# A Quantum–Classical Model of Brain Dynamics

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. The Bipartite Structure of Psychology as the Root for Quantum–Classical Models of the Brain

#### 2.1. General Semantics

#### 2.2. Pauli and Jung’s Synchronicity

#### 2.3. The Bi-Logical Structure of Psychology

## 3. Schrödinger’s ‘Order from Order’ and Jordan’s Quantum Amplification

## 4. Electromagnetic Fields in the Brain

## 5. Penrose and Hameroff’s Orch OR

## 6. The Dissipative Quantum Model of Brain

## 7. The Quantum–Classical Model of Brain

#### Constant Temperature Quantum–Classical Dynamics

## 8. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

ACS | alternating current stimulation |

CaMKII | calcium-calmodulin kinase II |

DOF | degrees of freedom |

DQMB | dissipative quantum model of brain |

EMF | electromagnetic field |

GS | general semantics |

MAPs | microtubule-associated proteins |

NHC | Nosé–Hoover chain |

Orch OR | orchestrated objective reduction |

QC | quantum–classical |

QFT | quantum field theory |

QFTMB | quantum field theory model of brain |

SSB | spontaneous symmetry breaking |

tDCS | transcranial direct-current stimulation |

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Sergi, A.; Messina, A.; Vicario, C.M.; Martino, G. A Quantum–Classical Model of Brain Dynamics. *Entropy* **2023**, *25*, 592.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e25040592

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Sergi A, Messina A, Vicario CM, Martino G. A Quantum–Classical Model of Brain Dynamics. *Entropy*. 2023; 25(4):592.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e25040592

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Sergi, Alessandro, Antonino Messina, Carmelo M. Vicario, and Gabriella Martino. 2023. "A Quantum–Classical Model of Brain Dynamics" *Entropy* 25, no. 4: 592.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e25040592