Previous Issue
Volume 16, March
 
 

Pediatr. Rep., Volume 16, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 16 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
12 pages, 364 KiB  
Review
Understanding the Neuropsychological Implications of Klinefelter Syndrome in Pediatric Populations: Current Perspectives
by Panagiota Tragantzopoulou and Vaitsa Giannouli
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 420-431; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020036 - 25 May 2024
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Klinefelter syndrome (KS), also known as 47,XXY, is a genetic disorder characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome. Despite the prevalence of verbal learning disabilities, memory impairments, and executive function deficits in individuals with KS, comprehensive research on the neuropsychological profiles [...] Read more.
Klinefelter syndrome (KS), also known as 47,XXY, is a genetic disorder characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome. Despite the prevalence of verbal learning disabilities, memory impairments, and executive function deficits in individuals with KS, comprehensive research on the neuropsychological profiles of affected children and adolescents remains limited. Additionally, KS has been associated with comorbid conditions such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, systematic investigations into the neuropsychological manifestations of KS in pediatric populations are scarce. Therefore, the primary objectives of this review are to provide an overview of key studies examining the neuropsychological profiles of children and adolescents with KS and to delineate the limitations and implications of existing research findings. By synthesizing available literature, this review aims to bridge the gap in understanding the cognitive and behavioral characteristics of children and adolescents with KS, shedding light on potential avenues for future research and clinical interventions. Ultimately, this review serves as a valuable resource for clinicians, researchers, policymakers, parents, and educators involved in the assessment and management of the neuropsychological aspects of Klinefelter syndrome in pediatric populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Psychiatric Disorders of Children and Adolescents)
10 pages, 444 KiB  
Article
Radiographic and Tomographic Study of the Cranial Bones in Children with the Idiopathic Type of West Syndrome
by Ali Al Kaissi, Sergey Ryabykh, Farid Ben Chehida, Hamza Al Kaissi, Vasileios Dougales, Vladimir M. Kenis and Franz Grill
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 410-419; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020035 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 205
Abstract
Background: Neither radiological phenotypic characteristics nor reconstruction CT scan has been used to study the early anatomical disruption of the cranial bone in children with the so-called idiopathic type of West syndrome. Material and Methods: The basic diagnostic measures and the classical antiepileptic [...] Read more.
Background: Neither radiological phenotypic characteristics nor reconstruction CT scan has been used to study the early anatomical disruption of the cranial bone in children with the so-called idiopathic type of West syndrome. Material and Methods: The basic diagnostic measures and the classical antiepileptic treatments were applied to these children in accordance with the conventional protocol of investigations and treatment for children with West syndrome. Boys from three unrelated families were given the diagnosis of the idiopathic type of West syndrome, aged 7, 10 and 12 years old. Parents underwent extensive clinical examinations. Three parents (age range of 28–41 year) were included in this study. All children showed a history of intellectual disabilities, cryptogenic epileptic spasms and fragmented hypsarrhythmia. These children and their parents were referred to our orthopedic departments because of variable skeletal deformities. Variable forms of skeletal deformities were the motive for the families to seek orthopedic advice. A constellation of flat foot, torticollis and early-onset osteoarthritis were observed by the family doctor. Apparently, and from the first clinical session in our practice, we felt that all these children are manifesting variable forms of abnormal craniofacial contour. Thereby, we immediately performed detailed cranial radiological phenotypic characterization of every affected child, as well as the siblings and parents, and all were enrolled in this study. All affected children underwent whole-exome sequence analysis. Results: The craniofacial phenotype of all children revealed apparent developmental anatomical disruption of the cranial bones. Palpation of the skull bones showed unusual palpable bony ridges along different sutural locations. A 7-year-old child showed abnormal bulging over the sagittal suture, associated with bilateral bony ridges over the squamosal sutures. AP skull radiograph of a 7-year-old boy with West syndrome showed facial asymmetry with early closure of the metopic suture, and other sutures seemed ill-defined. A 3D reconstruction CT scan of the skull showed early closure of the metopic suture. Another 3D reconstruction CT scan of the skull while the patient was in flexion showed early closure of the squamosal sutures, pressing the brain contents upward, causing the development of a prominent bulge at the top of the mid-sagittal suture. A reformatted 3D reconstruction CT scan confirmed the bilateral closure of the squamosal suture. Examination of the parents revealed a similar skull radiographic abnormality in his mother. A 3D reformatted frontal cranial CT of a 35-year-old mother showed early closure of the metopic and sagittal sutures, causing a mid-sagittal bony bulge. A 10-year-old boy showed an extremely narrow frontal area, facial asymmetry and a well palpable ridge over the lambdoid sutures. A 3D axial reconstruction CT scan of a 10-year-old boy with West syndrome illustrated the asymmetry of the