Learning-by-Doing Methodology towards Urban Decarbonisation: An Application in Valletta (Malta)
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. The CITY MINDED Methodology
- Placemaking Framework by UNIROMA3 (see Section 2.1.1);
- Vulnerability Assessment by UPO (see Section 2.1.2);
- Carbon Accounting and Carbon Footprint mitigation measures by UNISI (see Section 2.1.3);
- Energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies by IRENA and MIEMA (see Section 2.1.4).
2.1.1. Placemaking Framework
- Objective—Concise statement describing specific, critical, actionable, and measurable tasks to achieve in order to effectively execute the strategy and achieve the project vision. Objectives often begin with action verbs such as increasing, reducing, improving, achieving, etc. (e.g., improving soft mobility).
- Activity—Detailed and operative tasks and actions to be carried out to achieve each objective. Activities often begin with operative action verbs such as implementing, designing, planning, defining, etc. (e.g., implementing bicycle paths along the main roads).
2.1.2. The Vulnerability Assessment
- A step-by-step document providing the variables and indicators selected, the justification for their use, their relationship with vulnerability, the sources from which to obtain the data, and the necessary formulation for the calculation and standardisation of the results obtained.
- A results Excel sheet where students can enter the indicator results obtained, with the composite indicators of exposure, sensitivity, adaptive capacity, and the final Vulnerability Index automatically calculated. Afterwards, the indicators are normalised on a scale from 0 to 1.
2.1.3. The Carbon Accounting Methodology
2.1.4. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies
2.2. Case Study of the City of Valletta
3.1. Placemaking Framework between Green Space Planning and Sustainable Mobility Improvement
3.2. Vulnerability Assessment for Two Districts of Malta
- Sensitivity and lack of adaptive capacity are the main components of vulnerability for Valletta.
- Vulnerability is dynamic as it could change between two closely related districts (Figure 9): low in Southern Harbour District (0.34), as quantified by Group 1; very low in Northern Harbour District (0.22), as quantified by Group 2).
- We will only be able to deal with the risks posed by climate change if we understand what makes us vulnerable.
- Vulnerability is multifaceted (social, environmental, institutional, economic, physical).
- Vulnerability is dynamic (temporal and spatial changes).
- Vulnerability assessment is hazard and context (territorial scale, availability of data, etc.) specific.
- There is still a long way to go and many challenges in which to continue advancing these methodologies.
3.3. The Carbon Footprint of the City of Valletta and CF Mitigation Measures
- Malta’s energy mix, due to its high dependence on fossil fuels (approximately 74% of the total Maltese electric production), both as regards local production and imports from Italy (almost 17% of electricity derives from interconnector Italy–Malta, of which 66% is based on fossil fuels);
- Valletta households, in many cases, are quite old and are in need of restoration and energy efficiency improvements;
- The very high use of air-conditioning, with temperatures inside buildings kept far below those outside.
3.4. Energy Efficiency Proposal for Historical Buildings in Valletta
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- European Commission (EC). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. In Green Infrastructure (GI)—Enhancing Europe’s Natural Capital; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2013; Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A52013DC0249 (accessed on 19 January 2023).
- European Commission (EC). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. In EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030. Bringing Nature Back into Our Lives; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2020; Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A52020DC0380 (accessed on 17 January 2023).
- European Commission (EC). The European Green Deal; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- United Nations (UN). Day of Eight Billion. 2022. Available online: https://www.un.org/en/dayof8billion (accessed on 19 January 2023).
- World Economic Forum. Population Boom: Charting How We Got to Nearly 8 Billion People. 2022. Available online: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/12/world-population-history (accessed on 19 January 2023).
- United Nations (UN). World Population Prospects 2022—Summary of Results; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division: New York, NY, USA, 2022; ISBN 978-92-1-148373-4. [Google Scholar]
- United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat). World Cities Report 2022—Envisaging the Future of Cities; UN-Habitat: Nairobi, Kenya, 2022; p. 422. ISBN 978-92-1-132894-3. Available online: https://unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/2022/06/wcr_2022.pdf (accessed on 16 January 2023).
