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Societies, Volume 14, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 18 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In many rural areas, communities are facing various challenges. One response is residents leaving their communities. However, there are also empirical examples of residents staying, launching initiatives and developing new solutions. This is what we call social innovation. But what experiences do actors have in these processes? Can we speak of empowerment? And to what extent can such initiatives have an impact on community development? In our study, we obtained empirical evidence of the following dimensions of empowerment: the achievement of autonomy, competence and relatedness and also impact, meaning and resilience. Regarding community development, effects such as infrastructure improvements, the creation of new employment opportunities or the influx of new residents could be identified. View this paper
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13 pages, 221 KiB  
Concept Paper
Controlling Reproduction and Disrupting Family Formation: California Women’s Prisons and the Violent Legacy of Eugenics
by Vrindavani Avila and Jennifer Elyse James
Societies 2024, 14(5), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050073 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Prisons in the United States serve as a site and embodiment of gendered and racialized state violence. The US incarcerates more people than any other nation in both numbers and per capita rates. Individuals incarcerated in women’s prisons are 10% of the total [...] Read more.
Prisons in the United States serve as a site and embodiment of gendered and racialized state violence. The US incarcerates more people than any other nation in both numbers and per capita rates. Individuals incarcerated in women’s prisons are 10% of the total prison population, yet women’s prisons remain understudied, and the violence that occurs in women’s facilities is rampant, widespread, and operates in particular racialized and gendered ways. This paper centers the forced sterilizations that occurred in California state prisons over the last two decades. We consider how reproduction and the nuclear family have served as a primary site of racial capitalism and eugenic ideology. While eugenic policies were popularized and promoted across the US and globally in the 20th century, the violent ideas underlying eugenic ideology have been a constant presence throughout US history. The height of the eugenics era is marked by the forcible sterilization of institutionalized ‘deviant’ bodies. While discussions of eugenics often center these programs, the reach of eugenic policies extends far beyond surgical interventions. We utilize a reproductive justice lens to argue that the hierarchical, racialized social stratification necessary for the existence of prisons constructs and sustains the ‘deviant’ bodies and families that predicate eugenic logic, policies, and practices. In this conceptual paper, we draw from ongoing research to argue that prisons, as institutions and as a product of racial capitalism, perpetuate the ongoing violent legacy of eugenics and name abolition as a central component of the fight to end reproductive oppression. Full article
13 pages, 2268 KiB  
Article
Making Typicality: The Birth and Rebirth of the Torta Mattone of Bressana Bottarone, Italy
by Michele Filippo Fontefrancesco
Societies 2024, 14(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050072 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 261
Abstract
This article addresses the concept of “typicality” in community products, proposing a performative interpretation of this category. It ethnographically demonstrates how identifying products as “typical” is a process that involves a community in constructing both the product and its meaning. To illustrate this, [...] Read more.
This article addresses the concept of “typicality” in community products, proposing a performative interpretation of this category. It ethnographically demonstrates how identifying products as “typical” is a process that involves a community in constructing both the product and its meaning. To illustrate this, this study delves into the case of Torta Mattone from Bressana Bottarone (PV) and its history. It highlights how, over 50 years, this dessert has been created and recreated as a symbol of the community in response to the pressing needs it faced amidst socio-economic changes. In doing so, this paper details its micro-gastronomic history, illustrating how the Torta Mattone has become instrumental in maintaining the social and cultural cohesion of the Oltrepo Pavese area. Full article
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14 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Hopeful, but Worried for the Future: An Analysis of the Lived Consequences of Colonisation as Narrated by Older South Sámi in Norway
by Tove Mentsen Ness and Mai Camilla Munkejord
Societies 2024, 14(5), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050071 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Various forms of colonisation and discrimination processes are unfortunately common to Indigenous Peoples worldwide. In this article, the focus is the lived consequences of colonisation in the Norwegian part of Sápmi (the Sámi traditional lands), where systematic state-imposed colonisation officially ended decades ago. [...] Read more.
