societies 2023, 13(8), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080176 - 26 Jul 2023
Viewed by 653
Abstract
The journal retracts the article “Lithuanian National Costume in the 19th Century and in the 2nd Half of the 20th Century: Cultural Pollution and Remains of Authenticity” [...] Full article
12 pages, 246 KiB  
Article
Fostering Community Impact through Social Capital: Rent Control Policy in Palestine and Israel Amid Crises and Transitions
by Maya Mark
Societies 2023, 13(8), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13080175 - 25 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1654
Abstract
The article aims to link the theoretical framework of social capital with historical analysis. It traces a controversy of half a century between landlords and tenants in Palestine and Israel and their attempts to influence the government’s policy in the rental market during [...] Read more.
The article aims to link the theoretical framework of social capital with historical analysis. It traces a controversy of half a century between landlords and tenants in Palestine and Israel and their attempts to influence the government’s policy in the rental market during crisis and transitions. The article portrays social capital as a decisive factor in the success or failure of landlords and tenants to promote their group interests and impact rent control policy. However, as the two groups are competing over the same resource, the triumph of one group comes at the direct expense of the other. In that respect, social capital could act as “double-edged sword”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Communities)
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