- United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat). World Cities Report 2020—The Value of Sustainable Urbanization; UN-Habitat: Nairobi, Kenya, 2020; p. 418. ISBN 978-92-1-132872-1. Available online: https://unhabitat.org/World%20Cities%20Report%202020 (accessed on 18 January 2023).
- European Commission (EC). Urban Data Platform Plus—Trends and Drivers. 2022. Available online: https://urban.jrc.ec.europa.eu/thefutureofcities/urbanisation#the-chapte (accessed on 18 January 2023).
- European Commission (EC). In Focus: Energy Efficiency in Buildings. European Commission Website, NEWS, 17 February 2020, Brussels. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/info/news/focus-energy-efficiency-buildings-2020-lut-17_en (accessed on 12 December 2022).
- Magaudda, S.; D’Ascanio, R.; Muccitelli, S.; Palazzo, A.L. ‘Greening’ Green Infrastructure. Good Italian Practices for Enhancing Green Infrastructure through the Common Agricultural Policy. Sustainability 2020, 12, 2301. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Kondratyeva, A.; Knapp, S.; Durka, W.; Kühn, I.; Vallet, J.; Machon, N.; Martin, G.; Motard, E.; Grandcolas, P.; Pavoine, S. Urbanization Effects on Biodiversity Revealed by a Two-Scale Analysis of Species Functional Uniqueness vs. Redundancy. Front. Ecol. Evol. 2020, 8, 73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Battisti, C. Habitat fragmentation, fauna and ecological network planning: Toward a theoretical conceptual framework. Ital. J. Zool. 2003, 70, 241–247. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- European Commission (EC). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. In Our Life Insurance, Our Natural Capital: An EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2011; Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52011DC0244 (accessed on 3 November 2022).
- Becchio, C.; Delmastro, C.; Fabi, V.; Lombardi, P. The role of nearly-zero energy buildings in the transition towards Post-Carbon Cities. SCS 2016, 27, 324–337. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- European Commission (EC). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions and the European Investment Bank. In A Clean Planet for All: A European Strategic Long-Term Vision for a Prosperous, Modern, Competitive and Climate Neutral Economy; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Bottero, M.; Dell’Anna, F.; Morgese, V. Evaluating the Transition towards Post-Carbon Cities: A Literature Review. Sustainability 2021, 13, 567. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM). Green Municipal Fund—Sustainable Neighbourhood Development: Practical Solutions to Common Challenges; Federation of Canadian Municipalities: Ottawa, Ontario, 2016; Available online: https://fcm.ca/sites/default/files/documents/resources/guide/sustainable-neighbourhood-development-av-gmf.pdf (accessed on 11 December 2022).
- United Nations (UN). Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development; United Nations: New York, NY, USA, 2015; Available online: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld (accessed on 18 November 2022).
- Clergeau, P.; Blanc, N. (Eds.) Trames Vertes Urbaines. De la Recherche Scientifique au Projet Urbain; Le Moniteur ed.: Paris, France, 2013; p. 339. ISBN 978-2281129212. [Google Scholar]
- Andreucci, M.B. Progettare Green Infrastructure; Wolters Kluwer Italia: Milano, Italiy, 2017; pp. 103–105. [Google Scholar]
- Sachs, J.D.; Schmidt-Traub, G.; Mazzucato, M.; Messner, D.; Nakicenovic, N.; Rockström, J. Six Transformations to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Nat. Sustain. 2019, 2, 805–814. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Climate Action from the Ground Up—Supporting Cities and Local and Regional Governments to Achieve the Paris Agreement; United Nations Development Programme: New York, NY, USA, 2022. [Google Scholar]
- Hamdan, H.A.M.; Andersen, P.H.; de Boer, L. Stakeholder collaboration in sustainable neighborhood projects—A review and research agenda. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2021, 68, 102776. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- European Commission (EC). Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. Climate Action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials. In Towards an EU Research and Innovation Policy Agenda for Nature-Based Solutions & Re-Naturing Cities. Final Report of the Horizon 2020 Expert Group on ‘Nature-Based Solutions and Re-Naturing Cities’; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2015; ISBN 978-92-79-46051-7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations—Economic and Social Council (UN-ESC). San Marino Declaration. In Proceedings of the Economic Commission for Europe Committee on Urban Development, Housing and Land Management. Eighty-Third Session, Geneva, Switzerland, 4–5 April 2022, (Part I); San Marino, Italiy, 3–6 October 2022, (Part II). Available online: https://unece.org/sites/default/files/2022-12/ECE_HBP_2022_2_REV-E.pdf (accessed on 24 January 2023).