Various forms of colonisation and discrimination processes are unfortunately common to Indigenous Peoples worldwide. In this article, the focus is the lived consequences of colonisation in the Norwegian part of Sápmi (the Sámi traditional lands), where systematic state-imposed colonisation officially ended decades ago. Thus, based on a thematic analysis of qualitative in-depth interviews with 12 South Sámi aged 67–84, the aim was to examine how stories about hopes and worries for the future can shed light on how colonisation is experienced among older South Sámi today. The voices of these participants are important, as they can be considered triply muted, due to (a) ageism and (b) continued yet unconscious colonising practices against the Sámi in general and (c) against the South Sámi people in particular, a minority within the minority. Inspired by decolonising perspectives, this article reveals that older South Sámi are worried for the future, not only due to memories from the past but also their experiences with persisting colonial practices such as the ongoing enlargement of windmill parks and cabin areas in the midst of the winter pastures of the South Sámi reindeer herders. Hopefully, the time has come to finally put an end to colonial practices and take collective responsibility for creating a more just future for both coloniser and colonised. Similarly to the participants in this study, the report from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission also stresses issues such as loss of language, experience of racism, and reindeer husbandry being under pressure. This report may therefore be used as an important tool to ameliorate the conditions of the Sámi people if taken into consideration in the time to come. Full article
12 pages, 234 KiB  
Article
Centering Black Women’s Voices: Illuminating Systemic Racism in Maternal Healthcare Experiences
by Carla Brailey and Brittany C. Slatton
Societies 2024, 14(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050070 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 294
Abstract
The racial disparity in Black maternal healthcare outcomes in the U.S. reflects the devastating impact of systemic racism embedded within the healthcare system. This study addresses Black maternal health by centering Black women’s perspectives to illuminate how systemic barriers, racism, and unequal care [...] Read more.
The racial disparity in Black maternal healthcare outcomes in the U.S. reflects the devastating impact of systemic racism embedded within the healthcare system. This study addresses Black maternal health by centering Black women’s perspectives to illuminate how systemic barriers, racism, and unequal care manifest in their maternal health experiences. We conducted six focus group discussions with 27 Black women in Harris County, Texas, an area with an alarmingly high Black maternal mortality rate. The analysis revealed three main themes: (1) institutional barriers to equitable maternal care, (2) inequitable clinical care and provider–patient interactions, and (3) navigating experiences of everyday interpersonal racism. The women’s narratives provide insights into how systemic factors such as racism and unjust policies compromise the pursuit of optimal maternal care. By centering their situated knowledge, we can understand and develop solutions that emerge directly from the lived realities of this community. Full article
22 pages, 1009 KiB  
Article
Motherhood, Human Trafficking, and Asylum Seeking: The Experiences and Needs of Survivor Mothers in Birthing and Postnatal Care
by Lois Bosatta, Mariana Crespi de Valldaura, Kevin Bales, Helen Spiby and Laoise Ni Bhriain
Societies 2024, 14(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050069 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 382
Abstract
This article aims to illuminate the little-studied phenomenon of asylum-seeking child-bearing women in the UK, survivors of violence and human trafficking. This is a significant issue in terms of the proportion of women affected and the paucity of care and support currently available [...] Read more.
This article aims to illuminate the little-studied phenomenon of asylum-seeking child-bearing women in the UK, survivors of violence and human trafficking. This is a significant issue in terms of the proportion of women affected and the paucity of care and support currently available to them as mother survivors. This study looked to examine the frontline support services of one project to survivor mothers through two collaborating organisations, Happy Baby Community and Hestia, and how their services support mothers’ experiences of perinatal mental health, infant feeding, and the general experiences of migrant women and trafficking survivors in maternity care in the UK. Using evidence collected from semi-structured service-users’ interviews and focus groups, and an anonymous online staff survey, this article shows the types of care and support that are required to address not only the challenges faced by any new mother, but also the additional challenges experienced with trafficking and seeking asylum such as mental health, housing, and legal and access to other support. This article illustrates the many complex and inter-related challenges these women face, and the way the project meets practical, informational, emotional, appraisal, and social needs. It concludes by identifying several implications of the support provided and/or needed, which could be considered by other services or policymakers looking to meet the fundamental needs and rights of this cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Trafficking and Human Rights)
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13 pages, 602 KiB  
Article
Proposal for a Flipped Classroom Program with Massive Open Online Courses to Improve Access to Information and Information Literacy in Primary School Teachers
by Ana Lendínez Turón, José Manuel Ortiz Marcos, Oswaldo Lorenzo Quiles and Fiorela Anaí Fernández-Otoya
Societies 2024, 14(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050068 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 456
Abstract