posterior cranial bones along the lambdoid sutures. Interestingly, his 28-year-old mother has been a client at the department of spine surgery since she was 14 years old. A 3D reconstruction CT scan of the mother showed a noticeable bony ridge extending from the metopic suture upwards to involve the sagittal suture (red arrow heads). The black arrow shows a well demarcated bony ridge over the squamosal suture. A 3D reconstruction CT scan of the skull and spine showed the thick bony ridge of the metopic and the anterior sagittal as well as bilateral involvement of the squamosal, causing apparent anterior narrowing of the craniofacial contour. Note the lumbar scoliosis. A 12-year-old boy showed brachycephaly. A lateral skull radiograph of a 12-year-old boy with West syndrome showed premature sutural fusion, begetting an abnormal growth pattern, resulting in cranial deformity. The nature of the deformity depends on which sutures are involved, the time of onset and the sequence in which individual sutures fuse. In this child, brachycephalic secondary to craniosynostosis, which occurred because of bilateral early ossification of the coronal sutures, led to bi-coronal craniosynostosis. Thickened frontal bones and an ossified interclinoid ligament of the sella turcica were encountered. The lateral skull radiograph of a 38-year-old mother with a history of poor schooling achievements showed a very similar cranial contour of brachycephaly, thickening of the frontal bones and massive ossification of the clinoid ligament of the sella turcica. Maternal history revealed a history of multiple spontaneous miscarriages in the first trimester of more than five times. Investigating his parents revealed a brachycephalic mother with borderline intelligence. We affirm that the pattern of inheritance in the three boys was compatible with the X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance. Whole-exome sequencing showed non-definite phenotype/genotype correlation. Conclusions: The aim of this study was sixfold: firstly, to refute the common usage of the term idiopathic; secondly, we feel that it could be possible that West syndrome is a symptom complex rather than a separate diagnostic entity; thirdly, to further detect the genetic carrier, we explored the connection between the cranial bones in children with West syndrome with what has been clinically observed in their parents; fourthly, the early life anatomical disruptions of the cranial bones among these children seem to be heterogeneous; fifthly, it shows that the progressive deceleration in the development of this group of children is highly connected to the progressive closure of the cranial sutures; sixthly, we affirm that our findings are novel. Full article
11 pages, 741 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Omicron Strain on Febrile Convulsions Requiring Hospitalization in Children: A Single-Center Observational Study
by Masayuki Nagasawa, Teruyoshi Shimoyama, Sayuri Hashimoto, Ryuichi Nakagawa, Haruna Yokoyama, Mari Okada, Tomohiro Udagawa and Akihiro Oshiba
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 399-409; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020034 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Background. The emergence of the Omicron strain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at the end of December 2021 has drastically increased the number of infected children in Japan, along with the number of children with febrile convulsions, but its clinical [...] Read more.
Background. The emergence of the Omicron strain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at the end of December 2021 has drastically increased the number of infected children in Japan, along with the number of children with febrile convulsions, but its clinical impact is unclear. Materials and Methods. We compared the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children hospitalized with febrile convulsions with the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with fever and respiratory symptoms without convulsions. Results. In 2021 and 2022, 49 and 58 children required emergency hospitalization for febrile convulsions (FC group) with status epilepticus or cluster spasms, in which 24 and 38 children underwent a Filmarray® respiratory panel test (FA test), respectively, and others received a quantitative antigen test for SARS-CoV-2. In 2022, only six patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (10.3%, 6/58). As a reference group, 655 children aged <10 years who underwent the FA test for fever and respiratory symptoms during the same period were investigated, and 4 (1.8%, 4/223) and 42 (9.7%, 42/432) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in 2021 and 2022, respectively. Rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV) was the most frequently detected virus (40.3%, 264/655), followed by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (18.9%, 124/655) and parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) (7.8%, 51/655). There was no significant difference in the trend of detected viruses between the two groups. Conclusions. The frequency and severity of febrile convulsions requiring hospitalization associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection of the Omicron strain may be similar to that of other respiratory viruses in children. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1524 KiB  
Review
Preservation of Pancreatic Function Should Not Be Disregarded When Performing Pancreatectomies for Pancreatoblastoma in Children
by Traian Dumitrascu
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 385-398; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020033 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Complete surgical resection in the context of a multimodal approach has been associated with excellent long-term survival in children diagnosed with pancreatoblastoma (PB). Traditionally, curative intent surgery for PB implies standard pancreatic resections such as pancreaticoduodenectomies and distal pancreatectomies with splenectomies, surgical procedures [...] Read more.