- Li, N.; Chanb, D.; Mao, Q.; Hsu, K.; Fu, Z. Urban sustainability education: Challenges and pedagogical experiments. Habitat Int. 2018, 71, 70–80. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Neuman, M. Teaching collaborative and interdisciplinary service-based urban design and planning studios. J. Urban Des. 2016, 21, 596–615. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- van den Dobbelsteen, A.; Martin, C.L.; Keeffe, G.; Pulselli, R.M.; Vandevyvere, H. From Problems to Potentials—The Urban Energy Transition of Gruž, Dubrovnik. Energies 2018, 11, 922. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Pulselli, R.M.; Broersma, S.; Martin, C.L.; Keeffe, G.; Bastianoni, S.; van den Dobbelsteen, A. Future City Visions. The Energy Transition Towards Carbon-Neutrality: Lessons learned from the case of Roeselare, Belgium. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2021, 137, 110612. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schneekloth, L. Placemaking: The Art and Practice of Building Communities; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 1995; pp. 58–63. ISBN 978-0-471-11026-2. [Google Scholar]
- Hall, P. Good Cities, Better Lives: How Europe Discovered the Lost Art of Urbanism; Routledge: Abingdon, UK, 2013; pp. 278–280. [Google Scholar]
- Palazzo, A.L.; Barbieri, L.; D’Ascanio, R.; Di Pietrantonio, F.; Mondelli, F.P. (Eds.) In CLIMATE. Integrating Climate Resilience in EU Higher Education. Book of Proceedings. 2022. Available online: https://inclimate.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/11/InCLIMATE_O6.pdf (accessed on 16 December 2022).
- Kleyer, M.; Kaule, G.; Settele, J. Landscape fragmentation and landscape planning, with a focus on Germany. In Species Survival in Fragmented Landscapes; Settele, J., Margules, C., Poschlod, P., Henle, K., Eds.; Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996; pp. 138–151. [Google Scholar]
- Benedict, M.A.; McMahon, E.T. Green infrastructure: Smart conservation for the 21st century. Renew. Resour. J. 2002, 20, 12–17. [Google Scholar]
- Benedict, M.A.; McMahon, E.T. Green Infrastructure: Linking Landscapes and Communities; Island Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2006; ISBN 978-1-55963-558-5. [Google Scholar]
- Hansen, R.; Pauleit, S. From multifunctionality to multiple ecosystem services? A conceptual framework for multifunctionality in green infrastructure planning for urban areas. Ambio 2014, 43, 516–529. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Grădinaru, S.R.; Hersperger, A.M. Green infrastructure in strategic spatial plans: Evidence from European urban regions. Urban For. Urban Green. 2019, 40, 17–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bartman, D.; Lydon, M.; Woudstra, R.; Khawarzad, A. Tactical Urbanism: Short-Term Action Long-Term Change; The Street Plans Collaborative: New York, NY, USA, 2011; Volume 1, Available online: https://issuu.com/streetplanscollaborative/docs/tactical_urbanism_vol.1 (accessed on 12 January 2023).
- Moreno, C.; Allam, Z.; Chabaud, D.; Gall, C.; Pratlong, F. Introducing the “15-Minute City”: Sustainability, Resilience and Place Identity in Future Post-Pandemic Cities. Smart Cities 2021, 4, 93–111. Available online: https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4010006 (accessed on 15 November 2022). [CrossRef]
- Council of Europe. European Landscape Convention; Signed at Florence on 20 October 2000; Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France, 2000; Available online: https://rm.coe.int/16807b6bc7 (accessed on 3 November 2022).