The objective of this study was to propose a teacher training program based on the flipped classroom model with MOOCs to strengthen access to information and information literacy among primary education teachers in the Lambayeque region of Peru. The non-experimental design was assumed [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to propose a teacher training program based on the flipped classroom model with MOOCs to strengthen access to information and information literacy among primary education teachers in the Lambayeque region of Peru. The non-experimental design was assumed with a quantitative approach and a propositional, descriptive type. A diagnosis was made using a questionnaire given to 917 primary school teachers. It was discovered that nearly all of the items in the questionnaire revealed a deficiency in the ability to navigate, search, and filter information, data, and digital content; the highest percentages were at the Basic level, with the exception of the item expressing information needs in an organized manner, which was at the Advanced C2 level. The lowest percentage was at the Advanced C1 level, and the majority of the lower percentages were at the Advanced level. In addition, there are competency deficiencies in the evaluation of information, data, and digital content of nearly all the items: the highest percentages were at the Basic level, with the exception of the item involving the processing of information, data, and digital content, where 26.4% were at the Intermediate B1 level and just 2.8% managed to be at the highest level, which is Advanced C2. Furthermore, when it came to storage and retrieval of information, data, and digital content competency, all the high percentages were at the Basic level, and all the low percentages were at the highest level, that is, Advanced. These findings helped us to understand that teachers have only a basic knowledge of information literacy and information competency. As a result, it is necessary to advocate for a teacher training program based on the flipped classroom model with MOOCs. This idea was supported by the opinions of five experts, who stated that its implementation would enable primary teachers of Regular Basic Education in the region of Lambayeque (Peru) to develop their access to information and information literacy competency area. Full article
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17 pages, 923 KiB  
Article
Online Mothering: The Empowering Nature of a Hashtag Movement Founded on Social Sharing and Stereotype Deconstruction
by Rosa Scardigno, Carmela Sportelli, Paolo Giovanni Cicirelli, Angelica Lops and Francesca D’Errico
Societies 2024, 14(5), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050067 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Online mothering is an arising and multifaceted phenomenon as the online world offers unique opportunities and risks in a particularly challenging period. The overall aim of this work is to investigate the features of the hashtag movement #itcouldbeme, which was born after a [...] Read more.
Online mothering is an arising and multifaceted phenomenon as the online world offers unique opportunities and risks in a particularly challenging period. The overall aim of this work is to investigate the features of the hashtag movement #itcouldbeme, which was born after a terrible news event concerning a newborn’s death, specifically concerning (a) the e-activation levels; (b) the emotional arousal; (c) the potential presence of deconstruction of stereotypes concerning intensive mothering. To investigate positioning, reactions, and emotions, a database of 394 online posts gathered from popular Italian social networks was created, manually codified, and analyzed through the chi-square test. The results enabled us to deepen the associations among these variables, thus revealing the opportunities for empowerment offered by the socio-cultural positioning, different emotional pathways, and adhesion to this online movement. Finally, implications for professionals and public health issues are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Psychology and Psychological Health in Contemporary Society)
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22 pages, 1032 KiB  
Article
Digital Competencies in Verifying Fake News: Assessing the Knowledge and Abilities of Journalism Students
by Amparo López-Meri, Hugo Doménech-Fabregat and Silvia Marcos-García
Societies 2024, 14(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050066 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 407
Abstract
The surge of disinformation in the digital sphere following the COVID-19 pandemic presents a considerable threat to democratic principles in contemporary societies. In response, multiple fact-checking platforms and citizen media literacy initiatives have been promoted. The fact checker has indeed become a new [...] Read more.
The surge of disinformation in the digital sphere following the COVID-19 pandemic presents a considerable threat to democratic principles in contemporary societies. In response, multiple fact-checking platforms and citizen media literacy initiatives have been promoted. The fact checker has indeed become a new professional profile demanded by the sector. In this context, this research delves into the study of digital skills applied to information verification by journalism students. Adopting a comprehensive understanding of digital skills that extends beyond technical proficiency to encompass a shift in mindset, journalism students’ perceptions of their verification abilities are examined using a quantitative survey technique. This examination is based on an original list of competencies prepared specifically for this study. The results indicate that journalism students demonstrate awareness of the implications of disinformation, exhibiting scepticism towards content from unfamiliar sources or displaying clear signs of deceptive intent. Furthermore, they emphasise the importance of verification and fact-checking practices and express confidence in their proficiency in analysis, critical thinking, and social skills. However, their confidence in handling computer applications for verification and specialisation in data journalism is comparatively lower. Notably, significant gender disparities were observed in these areas, with women exhibiting greater confidence in social skills, collaborative work, and innovation, while men displayed a heightened proficiency in computer applications. Consequently, there is a need for improvements in teaching practices, which could potentially create new job opportunities for journalism students. Full article
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14 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Do Societies Have Emotions?
by Abilio Almeida
Societies 2024, 14(5), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050065 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 547
Abstract
In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the study of emotions, demonstrating their importance in understanding diverse human and social dynamics. However, as this field of study develops and diversifies, a structural yet simple question remains virtually undiscussed: Is it [...] Read more.
