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Water, Volume 14, Issue 20 (October-2 2022) – 159 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Microplastics have recently emerged as a new major and ubiquitous environmental pollutant with still undefined, yet potentially high risks for human health and ecosystems. This study reports on the use of a new particle counter for the quantitative detection of MPs in water samples based on the analysis of fluorescence emissions. Measurements were carried out on particles obtained from wastewater samples collected at the inlet and outlet of specific units of a municipal wastewater treatment plant after sieving, filtering, and digestion with hydrogen peroxide to remove degradable organic matter. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis performed on the same wastewater samples confirmed the presence of MPs. Therefore, the novel particle counter described in this paper could represent a promising method to quantitatively measure MP concentrations in water samples. View this paper
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19 pages, 40970 KiB  
Article
Removal of Synthetic Dye from Aqueous Solution Using MnFe2O4-GO Catalyzed Heterogeneous Electro-Fenton Process
by Gayathri Anil, Jaimy Scaria and Puthiya Veetil Nidheesh
Water 2022, 14(20), 3350; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203350 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3910
Abstract
In the present study, heterogeneous electro-Fenton (HEF) process using MnFe2O4-GO catalyst is employed for the successful removal of dye from aqueous solution. Pt coated over titanium and graphite felt were used as the electrodes. The study focuses on the [...] Read more.
In the present study, heterogeneous electro-Fenton (HEF) process using MnFe2O4-GO catalyst is employed for the successful removal of dye from aqueous solution. Pt coated over titanium and graphite felt were used as the electrodes. The study focuses on the efficiency of the electrodes and catalyst used for the successful removal of Rhodamine B (RhB) from aqueous solution and the application of the same in real textile wastewater. The effect of various operational parameters like pH, applied voltage, catalyst concentration, initial pollutant concentration and effect of ions were investigated. The optimized condition of the electrolytic system was found as pH 3, applied voltage of 3 V, and catalyst concentration of 20 mg L−1 for the removal of 10 ppm RhB. At the optimized condition, 97.51% ± 0.0002 RhB removal was obtained after an electrolysis time of 60 min. The role of individual systems of Fe, Mn, GO and MnFe2O4 without support were compared with that of catalyst composite. On examining the practical viability in real textile effluent, a significant colour reduction was observed (reduced by 61.24% ± 0.0261 in 60 min). Along with this, the biodegradability enhancement (BOD/COD ratio from 0.07 to 0.21) after treatment was also observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Emerging Contaminant Removal)
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21 pages, 5311 KiB  
Article
Predicting Climate Change Impacts on Water Balance Components of a Mountainous Watershed in the Northeastern USA
by Bidisha Faruque Abesh, Lilai Jin and Jason A. Hubbart
Water 2022, 14(20), 3349; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203349 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
Forcing watershed models with downscaled climate data to quantify future water regime changes can improve confidence in watershed planning. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated (R2 = 0.77, NSE = 0.76, and PBIAS = 7.1) and validated (R2 = [...] Read more.
Forcing watershed models with downscaled climate data to quantify future water regime changes can improve confidence in watershed planning. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated (R2 = 0.77, NSE = 0.76, and PBIAS = 7.1) and validated (R2 = 0.8, NSE = 0.78, and PBIAS = 8.8) using observed monthly streamflow in a representative mountainous watershed in the northeastern United States. Four downscaled global climate models (GCMs) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5, RCP 8.5) were forced. Future periods were separated into three 20-year intervals: 2030s (2031–2050), 2050s (2051–2070), and 2070s (2071–2099), and compared to baseline conditions (1980–1999). Ensemble means of the four GCMs showed an increasing trend for precipitation with the highest average increase of 6.78% in 2070s under RCP 8.5. Evapotranspiration (ET) had increasing trends over the 21st century with the 2030s showing greater increases under both RCPs. Both streamflow (4.58–10.43%) and water yield (1.2–7.58%) showed increasing trends in the 2050s and 2070s under both RCPs. Seasonal increases in precipitation were predicted for most months of spring and summer. ET was predicted to increase from Spring to early Fall. Study results demonstrate the potential sensitivity of mountainous watersheds to future climate changes and the need for ongoing predictive modeling studies to advance forward looking mitigation decisions. Full article
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25 pages, 4377 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Model Multi-Scale Approach to Estimate the Impact of the 2007 Large-Scale Forest Fires in Peloponnese, Greece
by Stamatis C. Batelis and Ioannis Nalbantis
Water 2022, 14(20), 3348; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203348 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
The hydrological impact of large-scale forest fires in a large basin is investigated on both a daily and an hourly basis. A basin of 877 km2 was chosen, with 37% of its area having been burnt in the summer of 2007. Five [...] Read more.
The hydrological impact of large-scale forest fires in a large basin is investigated on both a daily and an hourly basis. A basin of 877 km2 was chosen, with 37% of its area having been burnt in the summer of 2007. Five models are employed, namely SWAT (semi-distributed), GR4J, GR5J, and GR6J (lumped) for the daily time step, and HEC-HMS (semi-distributed) for the hourly time step. As SWAT and HEC-HMS implement the SCS-CN method, the change in the Curve Number (CN) from pre-fire to post-fire conditions is estimated along with the post-fire trend of CN for both time steps. Regarding the daily time step, a 20% post-fire increase in CN proved necessary for the accurate streamflow prediction, whereas ignoring this led to an underestimation of 22% on average. On an hourly time basis, CN was 95 for burnt areas after the fire, with a mildly decreasing trend after the third year and still above 90 until the fifth year. When neglecting this, peak flow is seriously underestimated (35–70%). The post-fire trend lines of CN for the two-time steps showed statistically equal slopes. Finally, GR models accurately predicted runoff while constraining one model parameter, which proved useful for the realistic prediction of other variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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6 pages, 252 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Urban Groundwater and Sustainable Water Resources Management and Planning: Insights for Improved Designs with Nature, Hazards, and Society
by Helder I. Chaminé, Maria José Afonso and Maurizio Barbieri
Water 2022, 14(20), 3347; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203347 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
“It appears therefore that, in early times, Man’s interference with the natural flow of water consisted mainly in taking water from rivers and springs, and that this water would find its way back, in a polluted condition, into the rivers, having suffered some [...] Read more.
“It appears therefore that, in early times, Man’s interference with the natural flow of water consisted mainly in taking water from rivers and springs, and that this water would find its way back, in a polluted condition, into the rivers, having suffered some reduction in quantity by evaporation [...] Full article
23 pages, 7128 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Flooding Maps Forecasting System Using Series Machine Learning and Numerical Weather Prediction System
by Ming-Jui Chang, I-Hang Huang, Chih-Tsung Hsu, Shiang-Jen Wu, Jihn-Sung Lai and Gwo-Fong Lin
Water 2022, 14(20), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203346 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
Accurate real-time forecasts of inundation depth and area during typhoon flooding is crucial to disaster emergency response. The development of an inundation forecasting model has been recognized as essential to manage disaster risk. In the past, most researchers used multiple single-point forecasts to [...] Read more.
