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International Journal of Plant Biology is published by MDPI from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2022). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.

Int. J. Plant Biol., Volume 10, Issue 1 (June 2019) – 10 articles

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524 KiB  
Article
Pattern Analysis of Visible Faulty Fruits in Capitula: A Case in Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
by Luis F. Hernández and Cecilia N. Pellegrini
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2019, 10(1), 8317; https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2019.8317 - 23 Dec 2019
Viewed by 714
Abstract
The analysis of spatial arrangement of incompletely developed fruits (IDF) in capitula could be used to understand the nature and the relative arrangement of these fruits at maturity, previously unexplained by current models. The objective of this work was to quantify and define [...] Read more.
The analysis of spatial arrangement of incompletely developed fruits (IDF) in capitula could be used to understand the nature and the relative arrangement of these fruits at maturity, previously unexplained by current models. The objective of this work was to quantify and define the distribution pattern of visible IDF (IDFvis) at physiological maturity in the capitulum of the cultivated sunflower, in two genotypes with different self-compatibility expression grown in three different environments. Spatial characteristics and the possibility of randomness of IDFvis pattern generation were also evaluated. We were able to define four IDFvis patterns: Type I, where the distribution of the IDFvis was located mainly at the capitulum center, Type II, where the distribution remained grouped at its center but spreads towards the periphery, Type III, where the distribution was more homogeneous over the entire capitulum surface and Type IV with a homogeneous but very dispersed distribution over the entire capitulum surface. Second order spatial point pattern analysis techniques for a plane (Ripley’s K) were applied to the distribution of IDFvis in the four predefined IDFvis patterns. Using the ADE-4 software, spatial distribution patterns contained in a circular surface and corrected for edge effects were analyzed. By grouping the different types of IDFvis patterns by environment and genotype, a tendency was observed to generate preferably two types of patterns, Type I and Type IV, directly related to the genotype and not to the environment. The K index obtained for each type of pattern showed that, for the scales analyzed, Types I, II and III can be defined as grouped, since they laid outside the Poisson confidence limits. The Type IV pattern presented results consistent with a completely randomized distribution. It was observed a low-frequency appearance of the IV (random) pattern and only for one genotype in the different environments studied, while in the rest of the genotype x environment combinations there was always a greater degree of grouping (non random; Type; I, II and III patterns). Proved that mostly of the IDFvis patterns presented in the sunflower capitulum were mainly non random, the results shown here suggest that, to the intrinsic characteristics of the plant to express this character, mainly physiological, intra-receptacle physical factors could be added in the post-pollination stage, capable of altering the normal development of the embryos. Full article
385 KiB  
Brief Report
Effect of Bicarbonate on Growth of the Oleaginous Microalga Botryococcus braunii
by Giovanna Salbitani, Carmela M. A. Barone and Simona Carfagna
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2019, 10(1), 8273; https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2019.8273 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
The effect of bicarbonate, produced by the enzymatic hydration of CO2 from postcombustion fumes, was investigated on Botryococcus braunii growth. The NaHCO3, supplied to cultures in the role of inorganic carbon source is proposed as a more eco-sustainable alternative to [...] Read more.
The effect of bicarbonate, produced by the enzymatic hydration of CO2 from postcombustion fumes, was investigated on Botryococcus braunii growth. The NaHCO3, supplied to cultures in the role of inorganic carbon source is proposed as a more eco-sustainable alternative to gaseous CO2. The salt was provided to the cultures at the final concentration of 0.5–1.5–2.5 g L−1. The growth rate was considered for specific time intervals (T0–T5, T5–T10 and T0–T10) showing values significantly higher in the culture supplemented with 2.5 g L−1 bicarbonate. The doubling times were also considered in all experimental cultures showing a faster doubling for the period T0 ÷ T5. The increase in pH drives the increase in growth in the experimental conditions in which the salt was added. The results suggest that bicarbonate is able to promote the algal growth, therefore it can be considered a valid alternative to CO2 gas. Full article
342 KiB  
Article
Response of Three Waxy Corn (Zea mays L. Var. Ceratina Kulesh) Varieties and Various Planting Date of Intercropped Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Dry Field
by Kristono Y. Fowo, Nur Edy Suminarti and Agus Suryanto
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2019, 10(1), 7459; https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2019.7459 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
The research aims to determine the combination of waxy corn variety and planting date on the growth and yield of waxy corn in an intercropping system of corn and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The experimental design is a split-plot with the main plot [...] Read more.