In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the study of emotions, demonstrating their importance in understanding diverse human and social dynamics. However, as this field of study develops and diversifies, a structural yet simple question remains virtually undiscussed: Is it really possible to say that societies possess emotions or a certain sensitivity akin to individual experiences? This exploratory study, based on documentary analysis, endeavours to identify and examine emotional patterns across six different periods, spanning from the Middle Ages to the present day. Among the eight secondary findings, three fundamental conclusions stand out: (1) throughout history, societies have experienced different emotional atmospheres, sometimes simultaneously; (2) although societies generally propose an emotional model to follow, the reality does not always conform to it; and (3) it is mainly through the culture that society creates a certain emotional harmony, allowing the social body to remain cohesive and develop, thus postponing or preventing its disintegration. This study aims to offer a modest contribution to the complex and under-explored discussion on the correlation between specific emotional climates and particular social contexts. Full article
17 pages, 3092 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Biases on Health Disinformation Research
by Carmen Peñafiel-Saiz, Lázaro Echegaray-Eizaguirre and Amaia Perez-de-Arriluzea-Madariaga
Societies 2024, 14(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050064 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 493
Abstract
This work analyses the treatment of elements such as biases and their relationship with disinformation in international academic production. The first step in this process was to carry out a search for papers published in academic journals indexed in the main indexing platforms. [...] Read more.
This work analyses the treatment of elements such as biases and their relationship with disinformation in international academic production. The first step in this process was to carry out a search for papers published in academic journals indexed in the main indexing platforms. This was followed by a bibliometric analysis involving an analysis of the production and impact of the selected publications, using social media techniques and a semantic content analysis based on abstracts. The data obtained from Web of Science, Scopus, and Dimensions, relating to health, biases, and fake news as well as post-truth, show how these works have multiplied in the last decade. The question relating to this research is as follows: How have cognitive biases been treated in national and international academic journals? This question is answered with respect to the scientific or research method. The results, which date from 2000 to 2024, show a considerable academic dedication to exploring the relationship between biases and health disinformation. In all these communities we have observed a relationship between production with the field of medicine as a general theme and social media. Furthermore, this connection is always tied to other subjects, such as an aversion to vaccines in Community 10; disinformation about COVID-19 on social media in Community 5; COVID-19 and conspiracy theories in Community 6; and content for the dissemination of health-related subjects on YouTube and the disinformation spread about them. The community analysis carried out shows a common factor in all the analysed communities—that of cognitive bias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fake News Post-COVID-19)
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14 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
To Retire or Not to Retire? A Comprehensive Examination of Retirement Decision Dynamics in Italy
by Michele Fabiani
Societies 2024, 14(5), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050063 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 424
Abstract
The concept of active aging has become central to the public debate in many Western countries, given the increasing aging of the population and the future challenges associated with it. This phenomenon is tightly intertwined with choices regarding the retirement period, which can [...] Read more.
The concept of active aging has become central to the public debate in many Western countries, given the increasing aging of the population and the future challenges associated with it. This phenomenon is tightly intertwined with choices regarding the retirement period, which can be postponed for different reasons by individuals in a society. The purpose of this paper is to understand the personal and family characteristics that influence future choices about retirement date in Italy. Utilizing data provided by the Bank of Italy in the Survey on Household Income and Wealth (SHIW), a logistic regression is performed to observe the impact of different covariates on the hypothesized retirement date of individuals close to retirement, i.e., over the age of 50 who are still in working status. The results show that the decision to delay retirement has increased in recent years, and is influenced by personal (e.g., matrimonial status), work, and economic factors. In addition, these factors have different impacts between males and females. Full article
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28 pages, 9430 KiB  
Article
Beyond the Walls: Patterns of Child Labour, Forced Labour, and Exploitation in a New Domestic Workers Dataset
by Zoe Trodd, Catherine Waite, James Goulding and Doreen S. Boyd
Societies 2024, 14(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050062 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 556
Abstract
The new Domestic Workers Dataset is the largest single set of surveys (n = 11,759) of domestic workers to date. Our analysis of this dataset reveals features about the lives and work of this “hard-to-find” population in India—a country estimated to have [...] Read more.