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. In A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Field, C.B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Dokken, D.J., Ebi, K.L., Mastrandrea, M.D., Mach, K.J., Plattner, G.-K., Allen, S.K., et al., Eds.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2012; p. 582. Available online: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/managing-the-risks-of-extreme-events-and-disasters-to-advance-climate-change-adaptation/ (accessed on 12 October 2022).
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Summary for policymakers. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability; Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Field, C.B., Barros, V.R., Dokken, D.J., Mach, K.J., Mastrandrea, M.D., Bilir, T.E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K.L., Estrada, Y.O., Genova, R.C., et al., Eds.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2014; pp. 1–32. Available online: https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg2/ar5_wgII_spm_en.pdf (accessed on 12 October 2022).
- Vargas, J.; Paneque, P. Methodology for the analysis of causes of drought vulnerability on the River Basin scale. Nat. Hazards 2017, 89, 609–621. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vargas, J.; Paneque, P. Challenges for the integration between water resource management and drought risk management in Spain. Sustainability 2019, 11, 308. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Vargas, J.; Olcina, J.; Paneque, P. Cartografía de riesgo de inundación en la planificación territorial para la gestión del riesgo de desastre. Escalas de trabajo y estudios de casos en España. EURE Rev. Estud. Urbano Reg. 2022, 48, 144. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Martín, Y.; Paneque, P. Moving from adaptation capacities to implementing adaptation to extreme heat events in urban areas of the European Union: Introducing the U-ADAPT! research approach. J. Environ. Manag. 2022, 310, 114773. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Liu, X.; Wang, Y.; Peng, J.; Braimoh, A.; Yin, H. Assessing vulnerability to drought based on exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity: A case study in middle Inner Mongolia of China. Chin. Geogr. Sci. 2013, 23, 13–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme; Eggleston, H.S., Buendia, L., Miwa, K., Ngara, T., Tanabe, K., Eds.; IGES: Hayama, Japan, 2006; Available online: https://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/ (accessed on 25 January 2023).
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories; Calvo Buendia, E., Tanabe, K., Kranjc, A., Baasansuren, J., Fukuda, M., Ngarize, S., Osako, A., Pyrozhenko, Y., Shermanau, P., Federici, S., Eds.; IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland, 2019; Available online: https://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2019rf/index.html (accessed on 25 January 2023).
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Masson-Delmotte, V., Zhai, P., Pirani, A., Connors, S.L., Péan, C., Berger, S., Caud, N., Chen, Y., Goldfarb, L., Gomis, M.I., et al., Eds.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2021; p. 2391. [Google Scholar]
- Bastianoni, S.; Marchi, M.; Caro, D.; Casprini, P.; Pulselli, F.M. The connection between 2006 IPCC GHG inventory methodology and ISO 14064-1 certification standard—A reference point for the environmental policies at sub-national scale. Environ. Sci. Policy 2014, 44, 97–107. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vaccari, F.P.; Gioli, B.; Toscano, P.; Perrone, C. Carbon dioxide balance assessment of the city of Florence (Italy), and implications for urban planning. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2013, 120, 138–146. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Marchi, M.; Pulselli, F.M.; Mangiavacchi, S.; Menghetti, F.; Marchettini, N.; Bastianoni, S. The greenhouse gas inventory as a tool for planning integrated waste management systems: A case study in central Italy. J. Clean. Prod. 2017, 142, 351–359. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kusuma, M.N.; Handriyono, R.E.; Hafizah, N.E.; Damayanti, T.V. Absorption of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrial and Residential Sources by Green Open Space in Sukorejo Village, Gresik. J. Ecol. Eng. 2023, 24, 135–145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Marchi, M.; Niccolucci, V.; Pulselli, R.M.; Marchettini, N. Environmental policies for GHG emissions reduction and energy transition in the medieval historic centre of Siena (Italy): The role of solar energy. J. Clean. Prod. 2018, 185, 829–840. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lai, S.; Lu, J.; Luo, X.; Ge, J. Carbon emission evaluation model and carbon reduction strategies for newly urbanized areas. Sustain. Prod. Consum. 2022, 31, 13–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Martin, C.L.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.; Keeffe, G. The Societal Impact Methodology—Connecting Citizens, Sustainability Awareness, Technological Interventions & Co-creative City Visions. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Passive and Low Energy, Edinburgh, UK, 3–5 July 2017; Volume II, pp. 2791–2798. [Google Scholar]
- Hannan, M.A.; Begun, R.A.; Al-Shetwi, A.Q.; Ker, P.J.; Al Mamun, M.A.; Hussain, A.; Basri, H.; Mahlia, T.M.I. Waste collection route optimisation model for linking cost saving and emission reduction to achieve sustainable development goals. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2020, 62, 102393. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pulselli, R.M.; Marchi, M.; Neri, E.; Marchettini, N.; Bastianoni, S. Carbon accounting framework for decarbonisation of European city neighbourhoods. J. Clean. Prod. 2019, 208, 850–868. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Panagiotis, C.; Theodosiou, T.; Bikas, D. Embodied energy in residential buildings-towards the nearly zero energy building: A literature review. Build. Environ. 2016, 105, 267–282. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- National Statistics Office (NSO). Malta GeoPortal—MALTA Classification at Local Administrative Unit (LAU), Level 1. Available online: https://msdi.data.gov.mt/geonetwork/srv/api/records/3609662c-41ef-4795-8394-7ff560563faa (accessed on 14 November 2022).
- Buccaro, A.; Robotti, C. Segni, Immagini e Storia dei Centri Costieri Euro-Mediterranei—Varianti Strategiche e Paesistiche; Federico II University Press: Naples, Italy, 2019; p. 208. ISBN 978-88-99930-04-2. Available online: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/286379207.pdf#page=69 (accessed on 8 November 2022).
- Jäger, T. The Art of Orthogonal Planning: Laparelli’s Trigonometric Design of Valletta. J. Soc. Archit. Historians. 2004, 63, 4–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage List. UNESCO—World Heritage Convention. 2022. Available online: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/ (accessed on 8 November 2022).
- Valletta Cultural Agency (VCA). About the Valletta Design Cluster. Available online: https://www.vca.gov.mt/en/valletta-design-cluster/ (accessed on 16 November 2022).
- Pulselli, R.M.; Maccanti, M.; Bruno, M.; Sabbetta, A.; Neri, E.; Patrizi, N.; Bastianoni, S. Benchmarking marine energy technologies through LCA: Offshore floating wind farms in the Mediterranean. Front. Energy Res. 2022, 10, 902021. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Franzitta, V.; Curto, D.; Milone, D.; Rao, D. Assessment of Renewable Sources for the Energy Consumption in Malta in the Mediterranean Sea. Energies 2016, 9, 1034. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Sibilla, M. A meaningful mapping approach for the complex design. Int. J. Des. Sci. Technol. 2016, 23, 41–78. [Google Scholar]
- Sibilla, M.; Kurul, E. Exploring transformative pedagogies for built environment disciplines: The case of interdisciplinarity in low carbon transition. Build. Res. Inf. 2021, 49, 234–247. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Area of study
Area of study
|Placemaking Framework |
|City of Valletta||City of Valletta|
|Vulnerability Assessment (UPO)||Southern Harbour District|
|Northern Harbour District|
|Carbon Accounting (UNISI)||City of Valletta||City of Valletta|
|Energy Efficiency (IRENA and MIEMA)||Valletta Design Cluster (VDC)||Building stock near the VDC|
|Results of the Analysis|
|Group 1||Group 2|
|Presence of seaside and sea resources;|
Involvement of locals in activities;
No extreme weather;
Walkable city due to its small extension;
Presence of the shadow along the streets in the morning and in the afternoon;
Easy orientation for pedestrians;
Presence of many heritage buildings;
Presence of many green spaces;
Good connection between neighbourhoods and towards airport;
Not isolated place.
|Lack of green areas;|
No speed limit respected for cars by drivers;
City centre crowded with cars and occupied sidewalks;
Less amount of green public transport;
Lack of proper waste management system;
Not well-maintained buildings.
