Biological Technology for Wastewater Treatment

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 9749

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering for Environment, Land and Infrastructure (DIATI), Politecnico di Torino, 24-10129 Torino, Italy
Interests: wastewater treatment and reuse (municipal and industrial wastewater); energy efficiency and environmental assessment of urban water cycle (carbon footprint and life cycle analysis)
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Guest Editor
Chemical and Environmental Bioprocess Engineering Group, Natural Resources Institute (IRENA), University of Leon, 24071 Leon, Spain
Interests: biogas; energy; anaerobic digestion; circular economy; renewable energy; decarbonization water and wastewater treatment; waste treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We encourage you to submit papers for a Special Issue of Water focused on Biological technologies applied to wastewater treatment. Biological technologies are conventionally applied to municipal wastewater and to wastewater sludge treatments, involving aerobic and anaerobic processes, and to industrial wastewaters with high organic load. The actual technical challenges addressed by biological technologies applied to wastewater treatment are related to the presence of persistent organic pollutants, which may require pre-treatments and/or additives, to the presence of microplastics, or the high amount of biodegradable organic compounds which are not suitable for conventional treatment.

Compared to existing literature, we would like to offer to Water audience new insights on the optimization of the efficiency, economic sustainability and environmental impacts of biological technologies applied to wastewater treatment in the modern world. Manuscripts submitted to this Special Issue should consider innovative and integrated research on biological technologies applied to wastewater treatment, considering the technical performances and the economical analysis of the application of such technologies. Additionally, manuscripts might describe approaches that integrate technical novelty and sustainability assessment instruments, such as: life cycle assessment, carbon footprint, water footprint, sustainability indicators, etc. Case studies that consider pilot or full-scale applications of innovative technologies in the context of circular economy and energy efficiency are also suitable for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Silvia Fiore
Prof. Dr. Elia Judith Martínez Torres
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • additive
  • aerobic
  • anaerobic
  • biogas
  • industrial wastewater
  • municipal wastewater
  • sludge
  • waste valorisation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2479 KiB  
Article
Differential Impact of the Biodegradation Sunflower Oil, Particulate Substrate, Caused by the Presence of Saccharose, Soluble Substrate, on Activated Sludge Treatment
by Pedro Cisterna-Osorio, Miguel Moraga-Chaura, Raydel Manrique-Suárez and Mabel Vega-Coloma
Water 2023, 15(24), 4282; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15244282 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
This research studies the biodegradation of sunflower-type vegetative oil in two proposed activated sludge systems, the first one to biologically treat an influent containing only vegetative oil and the second one to treat a mixture of vegetable oil plus saccharose. The purpose of [...] Read more.
This research studies the biodegradation of sunflower-type vegetative oil in two proposed activated sludge systems, the first one to biologically treat an influent containing only vegetative oil and the second one to treat a mixture of vegetable oil plus saccharose. The purpose of these analyses is to evaluate the differential impact caused by the soluble substrate saccharose on the removal of vegetative oil. Vegetative oil biodegradation in both systems was studied and quantified via integral mass balance, and relevant operating parameters were monitored. This experimentation based on the mass balance estimation of biodegraded vegetative oil serves as a reference to understand the effect of soluble substrates present in mixed wastewater on oil biodegradation. Information was generated on the performance of the two activated sludge treatment systems. Both influents were pre-stirred before they entered the bench-scale activated sludge plants. The working range for sunflower oil concentration was 120 to 520 mg/L for the influent with sunflower oil and 180 to 750 mg/L for the influent with sunflower oil and saccharose. Biodegradation was in the order of 56 to 72% and 47 to 67%, respectively. The removal of sunflower oil in biodegradation and flotation was in the order of 90% in both scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Technology for Wastewater Treatment)
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13 pages, 1826 KiB  
Article
Ozonation Processes for Color Removal from Urban and Leather Tanning Wastewater
by Anna Lanzetta, Stefano Papirio, Armando Oliva, Alessandra Cesaro, Luca Pucci, Emanuele Mariano Capasso, Giovanni Esposito and Francesco Pirozzi
Water 2023, 15(13), 2362; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132362 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
The need to ensure adequate levels of both human and environmental health protection calls for the identification of efficient wastewater treatment processes that target the removal of conventional pollutants as well as emerging contaminants, including synthetic dyes. This study explores the potential of [...] Read more.
The need to ensure adequate levels of both human and environmental health protection calls for the identification of efficient wastewater treatment processes that target the removal of conventional pollutants as well as emerging contaminants, including synthetic dyes. This study explores the potential of ozone for use in the decolorization of both pretreated tannery wastewater and urban wastewater effluents. Different ozone contact times (15, 30, and 45 min) were applied to such wastewater samples at an uncontrolled (7.5–8.2) pH as well as at a pH adjusted to 10. The highest color removal efficiencies (REs) (>90%) were obtained with urban wastewater after a 45 min contact time and at pH 10. Under the same conditions, a COD RE from 31 to 51% was achieved. Even without pH adjustment, color and COD REs ranging from 81 to 92% and 39 to 41%, respectively, were obtained. A preliminary evaluation of the costs associated with the implementation of an ozonation stage within the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) generating the urban wastewater used here was carried out. The energy cost of the ozone treatment would account for a 69% increase in the total energy cost of the WWTP, suggesting the need to identify proper strategies to enhance the cost-competitiveness of this technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Technology for Wastewater Treatment)