Accurate real-time forecasts of inundation depth and area during typhoon flooding is crucial to disaster emergency response. The development of an inundation forecasting model has been recognized as essential to manage disaster risk. In the past, most researchers used multiple single-point forecasts to obtain surface flooding depth forecasts with spatial interpolation. In this study, a forecasting model (QPF-RIF) integrating a hydrodynamic model (SOBEK), support vector machine–multi-step forecast (SVM-MSF), and a self-organizing map (SOM) were proposed. The task of this model was divided into four parts: hydrodynamic simulation, point forecasting, inundation database clustering, and spatial expansion. First, the SOBEK model was used in simulating inundation hydrodynamics to construct the flooding maps database. Second, the SVM-MSF yields water level (inundation volume) forecasted with a 1 to 72 h lead time. Third, the SOM clustered the previous flooding maps database into several groups representing different flooding characteristics. Finally, a spatial expansion module produced inundation maps based on forecasting information from forecasting flood volume and flood causative factors. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed forecasting model, we presented an application to the Yilan River basin in Taiwan. Our forecasting results indicated that the proposed model yields accurate flood inundation maps (less than 1 cm error) for a 1 h lead time. For long-term forecasting (46 h to 72 h ahead), the model controlled the error of the forecast results within 7 cm. In the testing events, the model forecasted an average of 83% of the flooding area in the long term. This flood inundation forecasting model is expected to be useful in providing early flood warning information for disaster emergency response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Natural Hazards and Disaster Risks Reduction)
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19 pages, 415 KiB  
Review
Evaluation of Ecotoxicity of Wastewater from the Full-Scale Treatment Plants
by Ewa Liwarska-Bizukojc
Water 2022, 14(20), 3345; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203345 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2604
Abstract
In this work, the influence of wastewater from full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on aquatic and soil biota was reviewed and presented. Moreover, the methods and model organisms used in testing the ecotoxicity of wastewater were shown. It was found that wastewater usually [...] Read more.
In this work, the influence of wastewater from full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on aquatic and soil biota was reviewed and presented. Moreover, the methods and model organisms used in testing the ecotoxicity of wastewater were shown. It was found that wastewater usually affected the biochemical activity and growth of organisms such as bacteria, algae and protozoa. They contributed to the immobilization and death of inter alia crustaceans and fishes. The values of degree of inhibition or lethality widely varied dependent on the type of wastewater, the sampling point (influent or effluent) and the model organisms applied in the biotests. Thus, a battery of ecotoxicity tests using model organisms of different sensitivities should be employed. So far, bacteria (e.g., Vibrio fischeri), green microalgae (e.g., Raphidocelis subcapitata) and crustaceans (Daphnia magna) have been frequently used organisms in the biological assessment of wastewater. They were applied in almost half (bacteria) or more than half (microalgae, crustaceans) of papers analyzed in this study. In almost all studies, the reduction of wastewater toxicity after treatment processes was found. It was proven that the conventional activated sludge systems were efficient in the removal of wastewater toxicity from both municipal and industrial wastewater, while the tertiary stage of treatment, in particular chlorination or ozonation, contributed to the increase in wastewater toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecotoxicity of Wastewater in Urban and Industrial Areas)
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19 pages, 2734 KiB  
Article
Poyang Lake Wetland Classification Using Time-Series ENVISAT ASAR Data and Beijing-1 Imagery
by Fang Ding, Lin Wang, Iryna Dronova and Kun Cao
Water 2022, 14(20), 3344; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203344 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Beijing-1 and ENVISAT ASAR images were used to classify wetland aquatic macrophytes in terms of their plant functional types (PFTs) over the Poyang Lake region, China. Speckle noise filtering, systematic sensor calibration within the same polarization or between different polarizations, and accurate geo-registration [...] Read more.
Beijing-1 and ENVISAT ASAR images were used to classify wetland aquatic macrophytes in terms of their plant functional types (PFTs) over the Poyang Lake region, China. Speckle noise filtering, systematic sensor calibration within the same polarization or between different polarizations, and accurate geo-registration were applied to the time-series SAR data. As a result, time-series backscattering data, which is described as permittivity curves in this paper, were obtained. In addition, time-series indices, described as phenological curves, were derived from Beijing-1 time-series images in the classification experiment. Based on these two curves, a rule-based classification strategy was developed to extract wetland information from the combined SAR and optical data. In the rule-based wetland classification method, DEM data, submersion time index, temporal Beijing-1 images, time-series normalized difference vegetation index (TSNDVI) images, principal component analysis (PCA), and temporal ratio of ASAR time-series images were used. In addition, a decision tree-based method was used to map the wetlands. Conclusions include the following: (1) after the preprocessing of ASAR data, it was possible to satisfactorily separate different aquatic plant functional types; (2) hydrophytes from different PFTs exhibited distinct phenological, structural, moisture, and roughness characteristics due to the impact of the annual inundation of Poyang Lake wetland; and (3) more accurate results were obtained with the rule-based method than the decision tree (DT) method. Producer’s and user’s accuracy calculated from test samples in the classification results indicate that the DT method can potentially be used for mapping aquatic PFTs, with overall producer’s accuracy exceeding 80% and higher user’s accuracy for aquatic bed wetland PFTs. A comparison of producer’s and user’s accuracy from the rule-based classification increased from 3 to 12% and 7 to 26%, respectively, for different aquatic PFTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Remote Sensing Technology to Water-Related Ecosystems)
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25 pages, 1265 KiB  
Review
Systems Thinking for Planning Sustainable Desert Agriculture Systems with Saline Groundwater Irrigation: A Review
by Sangmin Shin, Danyal Aziz, Mohamed E. A. El-sayed, Mohamed Hazman, Lal Almas, Mike McFarland, Ali Shams El Din and Steven J. Burian
Water 2022, 14(20), 3343; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203343 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5860
Abstract
Agricultural land expansion is a solution to address global food security challenges in the context of climate change. However, the sustainability of expansion in arid countries is difficult because of scarce surface water resources, groundwater salinity, and the health of salt-affected soil. Developing [...] Read more.