Complete surgical resection in the context of a multimodal approach has been associated with excellent long-term survival in children diagnosed with pancreatoblastoma (PB). Traditionally, curative intent surgery for PB implies standard pancreatic resections such as pancreaticoduodenectomies and distal pancreatectomies with splenectomies, surgical procedures that may lead to significant long-term pancreatic functional deficiencies. Postoperative pancreatic functional deficiencies are particularly interesting to children because they may interfere with their development, considering their long life expectancy and the significant role of pancreatic functions in their nutritional status and growth. Thus, organ-sparing pancreatectomies, such as spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomies and central pancreatectomies, are emerging in specific tumoral pathologies in children. However, data about organ-sparing pancreatectomies’ potential role in curative-intent PB surgery in children are scarce. Based on the literature data, the current review aims to present the early and late outcomes of pancreatectomies in children (including long-term deficiencies and their potential impact on the development and quality of life), particularly for PB, and further explore the potential role of organ-sparing pancreatectomies for PB. Organ-sparing pancreatectomies are associated with better long-term pancreatic functional outcomes, particularly central pancreatectomies, and have a reduced impact on children’s development and quality of life without jeopardizing their oncological safety. The long-term preservation of pancreatic functions should not be disregarded when performing pancreatectomies for PB in children. A subset of patients with PB might benefit from organ-sparing pancreatectomies, particularly from central pancreatectomies, with the same oncological results as standard pancreatectomies but with significantly less impact on long-term functional outcomes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1850 KiB  
Article
Association between Paediatric Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use and Parental Health Literacy, Child Health, and Socio-Economic Variables: A Prospective Study
by Abida Denny, Andrew S. Day and Angharad Vernon-Roberts
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 368-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020032 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAMs) constitute products and practices not considered allopathic medicine. CAM use is high in children, but little is known about factors that may influence parents using CAM with their child. This study aimed to determine the variables associated with [...] Read more.
Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAMs) constitute products and practices not considered allopathic medicine. CAM use is high in children, but little is known about factors that may influence parents using CAM with their child. This study aimed to determine the variables associated with CAM use in children with a prospective study among children and their parents attending a tertiary care hospital in New Zealand (NZ). Outcomes included current CAM use, parental opinions on CAM, parental health literacy and child well-being. This study was completed by 130 parents (85% female), and the mean child age was 6.7 years. CAM use was reported for 59 (45%) children, the most common being oral supplements and body manipulation. Children were more likely to use CAM if their parent had higher health literacy (p = 0.001), and if they had previously attended the emergency department within 12 months (p = 0.03). There was no association between child well-being and CAM use. Parental opinion of using CAM only if a doctor recommended it was associated with CAM use for their child (p = 0.01). Only 40% of parents disclosed their child’s CAM use to the medical team. This study highlights that parental health literacy influences the use of CAM for children in NZ, providing insight for translational research to improve CAM safety and disclosure rates in NZ. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1666 KiB  
Brief Report
Adolescents Identify Modifiable Community-Level Barriers to Accessing Mental Health and Addiction Services in a Rural Canadian Town: A Survey Study
by Hana Marmura, Regina R. F. Cozzi, Heather Blackburn and Oliva Ortiz-Alvarez
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 353-367; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020031 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to inadequate provision of mental health and addictions care, as services have been traditionally conceptualized to serve the needs of children or adults. Additionally, rural communities have been largely excluded from research investigating mental healthcare access and exhibit unique [...] Read more.
Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to inadequate provision of mental health and addictions care, as services have been traditionally conceptualized to serve the needs of children or adults. Additionally, rural communities have been largely excluded from research investigating mental healthcare access and exhibit unique barriers that warrant targeted interventions. Finally, perspectives from the target population will be most important when understanding how to optimize adolescent mental health and addictions care. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify what adolescents in a rural town perceive as barriers to accessing mental health services. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study with high school students to generate ranked lists of the top perceived individual-level, community-level, and overall barriers. A total of 243 high school students responded to the survey. Perceived barriers were predominantly at the community level. Overall, the top barriers reported were a lack of awareness and education regarding mental health, resources, and the nature of treatment. Students who had previously accessed mental health services identified primary barriers related to mental health professionals, whereas students who had not accessed care reported fear and uncertainty as primary barriers. Modifiable community-level factors related to (1) mental health literacy and (2) mental healthcare professionals were identified by adolescents as the main perceived barriers to accessing mental health and addiction services in a rural town. The findings of this preliminary study should inform intervention strategies and further rigorous research for this traditionally underserved target population. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 705 KiB  
Article
Early Postnatal Administration of Erythropoietin and Its Association with Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Incidence of Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Four-Week Observational Study
by Oana Cristina Costescu, Aniko Maria Manea, Eugen Radu Boia, Daniela Mariana Cioboata, Florina Marinela Doandes, Ileana Enatescu, Sergiu Costescu, Mihaela Prodan and Marioara Boia
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 339-352; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020030 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 334
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the impact of early erythropoietin (EPO) administration on the neurodevelopment of newborns, specifically focusing on its effects on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The primary objective was to determine whether early EPO administration could impact the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of early erythropoietin (EPO) administration on the neurodevelopment of newborns, specifically focusing on its effects on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The primary objective was to determine whether early EPO administration could impact the short-term neurodevelopmental outcomes and provide safety in neonates at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Conducted at the “Louis Turcanu” Children’s Emergency Clinical Hospital in Timisoara, Romania, this observational study included 121 neonates receiving EPO and 130 No EPO controls. EPO was administered within the first 48 h of life, with doses of 1000 U/kg that escalated to 2000 U/kg if necessary. Besides observing the occurrence of IVH and HIE, this study measured clinical and biochemical markers, including LDH, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, CPK, CRP, PCT, and erythropoietin levels alongside hematology and coagulation profiles. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the groups. The EPO group showed significant reductions in LDH levels from days 1–3 to 7–10 (695.0 U/L to 442.0 U/L) and the APTT value (54.0 s) compared with the No EPO group (38.0 s). Notably, early EPO administration was associated with a significant decrease in HIE severity (beta coefficient: −0.38, p = 0.001). Additionally, lower gestational ages and hemoglobin levels correlated with increased severity of HIE. By week four, there was a significant reduction in moderate and severe HIE cases in the EPO group compared with controls (p = 0.001). Early administration of EPO in neonates significantly reduced the severity of IVH and HIE, suggesting its potential as a neuroprotective agent in neonatal care. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 258 KiB  
Review
Assisted Reproductive Technologies: A New Player in the Foetal Programming of Childhood and Adult Diseases?
by Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia and Vassilios Fanos
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 329-338; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020029 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is an emerging field in medicine that incorporates complex procedures and has profound ethical, moral, social, religious, and economic implications not just for the individuals who have access to this method but also for society. In this narrative review, [...] Read more.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is an emerging field in medicine that incorporates complex procedures and has profound ethical, moral, social, religious, and economic implications not just for the individuals who have access to this method but also for society. In this narrative review, we summarise multiple aspects of ART procedures and the possible consequences on the mother and newborn. Moreover, we provide an overview of the possible long-term consequences of ART procedures on the health of newborns, although longitudinal evidence is particularly scant. Users should be informed that ART procedures are not risk-free to prepare them for the possible negative outcomes that may occur in the perinatal period or even in childhood and adulthood. Indeed, risk estimates point to increased liability for major nonchromosomal birth defects; cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and urogenital (in male newborns) defects; and any other birth defects. Less certainty is present for the risk of neuropsychiatric sequelae in children conceived through ART. Thus, its application should be accompanied by adequate counselling and psychological support, possibly integrated into specific multidisciplinary clinical programmes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inborn Errors and Neonatal Screening)
2 pages, 164 KiB  
Editorial
The Burden of Not Doing
by Maurizio Aricò
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 327-328; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020028 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 345
Abstract
The cultural and professional growth of a physician is a long process, spanning over more than 10 years [...] Full article
14 pages, 1018 KiB  
Article
Predictive Value of Neutrophil-to-Monocyte Ratio, Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio, C-Reactive Protein, Procalcitonin, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha for Neurological Complications in Mechanically Ventilated Neonates Born after 35 Weeks of Gestation
by Daniela Mariana Cioboata, Marioara Boia, Aniko Maria Manea, Oana Cristina Costescu, Sergiu Costescu, Florina Marinela Doandes, Zoran Laurentiu Popa and Dorel Sandesc
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 313-326; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020027 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 365
Abstract
This prospective study investigated the association between elevated neutrophil-to-monocyte ratio (NMR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and the risk of developing neurological complications in mechanically ventilated neonates. The aim was to evaluate these biomarkers’ predictive value [...] Read more.
