Topic Editors

Dempster Mass Spectrometry Lab - Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidade de São Paulo - USP, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Prof. Dr. Cláudio Augusto Oller do Nascimento
Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

New Advances in Waste and Biomass Valorization

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 October 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
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12840

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topical Issue summarizes the most recent approaches to waste valorization at the laboratory and industrial scales, in particular, green extraction methods such as supercritical fluid, microwaves, and pressurized liquid; low-cost culture medium aiming at high add-value products such as surfactin using cassava wastewater and algae cultivation; energy conversion such as biomass combustion, and the correlation between end-product purity and application; analytical facilities, including advantages and disadvantages, in particular mass spectrometry and biological activity techniques; life-cycle assessment challenges, and economic, social, and environmental evaluations of bioconversions.

Dr. Lidiane Maria Andrade
Prof. Dr. Claudio Augusto Oller do Nascimento
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • agro-industrial waste
  • green extraction
  • biotechnological processes
  • bioactive compounds
  • food industry

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Biomass
biomass
- - 2021 19 Days CHF 1000
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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18 pages, 1651 KiB  
Article
Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biocrude Stabilization via Hydrotreatment
by Athanasios Dimitriadis and Stella Bezergianni
Energies 2024, 17(6), 1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17061437 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 452
Abstract
The main objective of the manuscript is to investigate mild hydrotreatment upgrading of hydrothermal liquefaction biocrude to improve its stability and energy content. To that end, biocrude hydrotreatment was performed, exploring three different operating windows in order to examine the effect of reaction [...] Read more.
The main objective of the manuscript is to investigate mild hydrotreatment upgrading of hydrothermal liquefaction biocrude to improve its stability and energy content. To that end, biocrude hydrotreatment was performed, exploring three different operating windows in order to examine the effect of reaction temperature and hydrogen supply on deoxygenation reactions. A typical NiMo/Al2O3 hydrotreating catalyst was utilized while the experiments were performed in a continuous-flow TRL 3 hydrotreatment plant. The results show that the resulting product has a higher carbon content as compared to the raw feed. The oxygenated compounds were removed, leading to a product with almost zero oxygen and water content, with high energy density. The reaction pathways during the hydrotreatment upgrading of biocrude were investigated via GC-MS analysis and presented in detail in the manuscript. In general, the hydrotreating process was able to improve the quality of the initial biocrude, allowing easier handling and storing for further upgrading, or to be used as an intermediate refinery stream. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Advances in Waste and Biomass Valorization)
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13 pages, 2173 KiB  
Article
Effective Upgrading of Levulinic Acid into Hexyl Levulinate Using AlCl3·6H2O as a Catalyst
by Valeria D’Ambrosio and Carlo Pastore
Biomass 2023, 3(3), 266-278; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomass3030016 - 01 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
AlCl3·6H2O was used as a catalyst in the esterification reaction of levulinic acid with 1-hexanol for producing hexyl levulinate, a compound that finds applications in several industrial sectors and represents an excellent candidate to be used in diesel fuel [...] Read more.
AlCl3·6H2O was used as a catalyst in the esterification reaction of levulinic acid with 1-hexanol for producing hexyl levulinate, a compound that finds applications in several industrial sectors and represents an excellent candidate to be used in diesel fuel blends. A kinetic and thermodynamic study of the esterification reaction was performed, considering four different temperatures (338, 348, 358, and 368 K), an acid: alcohol: catalyst 1:1:0.01 molar ratio, and a reaction time of 72 h. An optimization study was then carried out, evaluating the effect of alcohol and catalyst amounts, and, in the best reaction conditions (acid:alcohol:catalyst 1:2:0.1), a very high levulinic acid conversion (92.5%) was achieved. By using AlCl3·6H2O, alongside the high reaction yield, the product purification was also simplified, being such a catalyst able to trap most of the water in a different phase than hexyl levulinate, and, furthermore, it was found to be completely recoverable and reusable for several reaction cycles, without losing its catalytic effectiveness. The use of AlCl3·6H2O, therefore, represents a promising effective green route for obtaining hexyl levulinate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Advances in Waste and Biomass Valorization)