Agricultural land expansion is a solution to address global food security challenges in the context of climate change. However, the sustainability of expansion in arid countries is difficult because of scarce surface water resources, groundwater salinity, and the health of salt-affected soil. Developing expansion and sustainability plans for agriculture requires systems thinking, considering the complex feedback interactions between saline groundwater, salt-affected soil, plant growth, freshwater mixing with saline groundwater, irrigation systems, and the application of soil amendments to alleviate the salinity impacts. This study presents an extensive literature review on the effects of salinity on soil and plant health, the constraints and opportunities for sustainable agriculture in Egypt, and a systems thinking approach to the feedback interactions between saline water, salt-affected soil, and the application of soil amendments to achieve required crop yields. Insights and strategies are discussed, including a system-dynamics-based decision model, irrigation systems with diversified and decentralized water sources, urban water demand management, energy availability, smart irrigation systems, and active participation of stakeholders to achieve sustainable agriculture under climate and socioeconomic changes. The insights are expected to encourage stakeholders and academic communities in the water, agriculture, and related food security sectors to develop a quantitative and systematic decision-making framework for sustainable agriculture systems in arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture)
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17 pages, 8740 KiB  
Article
A Localized Assessment of Groundwater Quality Status Using GIS-Based Water Quality Index in Industrial Zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan
by Ahsan Saif Ullah, Haroon Rashid, Shahbaz Nasir Khan, Muhammad Umar Akbar, Arfan Arshad, Md. Masudur Rahman and Shumaila Mustafa
Water 2022, 14(20), 3342; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203342 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3964
Abstract
Groundwater risks driven by population growth and industrialization in metropolitan cities have become a worldwide problem. Faisalabad is Pakistan’s third largest city with a population of more than 2 million and is renowned for its diverse industries. Many factories in the area dump [...] Read more.
Groundwater risks driven by population growth and industrialization in metropolitan cities have become a worldwide problem. Faisalabad is Pakistan’s third largest city with a population of more than 2 million and is renowned for its diverse industries. Many factories in the area dump their untreated effluent into nearby drainage systems, having a direct negative effect on the marine ecosystem. This research focuses on the Madhuana drain and Khurrianwala industrial region of Faisalabad to investigate groundwater quality status. Sixty water samples from groundwater bore wells and open wells were obtained, and all these samples were subjected to lab experiments for physical and chemical analysis. Sixteen physiochemical parameters, namely, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, carbonate, Ca2+, Fe, HCO3, Cl, Mg2+, SO24−, As, Cr, Cu, and Mn, were examined. To provide a comprehensive picture of water quality from a human perspective, we calculated the water quality index (WQI) by integrating 16 physiochemical criteria. The results revealed that a larger proportion had poor drinking quality due to direct releases of toxins by industries. It was observed that 87% of the water samples showed an unsuitable status of groundwater for drinking purposes in terms of pH, EC, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Cr. The results of this study could be used to build and construct wastewater treatment plant facilities for the Madhuana drain, reducing pollution loads on the drain and river, as well as contaminant seepage rates into groundwater. The research’s resulting maps will help policymakers to manage groundwater supplies more efficiently for sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants (ECs) in Water)
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16 pages, 3253 KiB  
Article
Rapid Response of Runoff Carrying Nitrogen Loss to Extreme Rainfall in Gentle Slope Farmland in the Karst Area of SW China
by Yong Wang, Quanhou Dai, Pengwei Ding, Kuaifen Li, Xingsong Yi, Jie He, Xudong Peng, Youjin Yan, Min Zhao and Yingchong Yang
Water 2022, 14(20), 3341; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203341 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
Nitrogen loss is the main reason for land quality degradation and productivity decline and an important factor in groundwater pollution. Extreme rainfall has occurred frequently in Karst areas of southwest China in recent years. It is of great significance to study the response [...] Read more.
Nitrogen loss is the main reason for land quality degradation and productivity decline and an important factor in groundwater pollution. Extreme rainfall has occurred frequently in Karst areas of southwest China in recent years. It is of great significance to study the response of soil nitrogen loss to extreme rainfall in Karst areas to prevent and treat land quality degradation and non-point source pollution. In this study, field monitoring and indoor artificial rainfall simulation were used to study the loss characteristics of total soil nitrogen (TN), ammonium (NH4+-N) nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) in Karst bare slope farmland (slope angles of 5° and 10°) under extreme rainfall conditions. The results showed that: (1) Extreme rainfall (90 mm/h) increased the surface runoff, middle soil runoff, and underground runoff by 1.68 times, 1.16 times, and 1.43 times, respectively, compared with moderate rainfall (60 mm/h), so that nitrogen loss increased with runoff. (2) The loss of nitrate-nitrogen in surface, soil, and underground under extreme rainfall conditions was 223.99, 147.93, and 174.02% higher than that under moderate rainfall conditions, respectively; the nitrate losses were 203.78, 160.18, and 195.39% higher, respectively. Total nitrogen losses were 187.33, 115.45, and 138.68% higher, respectively. (3) The influencing factors of total soil nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen loss in Karst slope farmland were slope > rainfall duration > rainfall intensity, while the influencing factors of ammonium nitrogen loss were rainfall duration > slope > rainfall intensity. Therefore, in controlling nitrogen loss in Karst slope farmland, changing slope degree and increasing farmland coverage may be useful measures to slow the nitrogen loss caused by extreme rainfall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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17 pages, 3520 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Spatial Interpolation Methods on Daily Streamflow Predictions with SWAT
by Micah Lourdes Felix and Kwansue Jung
Water 2022, 14(20), 3340; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203340 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
Precipitation is a significant input variable required in hydrological models such as the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The utilization of inaccurate precipitation data can result in the poor representation of the true hydrologic conditions of a catchment. SWAT utilizes the conventional [...] Read more.
Precipitation is a significant input variable required in hydrological models such as the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The utilization of inaccurate precipitation data can result in the poor representation of the true hydrologic conditions of a catchment. SWAT utilizes the conventional nearest neighbor method in assigning weather parameters for each subbasin; a method inaccurate in representing spatial variations in precipitation over a large area, with sparse network of gauging stations. Therefore, this study aims to improve the spatial variation in precipitation data to improve daily streamflow simulation with SWAT, even pre-model calibration. The daily streamflow based on four interpolation methods, nearest neighbor (default), inverse-distance-weight, radial-basis function, and ordinary kriging, were evaluated to determine which interpolation method is best represents the precipitation at Yongdam watershed. Based on the results of this study, the application of spatial interpolation methods generally improved the performance of SWAT to simulate daily streamflow even pre-model calibration. In addition, no universal method can accurately represent the long-term spatial variation of precipitation at the Yongdam watershed. Instead, it was observed that the optimal selection of interpolation method at the Yongdam watershed is dependent on the long-term climatological conditions of the watershed. It was also observed that each interpolation method was optimal based on certain meteorological conditions at Yongdam watershed: nearest neighbor for cases when the occurrence probability of extreme precipitation is high during wet to moderately wet conditions; radial-basis function for cases when the number of dry days were high, during wet, severely dry, and extremely dry conditions; and ordinary kriging or inverse-weight-distance method for dry to moderately dry conditions. The methodology applied in this study improved the daily streamflow simulations at Yongdam watershed, even pre-model calibration of SWAT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SWAT Modeling - New Approaches and Perspective)
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17 pages, 5301 KiB  
Article
Study on the Migration Law of Dissolved Organic Matter in Mine Water Treatment Station
by Xiyu Zhang, Shuning Dong, Pengkang Jin, Jidong Liang, Jian Yang and Yongan Huang
Water 2022, 14(20), 3339; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203339 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
With the improvement of coal-mining mechanizations and the intensification of human activities, the organic matter pollution of mine water is becoming severe. In this study, the chemical compositions of the influents and effluents from 15 mine water treatment stations in the mining area [...] Read more.
