Effect of Glycerol as Processing Oil in Natural Rubber/Carbon Black Composites: Processing, Mechanical, and Thermal Aging Properties
2. Experimental and Characterization
2.2. Compound Preparations
2.3. Sample Characterizations
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Mooney Viscosity and Cure Properties
3.2. Mechanical Properties
3.3. Thermal Aging Properties
- For the processing properties: the use of glycerol shows a higher Mooney viscosity and minimum torque (ML), higher maximum torque (MH), torque difference (MH−ML), and cure rate index (CRI) of the rubber compounds, while scorch time (ts2) and cure time (tc90) are lower than for the other types of processing oil.
- For the mechanical properties: the tensile strength, elongation at break, and compression set of the vulcanized rubber using glycerol show just slightly lower values than for the other types of processing oil. Whereas the 100% modulus, 300% modulus, and hardness of the glycerol compound shows slightly higher values than for the other types of processing oil.
- For the thermal aging properties: the tensile strength and elongation at break of all samples after thermal aging were lower than before, while the 100% and 300% modulus of the samples after thermal aging were all better than before. Glycerol took a middle position.
- The overall results show a slightly reduced processability for glycerol as a processing oil, but a clear improvement of the overall mechanical and good aging properties in comparison with the mineral oil-based processing oils renders this abundantly available chemical a good substitute for many rubbers uses like tires, shoe soles, and rubber stopper applications.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Coding||Types of Compounds|
|AO||CB/aromatic oil-filled NR|
|TO||CB/treated distillate aromatic extracted oil-filled NR|
|PO||CB/paraffinic oil-filled NR|
|Step||Mixing Procedure||Time (min)|
|1||Mastication of RSS#3||2|
|2||Add ZnO and stearic acid and continue mixing||7|
|3||Add CB (N330) and processing oil, continue mixing||18|
|4||Add CBS and sulfur, continue mixing||6|
|Rubber and Oil Types||Solubility Parameter (MPa1/2)|
|Treated distillate aromatic extracted oil||16.7|
|Types of Processing Oil||Tensile Strength (MPa)||Elongation at Break (%)||Hardness (Shore A)||Compression Set (%)|
|AO||26.0 ± 1.4||694 ± 36.2||55.8 ± 0.4||23.9 ± 1.8|
|TO||27.8 ± 0.3||748 ± 6.3||56.6 ± 0.8||23.9 ± 0.2|
|PO||26.2 ± 0.1||720 ± 6.4||55.9 ± 0.2||23.7 ± 1.3|
|GC||25.6 ± 1.0||666 ± 7.2||57.2 ± 0.5||23.5 ± 1.3|
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Naebpetch, W.; Thumrat, S.; Indriasari; Nakaramontri, Y.; Sattayanurak, S. Effect of Glycerol as Processing Oil in Natural Rubber/Carbon Black Composites: Processing, Mechanical, and Thermal Aging Properties. Polymers 2023, 15, 3599. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15173599
Naebpetch W, Thumrat S, Indriasari, Nakaramontri Y, Sattayanurak S. Effect of Glycerol as Processing Oil in Natural Rubber/Carbon Black Composites: Processing, Mechanical, and Thermal Aging Properties. Polymers. 2023; 15(17):3599. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15173599Chicago/Turabian Style
Naebpetch, Weerawut, Sutiwat Thumrat, Indriasari, Yeampon Nakaramontri, and Suppachai Sattayanurak. 2023. "Effect of Glycerol as Processing Oil in Natural Rubber/Carbon Black Composites: Processing, Mechanical, and Thermal Aging Properties" Polymers 15, no. 17: 3599. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15173599