Topic Editors

State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, China

Advanced Magnetic Alloys

Abstract submission deadline
closed (10 October 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (15 December 2023)
Viewed by
3932

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magnetic alloys are a huge and significant family of functional materials that have become indispensable in our daily lives. They are combinations of different metals that contain but are not limited to, at least one of the three main magnetic elements: iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), etc.

This Topic was inspired by the growing research interest in magnetism and magnetic alloys, the discoveries of novel magnetic alloys, and recent progress in the development of functional materials with improved magnetic and magnetic-related properties. Progress in industrial fields, such as data storage, magnetic sensing, vehicles, energy, and so on, are greatly associated with the development of advanced magnetic alloys. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the processing–structure–property relationship in fabricated magnetic alloys is of critical importance. Consequently, great efforts have been (and are being) focused on systematic theoretical and experimental studies with the overall aim of advancing our current knowledge of the origins of the material properties related to the existence of some special arrangements at the nanometric scale and/or to the provision of novel, unusual macroscopic properties.

This Topic aims to provide the most up-to-date information about recent developments in magnetic alloys (both bulk and thin film) for advanced technologies. It covers a wide range of experimental and theoretical works highlighting the following main topics:

  • Magnetic materials and sensor application;
  • Permanent magnets;
  • Magnetocaloric materials and magnetic refrigeration;
  • Spintronic materials and devices;
  • Material microstructure analysis;
  • Heusler alloys;
  • Magnetic shape alloys and related applications;
  • Amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic materials and applications.

We hope this issue will stimulate further interest in magnetic materials research.

Dr. Jiamin Chen
Prof. Dr. Xiandong Xu
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • magnetic materials and sensor application
  • permanent magnets
  • magnetocaloric materials and magnetic refrigeration
  • spintronic materials and devices
  • material microstructure analysis
  • heusler alloys
  • magnetic shape alloys and related applications
  • amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic materials and applications