With the improvement of coal-mining mechanizations and the intensification of human activities, the organic matter pollution of mine water is becoming severe. In this study, the chemical compositions of the influents and effluents from 15 mine water treatment stations in the mining area bordering Mongolia and Shaanxi were measured. The occurrence of DOM (dissolved organic matter) in the effluent from the mine water treatment stations in this area was determined by the EEM (excitation emission matrix), combined with the PARAFAC (parallel factor analysis) method. The DOM removal from the mine water treatment station in the Caojiatan coal mine is specifically discussed here, although trends are similar across the 15 mines. The treatment capacity of this treatment process for different types of pollutants is also evaluated, and a mine water treatment process suitable for the current coal-mining mode is suggested. The results show that the DOM of the mine water treatment stations in this area mainly has four components: a fulvic-acid-like substance (C1/C3), a protein tryptophan-like substance (C2), and a protein tyrosine-like substance (C4). The coagulation, filtration, and disinfection process has a removal efficiency of more than 90% for the protein-like tryptophan components, COD (chemical oxygen demand), and NO2, and an efficiency of ~50% for TOC (total organic carbon), <30% for Cu2+ and F, and almost no removal effect for protein-like tyrosine components, EC (electrical conductivity), TDS (total dissolved solids), and NH4+. These conclusions show that aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as alkanes and cycloalkanes, in mine water are removed by the treatment process, whereas macromolecular aromatic hydrocarbons and other groups are not removed by the treatment process. Based on this, an ozone-demulsification process for the special removal of protein tyrosine-like pollutants in mine water is proposed. This conclusion can provide theoretical support for research on the source and fate of the carbon trajectory in the water-cycle process and provides technical guidance for the removal of DOM from mine water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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17 pages, 1005 KiB  
Review
Performance Management of Natural Resources: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework for China
by Zhengyu Zhang, Gui Jin, Yihang Hu, Nianci He and Jinye Niu
Water 2022, 14(20), 3338; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203338 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2734
Abstract
In recent decades, the issue of “Performance management of natural resources” has received increasing attention. To explore the optimization of performance management of natural resources is of great significance to the sustainable development of a country’s society and economy. Based on the relevant [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the issue of “Performance management of natural resources” has received increasing attention. To explore the optimization of performance management of natural resources is of great significance to the sustainable development of a country’s society and economy. Based on the relevant literature of “Performance management of natural resources” and “performance management and evaluation of nature resources” in Web of Science from 1990 to 2021, this study reviews the research progress of performance management of natural resources (including water resources) with the help of the CiteSpace V. Through literature review and inductive analysis, the authors found that the pursuit of sustainable utilization and management of natural resources has become the frontier direction of research. However, performance management of natural resources still lacks a general conceptual interpretation and analysis framework, and its evaluation system and methods still need to be further improved. The existing research on influencing factors of natural resources management performance still lacks depth, and the application of quantitative models needs to be strengthened in the future. The combination of research and quantitative models also needs to be further strengthened. Based on the existing literature and the practical experience of countries all over the world, this study constructs the research framework of performance management of natural resources for China. On the basis of multiple evaluation objectives, subjects and means, the authors describes the process and mechanism of performance management of natural resources, and gives some feasible evaluation methods for the performance management of natural resources, in order to provide decision support for the sustainable utilization of natural resources for China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Utilization and Management of Natural Resources)
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18 pages, 1813 KiB  
Article
Mobility of Potentially Toxic Elements (Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Sb) in Agricultural Carbonated Soils Contaminated by Mine Tailings (Northern Tunisia): A New Kinetic Leaching Approach with Organic Acids
by Yosra Achour, Radhia Souissi, Haifa Tlil, Fouad Souissi and Mikael Motelica-Heino
Water 2022, 14(20), 3337; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203337 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2160
Abstract
The present study was carried out to show the potential of root exudates to mobilize potentially toxic elements (PTE) present in rhizospheric carbonated soils. Five different contaminated rhizospheric soils were collected from five former mining districts of northern Tunisia (Jebel Hallouf (H3), Sidi-Bouaouane [...] Read more.
The present study was carried out to show the potential of root exudates to mobilize potentially toxic elements (PTE) present in rhizospheric carbonated soils. Five different contaminated rhizospheric soils were collected from five former mining districts of northern Tunisia (Jebel Hallouf (H3), Sidi-Bouaouane (B1), Jebel Ghozlane (G7), Hammam Zriba (Z2) and Jalta (J2)). The abundant minerals in these soils are quartz, calcite and clays. These soils contain significant PTE amounts compared to the local geochemical background (LGB). The important concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Sb are, respectively, in the order of 17,350 mg·kg−1 in B1, 37,000 mg·kg−1 in G7, 205 mg·kg−1 in G7, 683 mg·kg−1 in B1 and 145 mg·kg−1 in B1. Kinetic leaching tests were conducted with a mixture of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWAOs) for increasing times up to 16 h (initial pH = 2.8) to study the mobility of PTE in the rhizospheric soils. The results showed an increase in the pH of the solution (2.8) to values up to neutrality together with the increase in Ca and Mg concentrations in the leachate, resulting from the dissolution of carbonates (calcite and dolomite). Additionally, leaching tests showed important extractions of Cd and Zn (25% for Cd and 11% for Zn). Pb was also mobilized but to a lesser extent (5%). The extractability of metalloids (As and Sb) was, in contrast, relatively low, except for Jebel Hallouf and Sidi Bouaouane soils, with an extraction percentage of no more than 1% for Sb and 0.1% for As, respectively. The mobility of Zn, Pb and Cd was thought to be controlled by both the solubility of their host minerals (e.g., sphalerite, hemimorphite, cerussite and jordanite) and the high pH. In contrast, As and Sb mobility was dependent on secondary carrier phases such as iron oxyhydroxides. Full article
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21 pages, 3384 KiB  
Article
Comparison of High-Resolution Satellite Precipitation Products in Sub-Saharan Morocco
by Mariame Rachdane, El Mahdi El Khalki, Mohamed Elmehdi Saidi, Mohamed Nehmadou, Abdellatif Ahbari and Yves Tramblay
Water 2022, 14(20), 3336; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203336 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2758
Abstract
Precipitation is a crucial source of data in hydrological applications for water resources management. However, several regions suffer from limited data from a ground measurement network. Remotely sensed data may provide a viable alternative for these regions. This study aimed to evaluate six [...] Read more.