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10 pages, 2136 KiB  
Article
Performance Comparison of Different Cathode Strategies on Air-Cathode Microbial Fuel Cells: Coal Fly Ash as a Cathode Catalyst
by Asimina Tremouli, Pavlos K. Pandis, Theofilos Kamperidis, Christos Argirusis, Vassilis N. Stathopoulos and Gerasimos Lyberatos
Water 2023, 15(5), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050862 - 23 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1680
Abstract
The effect of different cathode strategies (mullite/MnO2, Plexiglas/Gore-Tex/MnO2, mullite/coal fly ash, mullite/biochar, mullite/activated carbon) on the performance of air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was investigated. The highest maximum power output was observed using MnO2 catalyst pasted on Gore-Tex [...] Read more.
The effect of different cathode strategies (mullite/MnO2, Plexiglas/Gore-Tex/MnO2, mullite/coal fly ash, mullite/biochar, mullite/activated carbon) on the performance of air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was investigated. The highest maximum power output was observed using MnO2 catalyst pasted on Gore-Tex cloth (7.7 mW/m3), yet the highest coulombic efficiencies (CEs) were achieved using MnO2 (CE 23.5 ± 2.7%) and coal fly ash (CE 20 ± 3.3%) pasted on ceramic. The results showed that the utilization of coal fly ash and biochar as catalysts in MFC technology can be a sustainable and cost-effective solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Technology for Wastewater Treatment)
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11 pages, 2018 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Dissolved Organic Matter Composition and Microbial Distribution between Distributed-Inflow Biological Reactor and Two-Stage Anoxic/Aerobic for Piggery Wastewater Treatment
by Jingjing Liu, Jinliang Gao, Zhenxing Zhong, Yayun Cheng and Beiping Zhang
Water 2023, 15(3), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030410 - 19 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1796
Abstract
Piggery wastewater contains high amounts of feces, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other contaminants, introducing serious pollution into water, soil, and the atmosphere. Biological treatment technology is widely used in large-scale pig farms because of its high efficiency and economical advantages. In this study, [...] Read more.
Piggery wastewater contains high amounts of feces, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other contaminants, introducing serious pollution into water, soil, and the atmosphere. Biological treatment technology is widely used in large-scale pig farms because of its high efficiency and economical advantages. In this study, two typical biological treatment systems—a distributed-inflow biological reactor (DBR) and a two-stage anoxic/aerobic (A/O/A/O)—were adopted to treat piggery wastewater to compare the treatment performance, the dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, and the microbial distribution characteristics. The results show that the A/O/A/O system had better removal performance in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) compared to the DBR system, and similarly effective at removing and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and total nitrogen (TN). Using parallel factor analysis of the fluorescence excitation–emission matrix, four DOM components—namely fulvic acid-like/humic-like substances (C1), tyrosine-like substances (C2), humic-like substances (C3), and tryptophan-like substances (C4)—were tracked in piggery wastewater. Protein-like substances were significantly degraded, while humic-like substances were difficult for microorganisms to utilize. The endogenous input and humus characteristics of effluents were enhanced. Bacteroidetes (43.9% and 37.5% ) and Proteobacteria (43.1% and 56.7%) are the dominant bacteria in DBR and A/O/A/O systems. The microbial metabolites in DBR and A/O/A/O systems are mainly composed of amino acids, sugars, alcohols, and other small molecules, while those in the municipal sewage treatment plant system is mainly composed of ketones, amines, acids, lipids, and other small molecules. The results of microbial communities and metabolites can help to trace the process of biological systems treating piggery wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Technology for Wastewater Treatment)
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13 pages, 1994 KiB  
Article
Impact of Biochar and Graphene as Additives on the Treatment Performances of a Green Wall Fed with Greywater
by Elisa Costamagna, Alice Caruso, Ana Galvão, Anacleto Rizzo, Fabio Masi, Silvia Fiore and Fulvio Boano
Water 2023, 15(1), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010195 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
The treatment of greywater (GW, wastewater share excluding toilet flush) through green walls can be beneficial for urban areas, favouring the diffusion of urban vegetation and reducing potable water consumption. Multiple challenges hinder the treatment performance of green walls, including the composition of [...] Read more.
The treatment of greywater (GW, wastewater share excluding toilet flush) through green walls can be beneficial for urban areas, favouring the diffusion of urban vegetation and reducing potable water consumption. Multiple challenges hinder the treatment performance of green walls, including the composition of the filtering material, the number of levels—i.e., rows—and the age of the system. This study investigated graphene as an additive (5%v) to a filtering medium made of coconut fibre, perlite and biochar in an open-air green wall with pots arranged into three levels. The performance of GW treatment was quantified by comparing the physicochemical features of inflow and outflow samples collected weekly over two months. Samples were also collected at each level of the green wall, and the performance of two analogous systems different by age for three months were compared. The results showed that graphene did not significantly improve treatment performance, except for the first level (e.g., 48% vs. 15% for COD, 72% vs. 51% for TSS, with and without graphene respectively). Moreover, GW treatment mostly happened along the first two levels of the green wall, with marginal depletion (e.g., 15% vs. 7% for NH4+-N) after three months of operational time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Technology for Wastewater Treatment)
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