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Crystals
crystals
2.7 3.6 2011 10.6 Days CHF 2600
Magnetochemistry
magnetochemistry
2.7 3.5 2015 15.8 Days CHF 2700
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600
Metals
metals
2.9 4.4 2011 15 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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42 pages, 16262 KiB  
Review
The Future of Permanent-Magnet-Based Electric Motors: How Will Rare Earths Affect Electrification?
Materials 2024, 17(4), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17040848 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 667
Abstract
In this review article, we focus on the relationship between permanent magnets and the electric motor, as this relationship has not been covered in a review paper before. With the increasing focus on battery research, other parts of the electric system have been [...] Read more.
In this review article, we focus on the relationship between permanent magnets and the electric motor, as this relationship has not been covered in a review paper before. With the increasing focus on battery research, other parts of the electric system have been neglected. To make electrification a smooth transition, as has been promised by governing bodies, we need to understand and improve the electric motor and its main component, the magnet. Today’s review papers cover only the engineering perspective of the electric motor or the material-science perspective of the magnetic material, but not both together, which is a crucial part of understanding the needs of electric-motor design and the possibilities that a magnet can give them. We review the road that leads to today’s state-of-the-art in electric motors and magnet design and give possible future roads to tackle the obstacles ahead and reach the goals of a fully electric transportation system. With new technologies now available, like additive manufacturing and artificial intelligence, electric motor designers have not yet exploited the possibilities the new freedom of design brings. New out-of-the-box designs will have to emerge to realize the full potential of the new technology. We also focus on the rare-earth crisis and how future price fluctuations can be avoided. Recycling plays a huge role in this, and developing a self-sustained circular economy will be critical, but the road to it is still very steep, as ongoing projects show. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Magnetic Alloys)
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13 pages, 3218 KiB  
Article
Texture Intensity in Grain-Oriented Steel in the Main Stages of the Production Cycle
Crystals 2024, 14(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14020107 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Grain-oriented electrical steel (GOES) has been used for many years for application in transformed cores due to its excellent magnetic properties. Magnetic properties are strongly influenced by obtaining a texture with a certain orientation (110) [001] for BCC structure. This is related to [...] Read more.
Grain-oriented electrical steel (GOES) has been used for many years for application in transformed cores due to its excellent magnetic properties. Magnetic properties are strongly influenced by obtaining a texture with a certain orientation (110) [001] for BCC structure. This is related to the easy direction of magnetization [001]. So far, the main research has been focused on obtaining a strong texture in the last stages of the process. The aim of the present study was to additionally trace textural changes for a slab after the continuous casting (CC) process and for a sheet after the hot rolling process. The scope of such an analysis has not been conducted before. With regard to the state after continuous casting (CC), the texture was related to measurements of the anisotropy of Barkhausen magnetic noises and the macrostructure of the slab. Based on the X-ray diffraction examinations that compared the texture intensity calculated from the texture coefficient of the slab, the hot rolled steel and the final product of grain-oriented electrical steel contained 3.1% of Si. The studies performed with the material taken from three different production steps showed high differences in the values of textural intensity indicating the occurrence of a crystallization texture, especially in the area of the columnar crystal zone; textural weakness after the hot rolling process and high texturing in the final product for textural components corresponding to the desired Goss texture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Magnetic Alloys)
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12 pages, 5517 KiB  
Article
Lithographically Ordered FePt L10 Dots with High Coercivity for Logic-Conditioned Magnetic Nanostructures
Crystals 2024, 14(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14010058 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 626
Abstract
In order to develop the building blocks for future biosensing and spintronic applications, an engraving technique using electron beam lithography is employed in order to develop nanomagnetic pre-patterned structures with logic potential. The paper describes the realization and morphological and magnetic characterization of [...] Read more.
In order to develop the building blocks for future biosensing and spintronic applications, an engraving technique using electron beam lithography is employed in order to develop nanomagnetic pre-patterned structures with logic potential. The paper describes the realization and morphological and magnetic characterization of potentially logic-conditioned substrates, a building block to be further used as an integration platform upon which nanodevices, such as magnetic wires, or various geometrical shapes, circles, triangles, can be considered as pre-requisite for full integration into logic devices. As a proof of concept, regular arrays of FePt circles or magnetic dots were devised and structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy proved the occurrence of the tetragonal L10 phase. Moreover, the magnetic characterization provided more insight into the potential of such arrays of magnetic devices as the hysteresis provided good values of magnetic coercivity, remanent and saturation magnetization. These findings show good potential for developing regular arrays of uniformly shaped magnetic entities with encouraging magnetic performances in view of potential applications in various applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Magnetic Alloys)
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13 pages, 2168 KiB  
Article
Unveiling the Magnetic and Structural Properties of (X2YZ; X = Co and Ni, Y = Fe and Mn, and Z = Si) Full-Heusler Alloy Microwires with Fixed Geometrical Parameters
Crystals 2023, 13(11), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13111550 - 29 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 645
Abstract
We studied Ni2FeSi-, Co2FeSi-, and Co2MnSi-based full-Heusler alloy glass-coated microwires with the same geometric parameters, i.e., fixed nucleus and total diameters, prepared using the Taylor–Ulitovsky method. The fabrication of X2YZ (X = Co and Ni, [...] Read more.
We studied Ni2FeSi-, Co2FeSi-, and Co2MnSi-based full-Heusler alloy glass-coated microwires with the same geometric parameters, i.e., fixed nucleus and total diameters, prepared using the Taylor–Ulitovsky method. The fabrication of X2YZ (X = Co and Ni, Y = Fe and Mn, and Z = Si)-based glass-coated microwires with fixed geometric parameters is quite challenging due to the different sample preparation conditions. The XRD analysis showed a nanocrystalline microstructure for all the samples. The space groups Fm3¯m (FCC) and Im3¯m (BCC) with disordered B2 and A2 types are observed for Ni2FeSi and Co2FeSi, respectively. Meanwhile, a well-defined, ordered L21 type was observed for Co2MnSi GCMWs. The change in the positions of Ni, Co and Mn, Fe in X2YSi resulted in a variation in the lattice cell parameters and average grain size of the sample. The room-temperature magnetic behavior showed a dramatic change depending on the chemical composition, where Ni2FeSi MWs showed the highest coercivity (Hc) compared to Co2FeSi and Co2MnSi MWs. The Hc value of Ni2FeSi MWs was 16 times higher than that of Co2MnSi MWs and 3 times higher than that of Co2FeSi MWs. Meanwhile, the highest reduced remanence was reported for Co2FeSi MWs (Mr = 0.92), being about 0.82 and 0.22 for Ni2FeSi and Co2MnSi MWs, respectively. From the analysis of the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties (Hc and Mr) of X2YZ MWs, we deduced that the Hc showed a stable tendency for Co2MnSi and Co2FeSi MWs. Meanwhile, two flipped points were observed for Ni2FeSi MWs, where the behavior of Hc changed with temperature. For Mr, a monotonic increase on decreasing the temperature was observed for Co2FeSi and Ni2FeSi MWs, and it remained roughly stable for Co2MnSi MWs. The thermomagnetic curves at low magnetic field showed irreversible magnetic behavior for Co2MnSi and Co2FeSi MWs and regular ferromagnetic behavior for Ni2FeSi MWs. The current result illustrates the ability to tailor the structure and magnetic behavior of X2YZ MWs at fixed geometric parameters. Additionally, a different behavior was revealed in X2YZ MWs depending on the degree of ordering and element distribution. The tunability of the magnetic properties of X2YZ MWs makes them suitable for sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Magnetic Alloys)
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12 pages, 2729 KiB  
Article
Magnetite @ Zinc Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Magnetic Behavior, and Optical Properties
Crystals 2023, 13(8), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13081284 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
One of the main challenges is using an effective photocatalyst that responds to a broad range of visible light for hydrogen production during water splitting. Series types of photocatalysts based on magnetic ferrite nanostructure were fabricated via a two-step co-precipitation technique. Precisely, four [...] Read more.
One of the main challenges is using an effective photocatalyst that responds to a broad range of visible light for hydrogen production during water splitting. Series types of photocatalysts based on magnetic ferrite nanostructure were fabricated via a two-step co-precipitation technique. Precisely, four types of magnetic structures: magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs), zinc cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (ZCFNPs), hybrid magnetite/zinc cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (MNPs @ ZCFNPs), and hybrid zinc cobalt ferrite/magnetite nanoparticles (ZCFNPs @ MNPs) were used to fabricate magnetic photocatalysts. The characterizations of the fabricated magnetic photocatalysts were investigated via TEM, zeta potential, XRD, VSM, and UV–VIS spectroscopy. ZCFNPs @ MNPs showed the smallest particle with size ≈11 nm. The magnetization value of ZCFNPs @ MNPs (59.3 emu/g) was improved compared to the MNPs (41.93 emu/g). The produced hydrogen levels via photocatalyst were 60, 10, 24, and 1.4 mmole min−1 g−1 for MNPs, ZCFNPs, MNPs @ ZCFNPs, and ZCFNPs @ MNPs, respectively, under visible light with magnetic force. MNPs displayed outstanding performance as magnetic photocatalysts for the water-splitting process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Magnetic Alloys)
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