Precipitation is a crucial source of data in hydrological applications for water resources management. However, several regions suffer from limited data from a ground measurement network. Remotely sensed data may provide a viable alternative for these regions. This study aimed to evaluate six satellite products (GPM-F, CHIRPS, PERSIANN-CCS-CDR, GPM-L, GPM-E and PDIR-Now), with high spatio-temporal resolution, in the sub-Saharan regions of Morocco. Precipitation observation data from 33 rain-gauge stations were collected and used over the period from September 2000 to August 2020. The assessment was performed on three temporal scales (daily, monthly and annually) and two spatial scales (pixel and basin scales), using different quantitative and qualitative statistical indices. The results showed that the GPM-F product performed the best, according to the different evaluation metrics, up to events with 40 mm/day, while the GPM near real-time products (GPM-E and GPM-L) were better at detecting more intense rainfall events. At the daily time scale, GPM-E and GPM-L and, on monthly and annual scales, CHIRPS and PERSIANN-CCS-CDR, provided satisfactory precipitation estimates. Moreover, the altitude-based analysis revealed a bias increasing from low to high altitudes. The continental and mountainous basins showed the lowest performance compared to the other locations closer to the Atlantic Ocean. The evaluation based on the latitudes of rain gauges showed a decrease of bias towards the most arid zones. These results provide valuable information in a scarcely gauged and arid region, showing that GPM-F could be a valuable alternative to rain gauges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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14 pages, 2449 KiB  
Article
Active Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Aquatic Environment Using Mosses and Algae
by Zuzanna Respondek, Dominik Jerz, Paweł Świsłowski and Małgorzata Rajfur
Water 2022, 14(20), 3335; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203335 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2328
Abstract
In this paper, we present an analysis of the pollution of surface water and air by the heavy metals: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the area of the smelter in Ozimek (Opolskie Voivodeship, Poland). The marine algae Palmaria palmata [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present an analysis of the pollution of surface water and air by the heavy metals: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the area of the smelter in Ozimek (Opolskie Voivodeship, Poland). The marine algae Palmaria palmata was exposed in the Mała Panew River, and three species of forest mosses: Pleurozium schreberi, Sphagnum fallax and Dicranum polysetum were also applied. Active biomonitoring was also carried out using P. schreberi mosses to assess air pollution, since the area and the river are influenced by the smelter’s activities. Analytes were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Student’s T-test and Mann–Whitney U test were used to assess the significance of differences in elemental concentrations between algae and mosses. Forest mosses were found to have comparable sorption properties to algae under laboratory conditions. During exposure in the river, statistical significance was found between these matrices. The results of water biomonitoring studies using forest mosses offer the possibility of their inclusion in aquatic ecosystem monitoring as an alternative to existing classical surface water biomonitors. Perspectively, attention should be paid to comparing the sorption properties of aquatic species with forest mosses in order to optimize the water biomonitoring system using mosses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Monitoring of Pollution in Water Environment)
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20 pages, 5110 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Performance of SHETRAN Simulating a Geologically Complex Catchment
by Raúl F. Vázquez, Josué E. Brito, Henrietta Hampel and Stephen Birkinshaw
Water 2022, 14(20), 3334; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203334 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
Despite recent progress in terms of cheap computing power, the application of physically-based distributed (PBD) hydrological codes still remains limited, particularly, because some commercial-license codes are expensive, even under academic terms. Thus, there is a need for testing the performance of free-license PBD [...] Read more.
Despite recent progress in terms of cheap computing power, the application of physically-based distributed (PBD) hydrological codes still remains limited, particularly, because some commercial-license codes are expensive, even under academic terms. Thus, there is a need for testing the performance of free-license PBD codes simulating complex catchments, so that cheap and reliable mechanistic modelling alternatives might be identified. The hydrology of a geologically complex catchment (586 km2) was modelled using the free-license PBD code SHETRAN. The SHETRAN evaluation took place by comparing its predictions with (i) discharge and piezometric time series observed at different locations within the catchment, some of which were not taken into account during model calibration (i.e., multi-site test); and (ii) predictions from a comparable commercial-license code, MIKE SHE. In general, the discharge and piezometric predictions of both codes were comparable, which encourages the use of the free-license SHETRAN code for the distributed modelling of geologically complex systems. Full article
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19 pages, 12137 KiB  
Article
Research on the Sustainable Development of the Bistrita Ardeleana River through the Resizing of Weirs
by Aurelian Cosmin Moldovan, Valer Micle, Tomi Alexandrel Hrăniciuc and Nicolae Marcoie
Water 2022, 14(20), 3333; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203333 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
The layout of water resources and the complex and rational use of them have an important role in the socioeconomic activities of an urban settlement. Transversal hydrotechnical constructions such as weirs reduce the longitudinal connectivity of rivers and streams, affecting river biodiversity as [...] Read more.
The layout of water resources and the complex and rational use of them have an important role in the socioeconomic activities of an urban settlement. Transversal hydrotechnical constructions such as weirs reduce the longitudinal connectivity of rivers and streams, affecting river biodiversity as well as water quality. This paper presents an alternative method that will help restore connectivity. In order to choose the best solution, topographical measurements were taken with a total topographical station, and a professional drone was used to obtain an updated orthophoto plan. After processing the data obtained in the field, engineering software capable of simulating flow, sediment transport, and water quality in rivers was used. With the help of the software, two hypotheses were realized: hypothesis A, the case with only one weir in place, and hypothesis B, when we have the proposed case with the lowering of the height of the weir’s crest and the construction of three new control weirs downstream of it. In conclusion, the lowering of the current weir’s crest and the construction downstream of it of three new weirs of low height would have a favorable effect from an ecological and a morphological point of view, without very big consequences on the disturbance of the flow from a hydraulic point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
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18 pages, 2565 KiB  
Article
A Digital Light Microscopic Method for Diatom Surveys Using Embedded Acid-Cleaned Samples
by Andrea M. Burfeid-Castellanos, Michael Kloster, Sára Beszteri, Ute Postel, Marzena Spyra, Martin Zurowietz, Tim W. Nattkemper and Bánk Beszteri
Water 2022, 14(20), 3332; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203332 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Diatom identification and counting by light microscopy of permanently embedded acid-cleaned silicate shells (frustules) is a fundamental method in ecological and water quality investigations. Here we present a new variant of this method based on “digital virtual slides”, and compare it to the [...] Read more.