Presence of only one access to the city centre;
Lack of green areas;
Small shared places between cars and pedestrians;
Space dedicated to cars larger than to pedestrians;
Inhomogeneous solar exposure;
Lack of shadow in central hours of the day;
Few groceries for local people;
Lack of bicycle use;
Presence of steep streets and stairways without any adaptation for people with reduced mobility;
Scarce presence of waste bins and bins for separate collection;
Poor integration between heritage buildings and green spaces;
Presence of misused spaces;
Lack of public fountains;
Unconnected green spaces;
Lack of spaces dedicated for pedestrians;
Presence of buildings with heights that are too different from each other;
Presence of visual and air pollution due to large cruise ships.
|Definition of the Strategy|
|Group 1||Group 2|
|Improvement of the accessibility of the streets;|
Improvement of sustainable tourism practices;
Improvement of healthy living and a good environment;
Improvement of sustainable waste management system.
|Improvement of green infrastructure within the city;|
Definition of pedestrian safe corridors;
Creation of landmarks, for example, using a different type of tree to better identify roads, make them more recognisable, and immediately identifiable, based on the type of tree used for street trees.
|Design of rooftop gardens, vertical gardens and parks;|
Implementation of recycling station and encouragement of reuse and recycle;
Limitation of access to the centre by cars, except
for emergencies and deliveries to shops;
Decentralisation of points of interest;
Energy efficiency of buildings (e.g., photovoltaic panels).
|Subdivision of Valletta city centre into pedestrianised sectors in order to remove cars from the city centre and allowing cars to only use outer roads;|
Increased planting of trees along roads that may also act as reference points;
Improved accessibility to the sea and beaches;
Fostering the accessibility of the city to at least three entrances;
Definition of speed limitation in the city centre;
Creation of a mobility ring for cars that runs along the shores of the Valletta peninsula, keeping the central area of the city for pedestrians or traffic-restricted;
Installation of water fountains;
Use of parking places as PV surfaces (building in existing areas).
|%||EVF||CF Valletta Household||CF |
|t CO2eq||ha||t CO2eq·unit−1||t CO2eq·unit−1|
|Commercial and public services||6535||22%||484||3.20||1.12|
|of which Water heating||123||/||9||0.06||0.02|
|of which Cooking||72||/||5||0.04||0.01|
|of which Air conditioning||59||/||4||0.03||0.01|
|of which Electrical appliances and lighting||133||/||10||0.07||0.02|
|of which Space heating per dwelling||92||/||7||0.05||0.02|
|of which Cars||4165||/||309||2.04||0.71|
|of which Bus||651||/||48||0.32||0.11|
|of which Motorcycles||62||/||5||0.03||0.01|
|of which Trucks and light vehicles||1582||/||117||0.78||0.27|
|of which Water (ships and ferries)||370||/||27||0.18||0.06|
|of which Local airport (private airplanes)||21||/||2||0.01||0.004|
|SUBTOTAL (sum 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5)||30,370||100%||2250||14.88||5.18|
|FOOD protein diet||11,273||/||835||5.52||1.92|
|FOOD balanced diet||7312||/||542||3.58||1.25|
|FOOD balanced diet + local food||4265||/||316||2.09||0.73|
|TOTAL (sum 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5) + Food protein diet||41,643||/||3085||20.41||7.11|
|Mitigation Measures Selected|
|Group 1||Group 2|
|Set of Measures: Energy Saving in Buildings|
|Implementation of LED lights and improvement of appliance efficiency (residential and tertiary sector);|
Maintenance and periodic checks of boilers to reduce energy waste;
Implementation of nature-based solutions (such as tree planting, green areas, urban gardens, etc.) to reduce the Urban Heat Island Effect (UHIE);
Improvement of thermal insulation to prevent heat loss in residential buildings;
Application of Life Cycle Assessment and a circular economy to mitigate the use of electricity and fuel in the industry sector;
Restoration of buildings downtown.