This prospective study investigated the association between elevated neutrophil-to-monocyte ratio (NMR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and the risk of developing neurological complications in mechanically ventilated neonates. The aim was to evaluate these biomarkers’ predictive value for neurological complications. Within a one-year period from January to December 2022, this research encompassed neonates born at ≥35 weeks of gestational age who required mechanical ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from the first day of life. Biomarkers were measured within the first 24 h and at 72 h. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated for each biomarker to establish the best cutoff values for predicting neurological complications. The final analysis included a total of 85 newborns, of which 26 developed neurological complications and 59 without such complications. Among the studied biomarkers, TNF-alpha at >12.8 pg/mL in the first 24 h demonstrated the highest predictive value for neurological complications, with a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 69%, and the highest AUC (0.574, p = 0.005). At 72 h, TNF-alpha levels greater than 14.3 pg/mL showed further increased predictive accuracy (sensitivity of 87%, specificity of 72%, AUC of 0.593, p < 0.001). The NMR also emerged as a significant predictor, with a cutoff value of >5.3 yielding a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 67% (AUC of 0.562, p = 0.029) at 24 h, and a cutoff of >6.1 showing a sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 68% (AUC of 0.567, p = 0.025) at 72 h. Conversely, CRP and procalcitonin showed limited predictive value at both time points. This study identifies TNF-alpha and NMR as robust early predictors of neurological complications in mechanically ventilated neonates, underscoring their potential utility in guiding early intervention strategies. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating specific biomarker monitoring in the clinical management of at-risk neonates to mitigate the incidence of neurological complications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 238 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Corporal Punishment during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Robert D. Sege, Eliza Loren Purdue, Dina Burstein, Phyllis Holditch Niolon, Lori Lyn Price, Ye Chen, Elizabeth A. Swedo, Tammy Piazza Hurley, Kavita Prasad and Bart Klika
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 300-312; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020026 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Although current policies discourage the use of corporal punishment (CP), its use is still widespread in the US. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of parents who used CP during the pandemic and identify related risk and protective factors. [...] Read more.
Although current policies discourage the use of corporal punishment (CP), its use is still widespread in the US. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of parents who used CP during the pandemic and identify related risk and protective factors. We analyzed results of a nationwide cross-sectional internet panel survey of 9000 US caregivers who responded in three waves from November 2020 to July 2021. One in six respondents reported having spanked their child in the past week. Spanking was associated with intimate partner violence and the use of multiple discipline strategies and not significantly associated with region or racial self-identification. Parents who spanked sought out more kinds of support, suggesting an opportunity to reduce spanking through more effective parenting resources. Additionally, these results suggest that parents who report using CP may be at risk for concurrent domestic violence. Full article
12 pages, 234 KiB  
Editorial
Metabolic-Associated Steatotic Liver Disease (MASLD): A New Term for a More Appropriate Therapy in Pediatrics?
by Antonella Mosca, Andrea Pietrobattista and Giuseppe Maggiore
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 288-299; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020025 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 691
Abstract
The term “non-alcoholic fatty liver disease” (NAFLD) has been, for a long time, used to describe the spectrum of liver lesions encompassing steatosis, steatohepatitis (NASH), and steatotic cirrhosis [...] Full article
10 pages, 449 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Autonomic Nervous System and Cardiovascular System in Rats in a Sex-Specific Manner
by Michał Jurczyk, Magdalena Król, Aleksandra Midro, Katarzyna Dyląg, Magdalena Kurnik-Łucka, Kamil Skowron and Krzysztof Gil
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 278-287; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020024 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) associated with a range of effects, including dysmorphic features, prenatal and/or postnatal growth problems, and neurodevelopmental difficulties. Despite advances in treatment methods, there are still gaps in knowledge that [...] Read more.
Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) associated with a range of effects, including dysmorphic features, prenatal and/or postnatal growth problems, and neurodevelopmental difficulties. Despite advances in treatment methods, there are still gaps in knowledge that highlight the need for further research. The study investigates the effect of PAE on the autonomic system, including sex differences that may aid in early FASD diagnosis, which is essential for effective interventions. Methods: During gestational days 5 to 20, five pregnant female Wistar rats were orally administered either glucose or ethanol. After 22 days, 26 offspring were born and kept with their mothers for 21 days before being isolated. Electrocardiographic recordings were taken on the 29th and 64th day. Heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were collected, including heart rate (HR), standard deviation (SD), standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), and the root mean square of successive differences between normal heartbeats (RMSSD). Additionally, a biochemical analysis of basic serum parameters was performed on day 68 of the study. Results: The study found that PAE had a significant impact on HRV. While electrolyte homeostasis remained mostly unaffected, sex differences were observed across various parameters in both control and PAE groups, highlighting the sex-specific effects of PAE. Specifically, the PAE group had lower mean heart rates, particularly among females, and higher SDNN and RMSSD values. Additionally, there was a shift towards parasympathetic activity and a reduction in heart rate entropy in the PAE group. Biochemical changes induced by PAE were also observed, including elevated levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), especially in males, increased creatinine concentration in females, and alterations in lipid metabolism. Conclusions: PAE negatively affects the development of the autonomic nervous system, resulting in decreased heart rate and altered sympathetic activity. PAE also induces cardiovascular abnormalities with sex-specific effects, highlighting a relationship between PAE consequences and sex. Elevated liver enzymes in the PAE group may indicate direct toxic effects, while increased creatinine levels, particularly in females, may suggest an influence on nephrogenesis and vascular function. The reduced potassium content may be linked to hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis overactivity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1361 KiB  
Case Report
High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema in Two Pediatric Patients with Pre-Existing Lung Disease
by Ali Alsuheel Asseri, Marei Assiri, Norah Alshehri, Noha Saad Alyazidi, Ahmed Alasmari, Saud Q. Alshabab and Nada Abdullah Asiri
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 271-277; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020023 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Background: The illnesses associated with changes in barometric pressure can be classified into three types: acute mountain sickness, high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high-altitude cerebral edema. HAPE is a rare form of pulmonary edema that occurs in susceptible individuals after arriving at altitudes [...] Read more.
Background: The illnesses associated with changes in barometric pressure can be classified into three types: acute mountain sickness, high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high-altitude cerebral edema. HAPE is a rare form of pulmonary edema that occurs in susceptible individuals after arriving at altitudes over 2500 m above sea level (m). Only a few studies have reported classical HAPE among children with underlying cardiopulmonary comorbidities. In this study, we report two pediatric cases of classical HAPE that occurred immediately upon arriving at Abha city (with an average elevation of 2270 m above sea level). Notably, both patients possessed underlying chronic lung diseases, raising crucial questions about susceptibility factors and the early onset manifestations of HAPE. Case: Two pediatric cases of HAPE are presented. The first patient, with a medical history of repaired right congenital diaphragmatic hernia and subsequent right lung hypoplasia, developed HAPE following their ascent to a high altitude. The second patient, diagnosed with diffuse lung disease of unknown etiology, experienced HAPE after a rapid high-altitude ascent. Both patients resided in low-altitude areas prior to ascent. The initial emergency room assessment revealed that both patients had severe hypoxia with respiratory distress that mandated the initiation of respiratory support and 100% oxygen therapy. They required intensive care unit admission, improved after 5 days of hospitalization, and were sent home in good condition. Conclusion: HAPE is a complex, potentially life-threatening high-altitude illness with diverse clinical presentations and variable risk factors. This case report sheds light on a potential predisposition factor—pre-existing lung disease—in children experiencing severe HAPE. While further validation is crucial, this valuable insight opens doors for improved preventative strategies and informed medical decisions for children with pre-existing lung conditions traveling to high altitudes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1483 KiB  
Article
Effects of Two Online Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Early Adolescents for Attentional, Emotional, and Behavioral Self-Regulation