The new Domestic Workers Dataset is the largest single set of surveys (n = 11,759) of domestic workers to date. Our analysis of this dataset reveals features about the lives and work of this “hard-to-find” population in India—a country estimated to have the largest number of people living in forms of contemporary slavery (11 million). The data allow us to identify child labour, indicators of forced labour, and patterns of exploitation—including labour paid below the minimum wage—using bivariate analysis, factor analysis, and spatial analysis. The dataset also helps to advance our understanding of how to measure labour exploitation and modern slavery by showing the value of “found data” and participatory and citizen science approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Trafficking and Human Rights)
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14 pages, 2563 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Product Placement in Animation on Generation Z Consumers
by Zitong Cheng and Yukari Nagai
Societies 2024, 14(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050061 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 508
Abstract
In recent years, the animation market in China has flourished, and many brands use animation as a popular promotional platform to showcase their products and brands through product placement, benefitting from this marketing approach. Therefore, there is an urgent need to investigate the [...] Read more.
In recent years, the animation market in China has flourished, and many brands use animation as a popular promotional platform to showcase their products and brands through product placement, benefitting from this marketing approach. Therefore, there is an urgent need to investigate the impact of product placement on Generation Z consumers—the primary audience for animation. In this study, we used popular Chinese animation to investigate Generation Z consumers’ cognition, attitude, and purchase intention regarding product placement. The results show a significant correlation between brand cognition, attitude, and purchase intention. Low-profile brands achieve better product placement effects in animation than high-profile brands. This study also established a mathematical model of participants’ post-cognition, post-attitude, and post-purchase intention regarding product placement in animation through factor analysis. This mathematical model intuitively shows that the effect of product placement in animation is primarily determined by the audience’s post-attitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Issues in Social Cognition and Consumer Preferences)
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14 pages, 248 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Inclusion of Refugee Students in Greek Schools: Pre-Service Teachers’ Views about Distance Learning
by Eleni Samsari, Nektaria Palaiologou and Georgios Nikolaou
Societies 2024, 14(5), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050060 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Over the last two years, the prolonged massive school closure due to COVID-19 has provoked significant constraints for refugee children. The present study aimed to investigate the perceptions of Greek pre-service teachers on refugee education during the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire was addressed [...] Read more.
Over the last two years, the prolonged massive school closure due to COVID-19 has provoked significant constraints for refugee children. The present study aimed to investigate the perceptions of Greek pre-service teachers on refugee education during the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire was addressed to 32 native university students (n = 32) who attended Education Departments in Western Macedonia in Greece. The results showed that the prevalence of distance education affected pre-service teachers’ perceptions. The access to devices with internet capability as well as the cultural barriers was considered to be crucial factors for the school attendance of refugee children. Participants’ perceptions of the level of teacher preparation in a distance learning environment were related to their level of self-efficacy for supporting refugee students. The findings suggest that in the aftermath of COVID-19 pandemic, the international community should make efforts to ensure the school attendance of all refugee students. Full article
17 pages, 1929 KiB  
Article
Verification Agencies on TikTok: The Case of MediaWise and Politifact
by Antonio Díaz-Lucena and Pablo Hidalgo-Cobo
Societies 2024, 14(5), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050059 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 588
Abstract
This research aims to analyse the work of two international information verification agencies on TikTok—MediaWise and Politifact—according to their evolution, approach, content, and format. To this end, a quantitative approach has been used with an inductive content analysis with nominal variables, [...] Read more.
This research aims to analyse the work of two international information verification agencies on TikTok—MediaWise and Politifact—according to their evolution, approach, content, and format. To this end, a quantitative approach has been used with an inductive content analysis with nominal variables, which offers specific nuances adapted to the unit of analysis. In a first phase, an empirical analysis was carried out, focusing on the measurement and quantification of the number of publications and interactions of the audience, from the time Fthey started operating on this platform until 31 December 2023. The total number of posts extracted was N > 704, which generated N > 4,166,387 user responses. In a second phase, an in-depth content analysis of all the posts published by these two agencies in four months (October and November 2021 and October and November 2023) was carried out, allowing us to analyse their evolution, but also to compare the two agencies in terms of approach, themes, and style. The most important findings show that both agencies adapt the style and narratives to this social network through the use of dynamic resources, a casual and informal tone, and elements of humour. In addition, both contribute to public reason through different strategies: MediaWise focuses on media literacy and Politifact on verification, using resources, effects and content in line with that purpose. Finally, we observe a downward evolution in terms of reach and impact on the audience, as well as a lower dynamism in 2023 than in 2021, which opens the door to future lines of explanatory research that delve deeper into possible causes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Democracy, Social Networks and Mediatization)
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23 pages, 461 KiB  
Article
Socially Innovative Initiatives in Deprived Rural Areas of Germany, Ireland and Portugal: Exploring Empowerment and Impact on Community Development
by Gabriela Christmann, Ariane Sept and Ralph Richter
Societies 2024, 14(5), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050058 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 720
Abstract
In many (remote) rural areas of Europe and the world, rural communities are facing various challenges. One response is residents leaving their communities. However, there are also many empirical examples of residents staying, launching project initiatives, developing new solutions and experimenting with new [...] Read more.