|Installation of LED systems and efficiency enhancement of cooling and heating systems;|
Improvement of boiler efficiency;
Implementation of nature-based solutions to reduce the Urban Heat Island Effect (UHIE);
Fostering the thermal insulation.
|Set of Measures: Energy Generation from Renewable Sources|
|Installation of PV panels on parking lots and rooftops of public buildings (Triq il-Mall Floriana area) Estimated area: 35,517 m2;|
Implementation of onshore wind turbine in the industrial areas close to the City of Valletta;
Installation of heat pump to reduce residential consumption of gas for heating and boiling water;
Implementation of floating wind turbines to completely cover the energy need in the residential and tertiary sectors;
Implementation of Wave Energy Converters (WECs) to provide an alternative energy source.
|Implementation of PV panels on 30% of the rooftop of every building (south-facing roof). Estimated area: 44,315.4 m2; |
Implementation of small wind turbines on the rooftop of the building. Estimated that at least 2541 small turbines are required;
Installation of 32 floating wind turbines (raft–buoy model). The location of the wind farm has been assumed to be in an area northwest of the island of Gozo.
|Set of Measures: Sustainable Mobility|
|Implementation of public spaces and new green paths;|
Use of bikes to contain car circulation;
Creation of soft mobility connections;
Encouragement of the use of Public Transport (PT) and electric vehicles;
Fostering smart working to avoid the use of cars or PT (creation of co-working hubs).
|Creation of green paths to connect heritage buildings and the neighbourhoods surrounding the downtown;|
Improvement of the walkability of the city centre;
Limitation of city access by car only for inhabitants;
Creation of a mobility ring for cars that runs along the shores of the Valletta peninsula, keeping the central area of the city pedestrian or traffic-restricted;
Imposition of a car speed limitation on the ring, also using the help of elevated streets;
Reduction of car lanes and implementation of a pedestrian street;
Implementation of bikes, public transport, smart working, and electric mobility.
|Set of Measures: Waste Management|
|Encouragement of less waste production to reduce waste storage in landfill;|
Encouragement of recycling (today, only 10% of total waste is recycled) in four steps to be implemented in the short-to-medium-term. First step: 20%; second step: 40%; third step: 60%; final step: 80%.
|Improvement of waste management system (less waste production, more recycling).|
|Set of Measures: Sustainable Food|
|Promotion of a balanced diet to limit meat consumption;|
Promote local food consumption to reduce pollution related to imports and exports;
Gradual introduction of edible insects or insect products in the diet (e.g., flours, pasta, bread, snacks, fitness bar, etc.).
|Implementation of a more balanced diet with the purchase of more local products.|
|n||Mitigation Measure||CF Reduction||CF Residual|
|t CO2eq||t CO2eq|
|1||Reduction of energy consumption (LED lamps and more efficient appliances)||−854||40,788|
|2||Life Cycle Assessment and circular economy in industrial sector||−1050||39,739|
|3||Increased use of bicycles and less waste production||−2166||37,572|
|4||Adoption of balanced diet||−3945||33,627|
|5||Nature-based solutions and thermal insulation||−1030||32,597|
|7||More waste recycling and composting and less water consumption and grid losses||−1637||30,138|
|8||Use of local food||−3664||26,474|
|9||PV panels (south-exposed roofs)||−1229||25,246|
|10||Onshore wind turbines||−5471||19,775|
|12||More waste recycling||−1741||17,103|
|13||PV panels (north-facing roofs)||−615||16,488|
|14||Heat pumps and electric mobility||−7259||9229|
|15||Floating wind turbines and Wave Energy Converters||−8723||506|
|16||Creation of new forests—carbon uptake||−506||0|
|Energy Efficiency Measures|
|Group 1||Group 2|
|Current situation of the building/area (including measures already implemented for energy efficiency and renewable energy)|
|The building was recently renovated;|
Presence of a rooftop garden;
Presence of a green wall within the main courtyard;
Presence of glass PV panels;
External utility equipment for easier maintenance;
Optimal use of natural light (glass walkways);
Efficient use of space (modular rooms + external corridor);
Use of sustainable materials (wood and steel);
Use of LED lighting;
Restoration of the existing cisterns.