Diatom identification and counting by light microscopy of permanently embedded acid-cleaned silicate shells (frustules) is a fundamental method in ecological and water quality investigations. Here we present a new variant of this method based on “digital virtual slides”, and compare it to the traditional, non-digitized light microscopy workflow on freshwater samples. We analysed three replicate slides taken from six benthic samples using two methods: (1) working directly on a light microscope (the “traditional” counting method), and (2) preparing “virtual digital slides” by high-resolution slide scanning and subsequently identifying and labelling individual valves or frustules using a web browser-based image annotation platform (the digital method). Both methods led to comparable results in terms of species richness, diatom indices and diatom community composition. Although counting by digital microscopy was slightly more time consuming, our experience points out that the digital workflow can not only improve the transparency and reusability of diatom counts but it can also increase taxonomic precision. The introduced digital workflow can also be applied for taxonomic inter-expert calibration through the web, and for producing training image sets for deep-learning-based diatom identification, making it a promising and versatile alternative or extension to traditional light microscopic diatom analyses in the future. Full article
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22 pages, 5952 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Investigation of TiO2/g-C3N4 Performance for Photocatalytic Degradation of Bromophenol Blue and Eriochrome Black T: Experimental Design Optimization and Reactive Oxygen Species Contribution
by Fadimatou Hassan, Pierre Bonnet, Jean Marie Dangwang Dikdim, Nadege Gatcha Bandjoun, Christophe Caperaa, Sadou Dalhatou, Abdoulaye Kane and Hicham Zeghioud
Water 2022, 14(20), 3331; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203331 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2971
Abstract
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) based photocatalyst was synthesized and the photocatalytic performance was investigated for the removal of Eriochrome Black T (EBT) and Bromophenol Blue (BPB) under UV irradiation. The prepared materials were characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD, Raman, FTIR [...] Read more.
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) based photocatalyst was synthesized and the photocatalytic performance was investigated for the removal of Eriochrome Black T (EBT) and Bromophenol Blue (BPB) under UV irradiation. The prepared materials were characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD, Raman, FTIR and DRS. Higher degradation efficiency for the same initial concentrations of EBT and BPB in presence of TiO2/g-C3N4 have been achieved within 160 min of irradiation. The kinetic study showed that the photodegradation of BPB by TiO2/g-C3N4 follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with an R2 value of 0.98. The addition of persulfate (PS) in BPB solution improved the degradation yield from 8.81% to 80.14% within 20 min of UV light irradiation. A Box-Behnken model was developed from three factors and Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to identify the optimum conditions for the treatment of BPB solution by TiO2/g-C3N4. The experimental values of degradation of BPB agreed with predicted values obtained from central composite design (CCD) analysis with an R2 value of 0.9999. The scavenger study revealed that superoxide radical anion (O2•−) plays a key role (68.89% of contribution) followed by OH and h+ with 22.40% and 15.55% of contribution, respectively. This study has obviously exhibited the potential of TiO2/g-C3N4 composite as a promising catalyst for photocatalytic purposes. Full article
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11 pages, 3192 KiB  
Article
Decolorization and Biodegradability Enhancement of Synthetic Batik Wastewater Containing Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Orange 16 by Ozonation
by Ahsin Pramugani, Toshiyuki Shimizu, Shinpei Goto, Teti Armiati Argo and Satoshi Soda
Water 2022, 14(20), 3330; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203330 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
The batik industry generates large amounts of highly colored wastewater. Azo dyes in batik wastewater can cause environmental pollution. In this study, synthetic batik wastewater containing 32 mg/L Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and 32 mg/L Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) was treated by ozonation [...] Read more.
The batik industry generates large amounts of highly colored wastewater. Azo dyes in batik wastewater can cause environmental pollution. In this study, synthetic batik wastewater containing 32 mg/L Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and 32 mg/L Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) was treated by ozonation in a 2 L batch reactor. The wastewater color unit was reduced from 4240 to 70 after 10 min ozonation and to below 50 after 15 min ozonation (7.3 g O3/m3, 4 L/min). The first-order decay constant for 5 min ozonation was determined to be 1.11 min−1 for RB5 and 0.82 min−1 for RO16. Biodegradation tests using activated-sludge microorganisms showed the toxicity of RB5 and RO16 for microbial respiration and revealed the detoxification of the dyes by ozonation. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy analysis indicated the temporal accumulation of ozonolysis products of RO16 and RB5. The chemical oxygen demand concentration of the wastewater was reduced from 86 mg/L to 73 mg/L by biodegradation alone, 63 mg/L by ozonation alone, and 54 mg/L by ozonation followed by biodegradation. Existing wastewater treatment plants using conventional bioprocesses can be upgraded to achieve robust dye treatment by installing the ozonation process as a pretreatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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18 pages, 1795 KiB  
Article
Hydraulic Approach into Olden Agricultural Aqueducts at the Mexican Region of Zacatecas
by Carlos Bautista-Capetillo, Georgia Aralú González Pérez, Hiram Badillo Almaraz and Aldo López Valle
Water 2022, 14(20), 3329; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203329 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Civilizations have been able to bloom because of the way they have been historically associated with water resources, especially in seeking strategies to ensure a supply to diverse sectors that require them. Thus, challenges in satisfying water demand are shaped by the particular [...] Read more.
Civilizations have been able to bloom because of the way they have been historically associated with water resources, especially in seeking strategies to ensure a supply to diverse sectors that require them. Thus, challenges in satisfying water demand are shaped by the particular epoch and geographical area. In this sense, Roman engineering represents a new view of waterworks construction. Above all, it concerns building arched structures to convey water from supply sources to cities; even the hydraulic technology developed by Romans would transcend beyond the time this empire ruled the world. Consequently, this paper shows a brief outlook of some hydraulic systems in Asia, Europe and America settled thousands of years ago. Additionally, a historiographic approach is made for several aqueducts built within the limits that currently constitute the state of Zacatecas during colonial times and independent Mexico in order to evaluate their transcendence for mining, agriculture, and cattle. In addition to the allusion to historical context, the main goal has been to evaluate the hydraulic design of eight olden aqueducts based on current engineering approaches, with the purpose of typifying coincidences between constructive procedures inherited from Roman culture and those used by Spanish conquerors to erect similar civil works in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Scarcity: From Ancient to Modern Times and the Future)
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16 pages, 2579 KiB  
Article
Coupled Hydro-Climatic Signals in the Radial Growth of Oaks Benefitting from Groundwater Availability
by Balázs Garamszegi, László Nagy, Tamás Ács, András Morgós, Mátyás Árvai, Zsolt Pinke and Zoltán Kern
Water 2022, 14(20), 3328; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203328 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Lowland forests benefiting from groundwater availability are important ecosystems in Central Europe, both from ecological and economic perspectives. Besides a great reduction in their extent in the historical times and further shifts in the land use and water management regimes intensified during the [...] Read more.