In many (remote) rural areas of Europe and the world, rural communities are facing various challenges. One response is residents leaving their communities. However, there are also many empirical examples of residents staying, launching project initiatives, developing new solutions and experimenting with new practices. This is what we call social innovation. What experiences do actors have in these processes? Can we speak of empowerment? To what extent can such initiatives have an impact on community development? In this article, we explore these questions, for which there is little related empirical research. By applying a multi-sited individualising comparison to case studies in three European countries (Germany, Ireland and Portugal), we obtain empirical evidence of the following dimensions of empowerment that Avelino et al. outline conceptually: the achievement of autonomy, competence and relatedness and also impact, meaning and resilience. Often, however, it is not the individual actors for whom such effects can be reported. Rather, the social initiative as such or the local administration has acquired new skills and autonomy. Regarding community development, ‘pathways to impact’, such as infrastructure improvements and/or the creation of new employment opportunities and/or the influx of new residents, could be identified. However, this development often depended on both opportunity and the cooperation and goodwill of many stakeholders. Full article
19 pages, 1822 KiB  
Article
Ethnic Variation in the Link between Women’s Relative Employment Positions and Entry into Parenthood in Belgium
by Layla Van den Berg and Karel Neels
Societies 2024, 14(5), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050057 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 426
Abstract
This study investigates the association between women’s relative employment positions and the transition to parenthood, focusing on women of Maghrebi, Turkish, and Southern European origin in Belgium. Whereas gender specialization is associated with higher chances of entering parenthood in the older literature, the [...] Read more.
This study investigates the association between women’s relative employment positions and the transition to parenthood, focusing on women of Maghrebi, Turkish, and Southern European origin in Belgium. Whereas gender specialization is associated with higher chances of entering parenthood in the older literature, the economic preconditions to parenthood have shifted and more recent studies indicate that couples where both partners work are more likely to start a family. However, whereas this shift has been extensively studied among majority populations, we lack insight into whether similar patterns can also be found among population subgroups with a migration background. This paper uses Belgian census data from 2011–2015 to explore how women’s relative employment positions are linked to the likelihood of entering parenthood and whether this association varies by women’s age, generation, and origin of the male partner. The results indicate that couples in which both partners are employed are more likely to enter parenthood regardless of migration background. However, the results for women of Maghrebi or Turkish background suggest that single-earner couples and couples where both partners are unemployed delay entry into parenthood to a similar extent. Full article
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16 pages, 1653 KiB  
Article
The Role of News Media in Reducing Traffic Accidents
by Antonio Javier Lucas, Francisco Alonso, Mireia Faus and Arash Javadinejad
Societies 2024, 14(5), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc14050056 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Traffic accidents represent a major problem worldwide. Public and private entities launch communication campaigns in order to educate the population about this problem. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution of the presence of road safety in the Spanish media [...] Read more.
Traffic accidents represent a major problem worldwide. Public and private entities launch communication campaigns in order to educate the population about this problem. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution of the presence of road safety in the Spanish media and its influence on the reduction of road accidents. A content analysis of six major Spanish newspapers between 2000 and 2008 (an important period in the reduction of the accident rate in Spain) was carried out in which the presence of news related to traffic accidents and the intensity of them were quantified using a set of criteria designed for this study. Furthermore, the correlation between the accident rates and the presence and intensity of news in the same time frame was measured. There has been an evident increase in the news related to traffic accidents during the analyzed period, both in terms of the presence of such news in general and in terms of intensity. The correlation analysis also shows a strong relationship between the increase in news presence and intensity and a sharp fall in accident rates in Spain. Although correlation analysis is not enough to establish a causal relationship between the variables studied here, the findings suggest that informative campaigns had a positive effect on encouraging pro-social behavior, were successful in disseminating related information, and, therefore, contributed significantly to lowering accident rates, although that was not the only reason. Full article
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