|Non-renovated residential block with low energy performance;|
No insulation (walls, roof);
Presence of single-glazed windows;
Insufficient water flow and pressure for domestic users;
No cross ventilation;
Low protection from sun on southeast façade;
Motion detectors for lighting in common areas work during the day when daylight is sufficient.
|Energy Efficiency and RES Proposals|
|Increase in the number of PV panels;|
Installation of movable PV canopy to increase the efficiency of solar retention;
Installation of sensors for lighting and water taps in the building;
Decrease of the air-conditioning temperature;
Installation of shading devices on roof garden to improve usability during summer;
Improvement of air circulation/ventilation to reduce greenhouse effect;
Improvement of accessibility for persons with reduced mobility;
Provision of a key map of the building.
|Replacement of small electric appliances with more efficient models;|
Installation of shared washing machines + common roof area with clothing lines;
Implementation of a new waterproof roof;
Installation of shutters on the southeast façade to provide shading;
Installation of new glass and doors insulation;
Implementation of insulation of the façade;
Installation of a water pump;
Restoration of the cistern to use water for irrigation and secondary class water use.
|Barriers and Mitigation Measures|
|Lack of maintenance schedules: establish preventive maintenance plans and regular checks for PV, rooftop garden and service, HVAC equipment and lighting; |
Conservation rules for historical buildings: allow more flexibility for energy interventions and restoration;
Energy-intensive proposals risk requiring more energy than is currently produced and used: apply a Life Cycle Assessment approach.
|Setting up a building community and create a common chill-out area covered with glass PV for recreational activities;|
Lack of common space: renovate rooftop common areas to create a shared laundry and a space for air drying clothes; Provide a space and tools for a communal urban garden and use compost;
Strict heritage regulations: use a concealed area on the roof to install equipment that has a negative visual impact from street level and from other buildings;
Accessibility: install a common wooden ramp to avoid steps leading to the entrance of the block; adapt stairs and access from street to the roof for people with reduced mobility.
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.
© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Maccanti, M.; D’Ascanio, R.; Di Pietrantonio, F.; Marchi, M.; Vargas Molina, J.; Pulselli, R.M.; Poldrugovac, A.; Schembri Cassar, D.; Barbieri, L.; López Galdeano, J.; Niccolucci, V.; Gioia, C.; Mondelli, F.P.; Xuereb, J.; Palazzo, A.L.; Bastianoni, S. Learning-by-Doing Methodology towards Urban Decarbonisation: An Application in Valletta (Malta). Sustainability 2023, 15, 5807. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075807
Maccanti M, D’Ascanio R, Di Pietrantonio F, Marchi M, Vargas Molina J, Pulselli RM, Poldrugovac A, Schembri Cassar D, Barbieri L, López Galdeano J, Niccolucci V, Gioia C, Mondelli FP, Xuereb J, Palazzo AL, Bastianoni S. Learning-by-Doing Methodology towards Urban Decarbonisation: An Application in Valletta (Malta). Sustainability. 2023; 15(7):5807. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075807Chicago/Turabian Style
Maccanti, Matteo, Romina D’Ascanio, Federica Di Pietrantonio, Michela Marchi, Jesús Vargas Molina, Riccardo Maria Pulselli, Andrea Poldrugovac, Diane Schembri Cassar, Lorenzo Barbieri, Josefina López Galdeano, Valentina Niccolucci, Carmela Gioia, Francesca Paola Mondelli, Jesmond Xuereb, Anna Laura Palazzo, and Simone Bastianoni. 2023. "Learning-by-Doing Methodology towards Urban Decarbonisation: An Application in Valletta (Malta)" Sustainability 15, no. 7: 5807. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075807