by Bárbara Porter, Cristian Oyanadel, Ignacio Betancourt, Frank C. Worrell and Wenceslao Peñate
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 254-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020022 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 511
Abstract
(1) Background: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have shown interesting preliminary effects on self-regulation processes in early adolescence. However, programs have typically combined different types of interventions with no understanding of the specific effect of each intervention type on attentional, emotional, and behavioral regulation. The [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have shown interesting preliminary effects on self-regulation processes in early adolescence. However, programs have typically combined different types of interventions with no understanding of the specific effect of each intervention type on attentional, emotional, and behavioral regulation. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of two MBIs—one focused on classic attentional practices and another focused on the recognition and expression of emotions—on attentional, emotional, and behavioral self-regulation in early adolescents. (2) Method: An experimental paradigm was used. A sample of 74 children aged between 8 and 12 years old were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: (1) an MBI with a focus on attentional practices, (2) an MBI with a focus on recognition and expression of emotions, and (3) a control group. The interventions lasted 8 weeks, with a weekly, 1 h online synchronous session plus home practices. Children were evaluated before starting the intervention and at the end of the 8-week period. The assessed outcomes were (1) mindfulness; (2) emotional regulation; (3) attentional regulation, and (4) behavioral regulation. (3) Results: Children who participated in both intervention programs increased their mindfulness and emotional and behavioral regulation scores. Only children who participated in the MBI with a focus on attention showed significant changes in their ability to self-regulate attention. (4) Conclusions: The use of online MBIs, with attention to external and internal stimuli practices, can be a good strategy to strengthen self-regulation skills for attention, emotions, and behavior in early adolescence. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 287 KiB  
Review
Control of Dental Caries in Children and Adolescents Using Fluoride: An Overview of Community-Level Fluoridation Methods
by América Patricia Pontigo-Loyola, Martha Mendoza-Rodriguez, Rubén de la Rosa-Santillana, Maria Gracia Rivera-Pacheco, Horacio Islas-Granillo, Juan Fernando Casanova-Rosado, María de Lourdes Márquez-Corona, José de Jesús Navarrete-Hernández, Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís and David J. Manton
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 243-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric16020021 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 866
Abstract
The maintenance of oral health is a crucial aspect of general well-being; however, a significant proportion of the worldwide population experiences a range of oral diseases. Dental caries is a highly prevalent non-communicable disease globally, especially in children and adolescents. Fluoride is involved [...] Read more.
The maintenance of oral health is a crucial aspect of general well-being; however, a significant proportion of the worldwide population experiences a range of oral diseases. Dental caries is a highly prevalent non-communicable disease globally, especially in children and adolescents. Fluoride is involved in the control of dental caries, primarily by decreasing the critical pH for dental hard tissue dissolution and decreasing enamel solubility. Due to the substantial data supporting the efficacy of fluoride in controlling dental caries, many community-level fluoridation initiatives have been devised and executed as global public health preventive interventions. These initiatives encompass the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk. Water fluoridation is considered safe and effective when fluoride levels are maintained within the recommended range (0.6 to 1.1 mg/L). Salt fluoridation has a cariostatic potential similar to that of water fluoridation, and a fluoride concentration of 250 micrograms per gram in salt is not associated with an increased risk of developing dental fluorosis. However, there is currently an effort to reduce the consumption of table salt in order to mitigate the harmful effects of excessive salt consumption. It has been hypothesized that fluoride food supplementation, such as fluoridated milk, is associated with a decrease in caries experience in permanent teeth; however, the effect is not clear in primary teeth. Public-level fluoride interventions are more cost-effective than the operative care of caries lesions and limit the burden of care. The administration of fluorides should be conducted using safe methods, limiting ingestion, and adhering to the guidelines set by international and national health agencies in each country. This is particularly important when considering children with developing dentitions. Fluoride is an important tool in the control of dental caries, but it is crucial to combine it with good oral hygiene, a healthy diet, and regular visits to a dental professional to maintain long-term oral health. Full article
Previous Issue
Back to TopTop