The research aims to determine the combination of waxy corn variety and planting date on the growth and yield of waxy corn in an intercropping system of corn and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The experimental design is a split-plot with the main plot consisting of waxy corn varieties (local variety; Uri variety and Binte Pulu variety and the sub-plot consisting of the alternate crop planting date. Three replications are performed. Data collection is done destructively. The F test at 5% is used to examine the effect of treatments, while differences across treatments are based on the LSD at 5%. Research results show an interaction between the waxy corn variety and planting date on the growth parameter. There is an improved yield from the local variety planted 15 days before the groundnut planting date, as well as from the Uri variety planted both simultaneously with, and also 15 days before, the groundnut planting date, with maximum yields of 2.99, 2.75 and 2.69 ton ha−1, respectively. Full article
415 KiB  
Article
Use of Pulsed Electric Fields to Induce Breakage of Glandular Trichome Cells in Leaves of Fresh Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.): Specific Energy Input Consumption
by Sukardi Sukardi, Sudjito Soeparman, Bambang Dwi Argo and Yudy Surya Irawan
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2019, 10(1), 7443; https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2019.7443 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
Research has been performed using a pulsed electric field (PEF) to damage plant cells to obtain bioactive compounds before extraction. However, research into the use of PEF to break down the glandular trichome (GT) cells of patchouli for essential oil extraction is still [...] Read more.
Research has been performed using a pulsed electric field (PEF) to damage plant cells to obtain bioactive compounds before extraction. However, research into the use of PEF to break down the glandular trichome (GT) cells of patchouli for essential oil extraction is still limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the specific energy input needed to break patchouli leaf GT cells by PEF treatment. Patchouli leaves were harvested at 7 months of age, then treated with PEF. GT cell changes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The results show that treatment with variable frequencies caused GT cell wrinkling and treatments with a variable electric field caused GT cell rupture. Electric field treatment at E = 133.33 V/cm and a PEF exposure time of 2 seconds or E = 116.66 V/cm and 3 seconds of PEF exposure resulted in consistent rupture of GT cells. Energy consumption of 0.049 kJ/cm3 promoted GT cell wall shrinkage and consumption of 0.59 kJ/cm3 broke GT cell walls. Full article
445 KiB  
Article
Kinetics Study the Decomposition of the Cellulose into Cellulose Nanocrystals by Hydrothermal with Hydrochloric Acid Catalyst
by Zulnazri Zulnazri, Rozanna Dewi, Sulhatun Sulhatun and Nasrun Nasrun
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2019, 10(1), 7440; https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2019.7440 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
The aim of this study was to hydrolyzed cellulose nanocrystals as cellulose-based biomass residues from oil palm by using hydrochloric acid under hydrothermal conditions. The characterization of cellulose nanocrystals was determined by FT-IR spectroscopy and X- ray diffraction. The infrared spectroscopy showed there [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to hydrolyzed cellulose nanocrystals as cellulose-based biomass residues from oil palm by using hydrochloric acid under hydrothermal conditions. The characterization of cellulose nanocrystals was determined by FT-IR spectroscopy and X- ray diffraction. The infrared spectroscopy showed there has been a removal of lignin and hemicellulose in the spectrum. Crystallinity which reaches 78.59% was obtained by hydrolysis using hydrochloric acid catalyst 3 mol/L with a reaction time of 1 hour. Based on the graph of -ln CA/CA0 vs. time obtained that Cellulose nanocrystals forming reaction is of first order. The reaction rate constants to the formation of glucose (k2) is greater than the reaction rate constant to the formation of Cellulose nanocrystals (k1), which indicates that the phase of slow reaction is the reaction of the most influential on the overall reaction rate, the reaction of the formation of Cellulose nanocrystals. Full article
328 KiB  
Article
Conservation Status and Threats to Vascular Plant Species Endemic to Soutpansberg Mountain Range in Limpopo Province, South Africa
by Ikarabeng Moraswi, Samuel Oloruntoba Bamigboye and Milingoni Peter Tshisikhawe
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2019, 10(1), 7978; https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2019.7978 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
Soutpansberg Mountain range is one of the main biodiversity hotspots in South Africa and it is located in Limpopo Province. It possesses high diversity of flora and fauna. Communities surrounding this mountain have long benefited from the ecosystem services that the area provides. [...] Read more.
