# Power Compensation Strategy and Experiment of Large Seedling Tree Planter Based on Energy Storage Flywheel

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Description of the Tree Planting Machine

#### 2.2. Consumption Analysis of Soil Cutting Based on Multi-Body Dynamics

#### 2.2.1. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) Algorithm

#### 2.2.2. Establishment of the Cutterhead—Soil Simulation Model

#### 2.2.3. Boundary Conditions and Loads

^{2}, which is set according to the solution time. The modified K-file is generated first and transferred to the solver of ANSYS 16.0/LS-DYNA software.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Simulation Results and Analysis

#### 3.2. Flywheel Power Compensation Strategy and Flat Torque Analysis

#### 3.2.1. Power Compensation Scheme Based on Simulation Results

_{2}. Therefore, this paper will use the power value (17.82 kW) corresponding to the straight line (a) as the basis for tractor selection, and the energy storage flywheel will compensate for the excess energy. With this scheme, the output power of the power output shaft can be reduced by 36.2% compared with that without the flywheel.

#### 3.2.2. Design of Energy Storage Flywheel and Analysis of Torque Fluctuation

_{2}shown in Figure 6, the energy compensated by the energy storage flywheel is about 2382.5 J. Considering the effect of soil throwing, the maximum allowable speed reduction of the cutter head is 10%. The other parameters are the same as the simulation parameters. The moment of inertia is obtained by the following equation:

_{c·fw}) is flywheel compensation energy, J; (J

_{fw}) is flywheel rotational inertia; (ω

_{1}) is the angular velocity at the start of flywheel output energy; and (ω

_{2}) is the angular velocity at the end of flywheel output energy.

^{2}, in which the flywheel diameters D

_{2}, D

_{3}, and D

_{4}and the flywheel thickness B (which are not detailed here) are determined according to the flywheel material and the structural parameters of the transplanter.

_{z}

_{1}and T

_{z}

_{2}, respectively, in the two stages of cutting soil and idling, and the PTO output torque is represented by T

_{e}. The drive system has a flywheel, which plays the role of storing and releasing energy. When digging and cutting the soil, the power output torque of the power output shaft works on the soil at the initial stage. At 1.28 s, due to a sudden increase in resistance, the flywheel speed decreases and starts to release energy for torque compensation. Finally, the flywheel speed decreases to ω

_{2}. The resistance torque decreases at 1.74 s, and the flywheel starts to absorb energy. With a decrease in resistance torque, the flywheel absorbs energy rapidly. After 3.55 s, the flywheel speed is ω

_{1}(720 r/min), and the energy released by the flywheel is equal to the energy absorbed during the hole-digging process, i.e., A

_{2}= A

_{2′}. It can be seen from the figure that the maximum output torque of the power output shaft without the flywheel system is 445.7 N·m. In contrast, the maximum torque with the flywheel system is 285.1 N·m, i.e., the torque is reduced by 160.6 N·m. The torque fluctuation of the transmission system is greatly reduced. In the figure, (n) is the flywheel speed. When the system torque surges at 1.28 s, the flywheel releases energy and slows down by 10% (ω

_{2}). After that, it absorbs energy and accelerates with the transmission system. This process accelerates faster in the later stages.

#### 3.3. Performance Testing

#### 3.3.1. Test Preparation

#### 3.3.2. Test Results and Analysis

_{1}, S

_{2}, and S

_{3}. The higher the speed, the higher the actual output energy of the engine power output shaft. The three points, A, B, and C, are the maximum power consumption coordinate points corresponding to the cutter head speed at 240 r/min, 220 r/min, and 200 r/min, respectively, during the simulation analysis without a flywheel. The field test results show that the output power of the power output shaft decreases significantly once the flywheel system is added, i.e., by 10.54 kW, 10.11 kW, and 5.82 kW with respect to different cutter head speeds. The test results also show that the maximum output power peak will move backward when the flywheel is installed in the transmission system. The output power will decline slowly and then rapidly, mainly because the flywheel needs to store energy when accelerating with the transmission system. When the cutter head cuts the soil at 220 r/min, the lowest flywheel speed measured is 656 r/min. The speed decreases by 8.9%, which is 1.1% lower than the simulated value.

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 10.**Field experiment. (

**a**) Intermittent hole digging and tree planting machine (

**b**) Test system and planting.

Parameter | Value | Parameter | Value |
---|---|---|---|

Diameter of cutterhead/mm | 420 | Maximum drilling hole width/mm | 350 |

Rotational speed of cutterhead/rpm | 200–240 | Minimum drilling hole length/mm | 450 |

Maximum drilling hole depth/mm | 350 | Minimum throwing soil distance/mm | 500 |

Parameter | Value | Parameter | Value |
---|---|---|---|

Elastic modulus/MPa | 1.97 × 10^{5}(65 Mn) | Rate of water content/% | 16 |

Cutterhead density/(g/cm^{3}) | 7.85 | Soil angle of repose/° | 40.5 |

Poisson’s ratio | 0.282 | Shear modulus/MPa | 1.56 |

Cutterhead diameter/(mm) | 420 | Cohesion/MPa | 0.02 |

Blade working length/(mm) | 125 | Bulk modulus/MPa | 29 |

Soil density/(g/cm^{3}) | 1.73 | Internal friction angle/(°) | 35.5 |

Specific gravity | 2.62 | Soil poisson’s ratio | 0.4 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhu, B.; Liu, J.; Yang, C.; Qu, W.; Ding, P.
Power Compensation Strategy and Experiment of Large Seedling Tree Planter Based on Energy Storage Flywheel. *Forests* **2023**, *14*, 1039.
https://doi.org/10.3390/f14051039

**AMA Style**

Zhu B, Liu J, Yang C, Qu W, Ding P.
Power Compensation Strategy and Experiment of Large Seedling Tree Planter Based on Energy Storage Flywheel. *Forests*. 2023; 14(5):1039.
https://doi.org/10.3390/f14051039

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhu, Binhai, Jiuqing Liu, Chunmei Yang, Wen Qu, and Peng Ding.
2023. "Power Compensation Strategy and Experiment of Large Seedling Tree Planter Based on Energy Storage Flywheel" *Forests* 14, no. 5: 1039.
https://doi.org/10.3390/f14051039