The Positive Effects of Growth Mindset on Students’ Intention toward Self-Regulated Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A PLS-SEM Approach
2. Literature Review and Hypotheses
2.1. Growth Mindset
2.2. Self-Regulated Learning
2.3. Theory of Planned Behavior
2.4. Perceived Teacher Support
2.5. Development of Research Hypotheses and Conceptual Framework
3.1. Participants and Procedure
3.2. Measures and Data Analysis
4.1. Descriptive Analysis
4.2. Measurement Model Assessment
4.3. Structural Model Assessment
5.1. Discussion of Findings
5.2. Limitations and Implications
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Growth Mindset||GM1: My intelligence is something that I can’t change very much.|
GM2: There are some things that I am not capable of learning.
GM3: Challenging myself will not make me any smarter.
GM4: If I am not naturally smart in a subject, I will never do well in it.
|Invested||INV1: My teachers expect me to work hard at school.|
INV2: My teachers try to answer my questions in my study time.
INV3: My teachers are interested in my growth.
INV4: My teachers take the time to help me get better grades.
INV5: My teachers think I am a hard-working student.
INV6: My teachers are helpful when I have questions about my studies.
INV7: My teachers are helpful when I have questions about school issues.
INV8: My teachers would praise me before others when I perform well at school.
|Positive Regard||PR1: My teachers push me to gain good academic achievement.|
PR2: My teachers challenge me to think about my goals for my studies.
PR3: My teachers believe I am smart so that I can study well by myself.
PR4: My teachers help me understand my strengths in my studies.
PR5: My teachers want me to do well in school.
|Expectation||EXP1: My teachers enjoy having me as their student.|
EXP2: My teachers care about what happens to me at school.
EXP3: My teachers encourage me to learn.
EXP4: My teachers think I should study continuously.
EXP5: My teachers support my goals for my studies.
|Accessible||ACC1: My teachers will listen if I want to talk about a problem in my studies.|
ACC2: My teachers are easy to talk to about my school things.
ACC3: My teachers are easy to talk to about things beside school.
|Attention||ATTEN1: I intend to do self-regulated learning to improve my academic achievements.|
ATTEN2: I intend to continue doing my self-regulated learning frequently.
ATTEN3: I will strongly recommend my peers to do self-regulated learning.
ATTEN4: I will always try to do self-regulated learning on a daily basis.
ATTEN5: Overall, I intend to continue self-regulated learning in future learning.
|Perceived Behavioral Control||PBC1: It is always possible for me to do my self-regulated learning.|
PBC2: If I want, I can always do self-regulated learning.
PBC3: It is mostly up to me whether or not to do self-regulated learning.
PBC4: I have control over how to do self-regulated learning.
PBC5: I have the necessary knowledge to do self-regulated learning.
|Attitude||ATTI1: I Look forward to those aspects of self-regulated learning.|
ATTI2: I like self-regulated learning.
ATTI3: Self-regulated learning is a good idea.
ATTI4: I have a generally favorable attitude toward self-regulated learning.
ATTI5: Overall, self-regulated learning is beneficial.
|Constructs||Items||Factor Loading||Cronbach’s Alpha||Composite Reliability||AVE|
|Hypothesis||Relationship||Original Sample||Standard Deviation||T Statistics||Decision|
|H1||GM → INT||0.176 ***||0.047||3.742||Supported|
|H2||GM → PBC→ INT||0.109 ***||0.020||5.514||Supported|
|H3||GM → ATT → INT||0.213 ***||0.026||8.142||Supported|
|H4||PTS →INT||0.596 ***||0.047||12.619||Supported|
|H5||PTS → GM→ INT||0.318 ***||0.033||9.758||Supported|
|H6||Moderation Effect of GM (PTS → INT)||0.072 **||0.036||2.015||Supported|
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Jiang, Y.; Liu, H.; Yao, Y.; Li, Q.; Li, Y. The Positive Effects of Growth Mindset on Students’ Intention toward Self-Regulated Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A PLS-SEM Approach. Sustainability 2023, 15, 2180. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032180
Jiang Y, Liu H, Yao Y, Li Q, Li Y. The Positive Effects of Growth Mindset on Students’ Intention toward Self-Regulated Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A PLS-SEM Approach. Sustainability. 2023; 15(3):2180. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032180Chicago/Turabian Style
Jiang, Yujun, Huying Liu, Yuna Yao, Qiang Li, and Yingji Li. 2023. "The Positive Effects of Growth Mindset on Students’ Intention toward Self-Regulated Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A PLS-SEM Approach" Sustainability 15, no. 3: 2180. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032180