# Application of Seismic Waveform Indicator Inversion in the Depth Domain: A Case Study of Pre-Salt Thin Carbonate Reservoir Prediction

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Method

#### 2.1. Forward Model

^{3}. The background mudstone (yellow) has a velocity of 3000 m/s and a density of 2.29 g/cm

^{3}. As shown in Figure 1b,c, without the influence of complex structure, noise, and other factors, the seismic waveforms of prestack time migrated data and prestack depth migrated data are very similar, showing a consistent conclusion that seismic waveforms are highly correlated with lithologic associations. Well X has the same lithologic association as Well A, and therefore shares a similar seismic waveform as Well A; Well B has a different lithologic association with Well X, and therefore produces a different seismic waveform from Well X, even though Well B is closer to Well X. It builds on the foundation of using the seismic waveform indicator inversion method to invert prestack depth migrated data directly without depth-domain wavelet extraction.

#### 2.2. Evaluation of Depth-Domain Seismic Data

#### 2.3. Seismic Waveform Indicator Inversion

^{T}eigenvalue.

## 3. Application

#### 3.1. Geological Settings

^{2}. Structurally, it belonged to the carbonate platform slope where the eastern Astrakhan-Aktyubinsk uplift extends to a southeast depression (Figure 4). The eastern Astrakhan-Aktyubinsk uplift has transformed gradually from a terrigenous clastic shelf to a carbonate platform shelf margin since the early carboniferous, with over 1000 m thickness of carbonate sequences. The carbonate strata are associated with large concentrations of hydrocarbons [24].

#### 3.2. Depth Migrated Seismic Data

#### 3.3. Depth Domain Seismic Inversion

_{1–2}is mostly approximately 1–4 m, as shown in Figure 8. The thin-layered carbonate reservoir is far below seismic resolution. It appears as a parallel/sub-parallel, continuous reflection without distinct architecture on the seismic section.

_{1–2}at the upper part of KT-II. Warm colors represent the reservoir, while cold colors stand for tight limestone. The seismic data is superimposed on the inversion result, showing the variation of seismic waveforms. Wells are attached to the inversion result, with interpreted reservoirs (red blocks). The time-domain inversion result shows a pull-up effect (yellow arrow) and has poor performance in recognizing thin reservoirs. The obvious anticlines in the time-domain profile do not exist in the depth-domain profile. It may cause problems if we use a time-domain profile to detect the potential hydrocarbon traps. Meanwhile, depth-domain inversion can provide a more accurate inversion result of the carbonate reservoir, which is consistent with the lithology distribution interpreted from well logging data.

_{1–2}demonstrates patchy-shaped reservoir distribution, which is in accordance with the structure of beach deposition (Figure 10). Moreover, the eastern part of Central Block was previously thought to be an undeveloped area for carbonate reservoirs and, therefore, has never had a well drilled. Without much information, the seismic waveform indicator inversion result shows good reservoir development in the eastern part. Guided by the result, Well B was drilled, and its logging interpretation shows promising reservoir development at Г

_{1–2}of KT-II, which matches the inversion result very well (Figure 9 and Figure 10).

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Geological model (

**a**) and its corresponding seismic reflections: prestack time migrated data (

**b**) and prestack depth migrated data (

**c**).

**Figure 2.**Logging curve comparison of two wells (w1 and w2) with similar seismic waveform at different frequency bandwidths.

**Figure 7.**Comparison of prestack time-migrated seismic data (

**upper**) and the reverse-time depth migrated seismic data (

**lower**).

**Figure 9.**Time-domain inversion result (

**upper**) and depth-domain inversion result (

**lower**) of Г

_{1–2}, KT-II. See Figure 10 for the location of the profile.

**Figure 10.**Reservoir thickness map of Г

_{1–2}, KT-II, showing that the carbonate reservoir is much developed in the eastern region of the study area.

**Table 1.**Correlation coefficient of seismic waveforms and its corresponding frequency band-width of log curves. The first line is the statistical result of Figure 2.

Correlation Coefficient of Seismic Waveforms (Time) | Frequency Bandwidth of Log Curves in Time Domain (Hz) | Correlation Coefficient of Seismic Waveforms (Depth) | Frequency Bandwidth of Log Curves in Depth Domain (Hz) |
---|---|---|---|

0.81 | 0–200 | 0.79 | 0–300 |

0.73 | 0–200 | 0.75 | 0–300 |

0.68 | 0–100 | 0.64 | 0–200 |

0.84 | 0–200 | 0.82 | 0–300 |

0.77 | 0–200 | 0.77 | 0–200 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Hao, J.; Wu, S.; Yang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Sha, X. Application of Seismic Waveform Indicator Inversion in the Depth Domain: A Case Study of Pre-Salt Thin Carbonate Reservoir Prediction. *Energies* **2023**, *16*, 3073.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073073

**AMA Style**

Hao J, Wu S, Yang J, Zhang Y, Sha X. Application of Seismic Waveform Indicator Inversion in the Depth Domain: A Case Study of Pre-Salt Thin Carbonate Reservoir Prediction. *Energies*. 2023; 16(7):3073.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073073

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Hao, Jinjin, Shiguo Wu, Jinxiu Yang, Yajun Zhang, and Xuemei Sha. 2023. "Application of Seismic Waveform Indicator Inversion in the Depth Domain: A Case Study of Pre-Salt Thin Carbonate Reservoir Prediction" *Energies* 16, no. 7: 3073.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073073