Soutpansberg Mountain range is one of the main biodiversity hotspots in South Africa and it is located in Limpopo Province. It possesses high diversity of flora and fauna. Communities surrounding this mountain have long benefited from the ecosystem services that the area provides. It is of importance to determine the threat status of plant species endemic to this mountain range that has been a great source of ecosystem services. Twenty-two endemic vascular plant species of the mountain range have been identified. In this study we use the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) current 2017 version Red List categories to determine the threat status of plant species endemic to Soutpansberg Mountain range. SANBI is the national body in South African that is responsible for national threat assessment for plant and animal species and they also provide data to IUCN (International Union ofC onservation of Nature) on threat status of plant and animal taxa found in South Africa. We calculated the categorical percentages of threat status of endemic vascular plants species of Soutpansberg Mountain range and the threats these plant species are facing were gotten from SANBI Red List. This study showed that over 50% of the plant species endemic to this area are of conservation concern meaning they deserve conservation attention. Majority of threats are due to anthropogenic pressure. This implies that the endemic flora of this region is facing risk of extinction. This study recommends protection of all the endemic plant species of this mountain range in order to prevent theirf uture extinction. Full article
449 KiB  
Article
Effect of Two Bottom Fertilizers and Previous Crop on Yield of Durum Wheat Breeding Seed (Triticum durum Desf.)
by Nadia Chiahi and Louhichi Brinis
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2019, 10(1), 7308; https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2019.7308 - 14 Jun 2019
Viewed by 637
Abstract
To improve the yield of durum wheat seed (Triticum durum Desf.), seven varieties were grown in an experimental field (Tifech region in Souk Ahras). The study focused on planting the varieties on two cropping precedents (sorghum and fallow grazing), in addition to [...] Read more.
To improve the yield of durum wheat seed (Triticum durum Desf.), seven varieties were grown in an experimental field (Tifech region in Souk Ahras). The study focused on planting the varieties on two cropping precedents (sorghum and fallow grazing), in addition to the use of two bottom fertilizers, one potassic (Fosfactyl) and the other phoshonitrogen, (DAP). The analysis of the results showed a clear improvement in grain yields in the varieties harvested from the previous crop (Sorgho) and having received Fosfactyl as fertilizer. The best grain yields were displayed by the Carioca, Boussallem and Sersou varieties. After harvest, the study of soil parameters of the respective parcels showed soil with a sandy loam texture, with a low organic matter, with a slightly alkaline pH, while being low in salts. Full article
400 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Antidepressant-like Effect Lavandulifolia stachys in the Forced Swimming Test in Comparison with Imipramine and Fluoxetine
by Shirali Kharamin, Saeed Razmeh, Mona Nabovvati, Karim Moradian, Samaneh Rahimi, Maryam Orooji, Laleh Taghavian and Majid Kherad Mand Maher
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2019, 10(1), 7458; https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2019.7458 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 526
Abstract
Depression is a global problem associated with multiple social and health issues. In the present study, we analyzed the antidepressant effects of Lavandulifolia stachys, an herbal planton forced swimming test (FST). In this study, 36 rats were used. We gavaged the aqueous [...] Read more.