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13 pages, 3290 KiB  
Article
A Critical Investigation of Certificated Industrial Wood Pellet Combustion: Influence of Process Conditions on CO/CO2 Emission
by Bartosz Choiński, Ewa Szatyłowicz, Izabela Zgłobicka and Magdalena Joka Ylidiz
Energies 2023, 16(1), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010250 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
The pollutants emission into the atmosphere is largely related to human activity and health, whereas, of many factors, domestic heating systems greatly impact the emission rate. The measures taken to reduce the emission of harmful compounds to the atmosphere are slowly starting to [...] Read more.
The pollutants emission into the atmosphere is largely related to human activity and health, whereas, of many factors, domestic heating systems greatly impact the emission rate. The measures taken to reduce the emission of harmful compounds to the atmosphere are slowly starting to bring the intended effects and a downward trend in emissions of such gases as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is noticeable. The conducted tests allowed the determination of the combustion characteristics of individual pellet types available on the European market. During the tests, pellets were supplied to a 25 kW fixed-bed boiler with a constant mass flow of 3 kg·h−1, and the air-flow ratio was manipulated and presented in the form of the excess air coefficient λ (1.8–3.08). Pellets certificated with the ENPlus as A1 were found not meeting the requirements, mainly in the ash content, which negatively affected their combustion performance gradually and caused exceeded CO emissions up to 1000 mg·Nm−3. Pellets of declared lower classes were more beneficial for combustion in terms of emission factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Advances in Waste and Biomass Valorization)
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13 pages, 1835 KiB  
Article
Ammonia Recovery from Organic Waste Digestate via Gas–Liquid Stripping: Application of the Factorial Design of Experiments and Comparison of the Influence of the Stripping Gas
by Advait Palakodeti, Samet Azman, Raf Dewil and Lise Appels
Sustainability 2022, 14(24), 17000; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142417000 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
The effects of temperature, pH, and gas-to-liquid-volume-ratio on ammonia recovery via gas–liquid stripping have been widely studied. However, there is a lack of a structured approach towards characterising the stripping process. Furthermore, limited information is available on the effect of the composition of [...] Read more.
The effects of temperature, pH, and gas-to-liquid-volume-ratio on ammonia recovery via gas–liquid stripping have been widely studied. However, there is a lack of a structured approach towards characterising the stripping process. Furthermore, limited information is available on the effect of the composition of the stripping gas on ammonia recovery. This study includes the application of a factorial design of experiments to ammonia stripping. The outcome is a mathematical relationship for ammonia recovery as a function of process conditions. The temperature was found to have the highest influence on ammonia recovery. With respect to the influence of the stripping gas, similar ammonia recoveries were reported when using air, CH4, and N2 (96, 92, and 95%, respectively). This was attributed to their similar influences on the pH of the digestate, and subsequently, on the free ammonia equilibrium. In addition, the presence of CO2 in the stripping gas had a critical effect on ammonia recovery due to its influence on the total ammonia equilibrium in the digestate. These results showed the possibility of using different stripping gases interchangeably to obtain similar ammonia recoveries, with a critical emphasis on their CO2 content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Advances in Waste and Biomass Valorization)
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14 pages, 1531 KiB  
Article
Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Bacillus megaterium: Prospecting on Rice Hull and Residual Glycerol Potential
by Vanessa Kristine de Oliveira Schmidt, Evelise Fonseca dos Santos, Débora de Oliveira, Marco Antônio Záchia Ayub, Karina Cesca, Paulo Roberto Dall Cortivo, Cristiano José de Andrade and Lilian Raquel Hickert
Biomass 2022, 2(4), 412-425; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomass2040026 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2422
Abstract
The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Bacillus megaterium using industrial residues, crude glycerol from biodiesel synthesis and rice hull hydrolysate (RHH), as low-cost carbon sources was investigated. The experiments were conducted by shaking flasks at 30 °C and 180 rpm up to 72 [...] Read more.