Lowland forests benefiting from groundwater availability are important ecosystems in Central Europe, both from ecological and economic perspectives. Besides a great reduction in their extent in the historical times and further shifts in the land use and water management regimes intensified during the industrial era, continuing changes in the groundwater and overall hydro-climatic conditions can pose significant challenges to them. Although tree-ring analyses serve as widely used tools to assess the climatic impact on tree growth and vitality, few studies have attempted to investigate the effects of subsurface hydrology on interannual fluctuations in xylem production. In this study, we compared the tree-ring width series of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) from a forested area in southwestern Hungary with the time series of monthly groundwater depth and climatic variables over the period of 1920–2017 with a specific focus on 1961–2017. The radial growth of the studied trees showed the strongest relationship with late winter and early spring groundwater and drought conditions preceding the growing season, differing from the commonly reported climatic signals marked by early summer meteorological conditions of the vegetation season. The results suggest that the groundwater recharge during the dormant period preceding the vegetation season and the groundwater levels in early spring were among the key limiting factors on tree growth in the study area. In the growing years starting with a sufficiently high groundwater table, even scarce summer precipitation did not seem to limit radial growth drastically. However, unfavorable shifts in climatic conditions during the past few decades and the associated uncertainties in the future groundwater regime imply that additional active measures aimed at maintaining and restoring groundwater conditions may well be highly beneficial for sustaining groundwater-dependent forest ecosystems and their productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecohydrology)
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9 pages, 2541 KiB  
Article
Oxidation of Aqueous Naproxen Using Gas-Phase Pulsed Corona Discharge: Impact of Operation Parameters
by Romana Kopecká, Liina Onga and Sergei Preis
Water 2022, 14(20), 3327; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203327 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Naproxen is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug poorly metabolized in the human body, thus resulting in its presence in domestic wastewaters. It is resistant to conventional wastewater treatment, making new methods necessary. Pulsed corona discharge, an energy-efficient advanced oxidation process, was experimentally [...] Read more.
Naproxen is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug poorly metabolized in the human body, thus resulting in its presence in domestic wastewaters. It is resistant to conventional wastewater treatment, making new methods necessary. Pulsed corona discharge, an energy-efficient advanced oxidation process, was experimentally studied for the oxidation of naproxen in various operation conditions, showing high energy efficiencies in a wide span of pH levels, concentrations, and pulse repetition frequencies. Surfactants present in treated solutions appeared to enhance the degradation rate. The research results contribute to the knowledge of the method’s chemistry and technology, supporting its full-scale implementation. Full article
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18 pages, 2548 KiB  
Article
Spatio–Temporal Variability Characteristics of Coastal Soil Salinization and Its Driving Factors Detection
by Ying Song, Mingxiu Gao, Zhuoran Wang, Tengfei Gong and Weifeng Chen
Water 2022, 14(20), 3326; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203326 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1707
Abstract
The utilization efficiency of land resources in the coastal area of the Yellow River Delta has been deeply affected by salinization hazards. Key to improvement of the utilization efficiency of resources in this area is to grasp the spatio–temporal variability law of soil [...] Read more.
The utilization efficiency of land resources in the coastal area of the Yellow River Delta has been deeply affected by salinization hazards. Key to improvement of the utilization efficiency of resources in this area is to grasp the spatio–temporal variability law of soil salinity and identify the driving factors of salinization. Wudi County in the coastal area of the Yellow River Delta is taken as the study area. Based on the data obtained from field measurements and laboratory analysis, the characteristics of soil salinity in spring and summer were analyzed by classical statistical methods; the spatial differentiation characteristics of salinization were analyzed from two–dimensional and three–dimensional perspectives using the geographic information system (GIS) and groundwater modeling system (GMS); the time variation characteristics of salinization were quantitatively analyzed by introducing the salinization severity index (Si) and the dominant index of salinization degree change (Ci). The results show that: (1) In the study area, the soil salinity of the surface layer (0–15 cm) in summer is lower than that in spring, but the sub–surface layer (15–30 cm), the middle layer (30–45 cm) and the bottom layer (45–60 cm) are all larger than the corresponding layers in spring, and the correlation between the soil salinity of each layer in summer is generally lower than that in spring. (2) In two–dimensional space, the areas with a surface soil salinity greater than 0.4% in both seasons are mainly located in the northern part of the study area; in three–dimensional space, the soil is mainly moderately salinized in both seasons, and the complexity of the distribution of the salt profile is higher in summer than in spring; (3) Mashanzi Town was the area most seriously affected by salinization in both seasons (Si values were greater than three); In the process of seasonal alternation, the dominant change type of salinized soil is from mild aggravation to moderate, with Ci value of 38.43%, followed by severe alleviation to moderate, with Ci value of 35.49%; (4) The driving factors of soil salinization in spring are mainly the soil salinity of the subsurface and middle layer, and soil water content; and in summer, mainly the soil salinity of subsurface layer, vegetation coverage and vegetation cover type. The interaction between any two factors has greater influence on the spatial variation of salinization than the corresponding single factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring, Reclamation and Management of Salt-Affected Lands)
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16 pages, 1494 KiB  
Article
Removal of Heavy Metals from Acid Mine Drainage with Lab-Scale Constructed Wetlands Filled with Oyster Shells
by Thuong Thi Nguyen, Satoshi Soda and Kengo Horiuchi
Water 2022, 14(20), 3325; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203325 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
The present study investigated the applicability of constructed wetlands (CWs) filled with oyster shells (OSs) for removing heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD). Lab-scale CWs consisted of columns (ID 12.5 cm, H 50 cm) packed with OSs or limestone, which were left [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the applicability of constructed wetlands (CWs) filled with oyster shells (OSs) for removing heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD). Lab-scale CWs consisted of columns (ID 12.5 cm, H 50 cm) packed with OSs or limestone, which were left unplanted or planted with cattails. Synthetic and real AMD containing 7.3 mg/L of Zn, 38.0 mg/L of Fe, and other minerals (pH = 4.0) were fed to the CWs (1 L/column) under a hydraulic retention time of 7 days in a sequencing batch mode. The effluent pH values of the CWs reached 6.9–8.3. Results show that OSs with high CaCO3 contents had higher neutralizing capability for AMD than limestone had. During 7 months of operation, all CWs were highly effective for removing Zn (88.6–99.2%); Fe (98.7–99.7%); and Cd, Cu, Pb, As, and Mn (48.2–98.9%) from both real and synthetic AMD. The mass balance in the CWs indicated accumulation in OSs or limestone as a main pathway for removing heavy metals, representing 44.8–99.3% of all metals, followed by biomass (8.8–29.9%) in the planted CWs. Other processes examined for this study only played a minor role in removing heavy metals. The higher metal treatment performance of OS CWs demonstrated the value of this aquaculture byproduct as a CW substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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16 pages, 2958 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Four Plant-Based Bio-Coagulants Performances against Alum and Ferric Chloride in the Turbidity Improvement of Bentonite Synthetic Water
by Amina Hadadi, Ali Imessaoudene, Jean-Claude Bollinger, Aymen Amine Assadi, Abdeltif Amrane and Lotfi Mouni
Water 2022, 14(20), 3324; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203324 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6017
Abstract
Due to their cost-effectiveness, low toxicity, and naturally renewable properties, bio-coagulants for water treatment are gaining popularity. In this context, four bio-coagulants were tested for their ability in turbidity reduction in a synthetic bentonite suspension: Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) and Moringa oleifera (MO) [...] Read more.