Depression is a global problem associated with multiple social and health issues. In the present study, we analyzed the antidepressant effects of Lavandulifolia stachys, an herbal planton forced swimming test (FST). In this study, 36 rats were used. We gavaged the aqueous extract of plant (50, 100, 150 mg/kg), imipramine and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) as standard antidepressant drug and normal saline for control group for a week. Then, their behavioral responses including climbing, swimming and immobility were recorded during the 5-min FST. Our experiments showed significant effects of Lavandulifolia stachys on swimming and immobility but not effect on climbing behaviors. Imipramine and fluoxetine increased climbing and swimming, respectively, and both reduced immobility, compared to saline control. Finally, our results show the extract of Lavandulifolia stachys could play an important role in treatment of depression like fluoxetine. Full article
365 KiB  
Article
Susceptibility of Six Corn Varieties (Zea mays L.) to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
by L. P. Astuti, S. M. Yahya and M. S. Hadi
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2019, 10(1), 7441; https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2019.7441 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
Agricultural produce is commonly stored in warehouses after the harvest period, before being utilized and fulfilling the crop stock. However, crop threats are not only present during cultivation and harvest, but crops can also be infected during storage, which leads to agricultural loss. [...] Read more.
Agricultural produce is commonly stored in warehouses after the harvest period, before being utilized and fulfilling the crop stock. However, crop threats are not only present during cultivation and harvest, but crops can also be infected during storage, which leads to agricultural loss. This research aimed to observe the resistance level of corn varieties of Bisma, Bisi 18, Bisi 19, Pioneer 21, Pioneer 29, and Pertiwi 3 to the Sitophilus zeamais pest of stored product insects. This resistance was based on the mechanism of non-preference (antixenosis) resistance, measured with the Free Choice Test Method (FCTM), and antibiosis resistance mechanism, measured with the No Choice Test Method (NCTM). The results showed that based on the susceptibility index (Dobie, 1974), corn varieties of Pertiwi 3 were categorized as resistant to S. zeamais pests, while the varieties of Bisi 19, Bisma, Bisi 18, Pioneer 21 and Pioneer 29 were moderately resistant. Full article
461 KiB  
Article
Clonal Integration of the Invasive Plant Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch in Stress of Flooding Type Combination
by Endang Saptiningsih, Kumala Dewi, S. Santosa and Yekti A. Purwestri
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2019, 10(1), 7526; https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2018.7526 - 3 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
The clonal invasion of Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch has spread to riverside and edges of mangrove areas, which leads to the formation of flooding-stressed areas such as waterlogged and submergence. This study purpose to investigate the clonal integration mechanism of W. trilobata in [...] Read more.
The clonal invasion of Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch has spread to riverside and edges of mangrove areas, which leads to the formation of flooding-stressed areas such as waterlogged and submergence. This study purpose to investigate the clonal integration mechanism of W. trilobata in stress of flooding type combination. This study was conducted in greenhouse with four combinations of flooding treatment on mother ramet (MR) and daughter ramet (DR) for 25 days. Several parameters were measured are shoot growth, relative growth rate (RGR), biomass, biomass allocation, adventitious root growth, and lenticel hypertrophy. The highest clonal performance was observed for the combination of field capacity (MR)-waterlogged (DR). The lowest performance was observed for the combination of waterlogged (MR)-submergence (DR). There were decreases in the shoot growth, RGR, and biomass allocation in mother ramet. However, adventitious root growth and lenticel hypertrophy increased in daughter ramet. The increase of flooding pressure suppresses the performance of clonal plants. Clonal integration buffered clonal plants by improving the performance of daughter ramet in the combination of flooding type. The clonal integration has facilitated W. trilobata invasion in inundated areas. Full article
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