The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Bacillus megaterium using industrial residues, crude glycerol from biodiesel synthesis and rice hull hydrolysate (RHH), as low-cost carbon sources was investigated. The experiments were conducted by shaking flasks at 30 °C and 180 rpm up to 72 h. The extraction of PHA was carried out using sodium hypochlorite to make its recovery more environmentally friendly by avoiding organic solvents (chloroform). The yields of PHA varied depending on the extraction method. A total of 33.3% (w·w−1) (mixing chloroform: sodium hypochlorite) and 52.5% (w·w−1) (sodium hypochlorite only) were obtained using glycerol and glucose as a carbon source, respectively. Preliminary experiments using RHH as a carbon source Indicated a yield of PHA of 11% (w·w−1) (chloroform). The PHA produced had thermal properties, such as transition temperature, similar to the commercial polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Advances in Waste and Biomass Valorization)
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26 pages, 2124 KiB  
Article
Challenges in Kinetic Parameter Determination for Wheat Straw Pyrolysis
by Frederico G. Fonseca, Andrés Anca-Couce, Axel Funke and Nicolaus Dahmen
Energies 2022, 15(19), 7240; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197240 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
Wheat straw is a renewable agricultural by-product that is currently underutilized in the production of bioenergy and bioproducts due to its high ash content, as well as high transport costs due to its low volumetric energy density. The thermogravimetric analysis of this material [...] Read more.
Wheat straw is a renewable agricultural by-product that is currently underutilized in the production of bioenergy and bioproducts due to its high ash content, as well as high transport costs due to its low volumetric energy density. The thermogravimetric analysis of this material produces derivative curves with a single broad peak, making it difficult to identify the three conventional pseudo-components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), which is resolved using the second derivative to determine inflection points. Model-fitting methods and isoconversional methods were applied to determine the degradation kinetics of wheat straw at two different particle sizes, as well as that of a reference feedstock (beech wood), and the obtained values were used to divide the degradation curves to be compared to the experimental data. Seven different pyrolysis reaction networks from the literature were given a similar treatment to determine which provides the best estimation of the actual pyrolysis process for the case of the feedstocks under study. The impact of the potassium content in the feedstock was considered by comparing the original pathway with a modification dependent on the experimental potassium content and an estimated optimum value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Advances in Waste and Biomass Valorization)
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13 pages, 1879 KiB  
Article
Sequential Hydrolysis of Chicken Feathers Composed of Ultrasound and Enzymatic Steps: An Enhanced Protein Source with Bioactive Peptides
by Nely de Almeida Pedrosa, Cristiano José de Andrade, José Carlos Cunha Petrus and Alcilene Rodrigues Monteiro
Biomass 2022, 2(4), 237-249; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomass2040016 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
Chicken feather is a massive by-product. Its incorrect disposal can lead to serious environmental impacts. However, chicken feather is a promising low-cost keratin source. Keratin products have a wide application in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Mostly, chicken feathers are hydrolyzed by hydrothermal [...] Read more.
Chicken feather is a massive by-product. Its incorrect disposal can lead to serious environmental impacts. However, chicken feather is a promising low-cost keratin source. Keratin products have a wide application in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Mostly, chicken feathers are hydrolyzed by hydrothermal processes, and then applied into animal feed formulations. Despite the low cost, the hydrothermal hydrolysis leads to uncontrolled and low hydrolysis yield. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop and optimize a sequential strategy of chicken feathers hydrolysis composed of ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis (savinase®) steps. In the first research step an experimental design was built and the optimum hydrolysis condition was obtained at 50 °C and 12.5% (enzyme/chicken feather), using three integrated rectors containing enzyme/substrate and sodium disulfite. Then, the ultrasound probe was added in the experimental apparatus in order to investigate the enzymatic hydrolysis assisted by ultrasound treatment. The enzymatic hydrolysis assisted by ultrasound treatment led to high concentrations of peptides, including a dipeptide (245.1868 m/z). Thus, the sequential hydrolysis strategy composed by two green technologies proposed in this study, enhanced the degree of hydrolysis of chicken feathers, producing bioactive peptides that can be used as ingredients in food products and other sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Advances in Waste and Biomass Valorization)
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