Due to their cost-effectiveness, low toxicity, and naturally renewable properties, bio-coagulants for water treatment are gaining popularity. In this context, four bio-coagulants were tested for their ability in turbidity reduction in a synthetic bentonite suspension: Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) and Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds, two well-established vegetal materials in the domain of bio-coagulation, and Algerian Aloe vera (AV) and Pinus halepensis seeds (PHS), both of which have received very few or no study in turbidity reduction in water and wastewater. A comparative study was conducted with regard to two well-known inorganic coagulants, ferric chloride and Alum. Extraction salts, pH, coagulant dose, initial turbidity, and aging effects were examined. When compared to chemical coagulants, the four bio-coagulants worked very well, removing approximately 100% of the turbidity at natural pH of 7.5 using optimal doses of 1.5, 3, 3, 3.5, 1.5, and 1.5 mL/200 mL for AV, OFI, MO, PHS, Alum, and FeCl3, respectively, at a broad range of pH (2 to 8), and causing no pH alteration of the treated water. Polysaccharides and proteins involved in inter-particle bridging and charge neutralization may be the active coagulation-flocculation molecules. The four bio-coagulants produced less sludge amount than Alum and Ferric chloride. This research not only shows that MO and OFI are effective in eliminating turbidity, but it also highlights the great potential of Algerian AV and PHS seeds as promising bio-coagulants in the treatment of polluted water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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18 pages, 6210 KiB  
Article
Comparing Performance of ANN and SVM Methods for Regional Flood Frequency Analysis in South-East Australia
by Amir Zalnezhad, Ataur Rahman, Nastaran Nasiri, Mehdi Vafakhah, Bijan Samali and Farhad Ahamed
Water 2022, 14(20), 3323; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203323 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
Design flood estimations at ungauged catchments are a challenging task in hydrology. Regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) is widely used for this purpose. This paper develops artificial intelligence (AI)-based RFFA models (artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM)) using data from [...] Read more.
Design flood estimations at ungauged catchments are a challenging task in hydrology. Regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) is widely used for this purpose. This paper develops artificial intelligence (AI)-based RFFA models (artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM)) using data from 181 gauged catchments in South-East Australia. Based on an independent testing, it is found that the ANN method outperforms the SVM (the relative error values for the ANN model range 33–54% as compared to 37–64% for the SVM). The ANN and SVM models generate more accurate flood quantiles for smaller return periods; however, for higher return periods, both the methods present a higher estimation error. The results of this study will help to recommend new AI-based RFFA methods in Australia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
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27 pages, 1076 KiB  
Article
Policy Implementation for Water Resources Protection: Assessing Spatio-Temporal Trends of Results from Process-Based Outcomes of Resource-Directed Measures Projects in South Africa
by Koleka Makanda, Stanley Nzama and Thokozani Kanyerere
Water 2022, 14(20), 3322; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203322 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3716
Abstract
Governments are continuously developing strategies for policy implementation toward water resource protection. However, little is known about the practical application of such plans to test their effectiveness in policy practice. This study focused on resource-directed measures (RDMs) in South Africa to assess progress [...] Read more.
Governments are continuously developing strategies for policy implementation toward water resource protection. However, little is known about the practical application of such plans to test their effectiveness in policy practice. This study focused on resource-directed measures (RDMs) in South Africa to assess progress made on policy implementation for water resource protection. The study included document surveys and content analysis of the publicly available reports and documents sourced from state departments and government websites. The findings of the study indicated that water resource-directed measures are used as policy implementation strategies for water resource protection in the country. Furthermore, the study revealed that significant progress has been made in this regard, when a multi-sectorial policy implementation practice approach through public-private partnerships ensured that 69% of the catchments have process-based RDM projects completed, while 18% are in progress, and only 13% are outstanding. In addition, it was found that water resource classes (WRC), numerical limits and ecological conditions for water resource reserve, and numerical limits and narrative statements for resource quality objectives (RQOs) are intermediate outputs originating from RDMs projects. The study recommends that outputs derived from process-based policy implementation plans must be applied at the water resource level and monitored to assess the effectiveness of policies for their effects on the status of water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water ​Management and ​Environmental Protection)
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15 pages, 4786 KiB  
Article
Impact of Sediment Deposition on Flood Carrying Capacity of an Alluvial Channel: A Case Study of the Lower Indus Basin
by Arslan Mahmood, Jing-Cheng Han, Muhammad Wajid Ijaz, Altaf Ali Siyal, Muhammad Ahmad and Maryam Yousaf
Water 2022, 14(20), 3321; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203321 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3383
Abstract
Impacts of climate change and human-made interventions have altered the fluvial regime of most rivers. The increasingly uncertain floods would further threaten the flow delivery system in regions such as Pakistan. In this study, an alluvial reach of the Indus River below Kotri [...] Read more.
Impacts of climate change and human-made interventions have altered the fluvial regime of most rivers. The increasingly uncertain floods would further threaten the flow delivery system in regions such as Pakistan. In this study, an alluvial reach of the Indus River below Kotri barrage was investigated for the geomorphologic effects of sediments deposited over the floodplain as well as the influences on the downstream flood-carrying capacity. The hydrodynamic modeling suite HEC-RAS in combination with ground and remotely sensed data were used to undertake this analysis. Results suggest that the morphology of the river reach has degraded due to depleted flows over a long period and hydrological extremes that have led to excessive sediment deposition over the floodplain and an enhancement in flood water extension possibility over the banks. A deposition of 4.3 billion cubic meters (BCM) of sediment increased the elevation of the channel bed which in turn reduced a 17.75% flood-carrying capacity of the river reach. Moreover, the excessive deposition of sediments and the persistence of low flows have caused a loss of 48.34% bank-full discharges over the past 24 years. Consequently, the river’s active reach has been flattened, with a live threat of left levee failure and the inundation of the populous city of Hyderabad. The study would gain insights into characterizing the impacts associated with a reduction in the flood-carrying capacity of the alluvial channel on account of the inadequate sediment transport capacity after heavy flow regulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
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