Sediment Transport Process and Biogeochemical Cycle on Estuarine and Coastal Zone

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Erosion and Sediment Transport".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2023) | Viewed by 9881

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen, China
Interests: marine sediment dynamic; inter-tidal flat; saltmarshes; mangrove; organic carbon cycle; heavy metal pollution; sedimentary records; suspended particulate matter; estuarine geomorphology
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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Estuary Coast, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
Interests: hydrodynamics, erosion and accretion processes; interaction between biota and sediment dynamic; the effect of extreme weather conditions on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport; bed stability of an intertidal wetland

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Estuaries and coasts are important matter and energy convergence/divergence zones, comprising some of the world’s most productive and ecologically significant ecosystems, and meanwhile, these zones typically have developed economy, dense population and highly intensive exploitation. Thus, Estuarine and coastal zones have already adverse environmental changes and serious destruction of resources, which have direct and pronounced effects on coastal sustainable development, especially for the highly intensive economic activity on estuarine  and coastal zone. This Special Issue focus on physical, chemical, and biological processes or their interactions with each other to resolve the issue of estuarine and coastal environmental changes and rational use of coastal zone resources

We invite you for submissions on Special Issue “sediment transport process and biogeochemical cycle on estuarine and coastal zone” from a range of disciplines (e.g., biogeomorphology, biology, ecology, geomorphology, oceanography, hydrology, coastal zone management, and multidisciplinary topic). They can be based on field observations, modeling, and/or advanced techniques.

Topics may include, but are not limited to the followings:

* The process of sediment entrainment and deposition on estuarine  and  coastal zone
* Biogeochemical cycles on estuarine  and coastal zone
* sediment transport and sedimentation; sedimentary geochemistry
* carbon cycles: POC, DIC, DOC, CDOM, and other related components on estuarine  and  coastal zone
* Physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere
* Water turbulence and sediment transport processes in the shallow water environment
* Mathematical and statistical techniques applied to biogeochemical processes

Prof. Dr. Aijun Wang
Prof. Dr. Benwei Shi
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 5612 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Changes in Landscape Pattern of Mangrove Wetland in Estuary Area Driven by Rapid Urbanization and Ecological Restoration: A Case Study of Luoyangjiang River Estuary in Fujian Province, China
by Yuxin Yang, Xiang Ye and Aijun Wang
Water 2023, 15(9), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091715 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1505
Abstract
Coastal wetlands are natural complexes situated between terrestrial and marine ecosystems and are one of the most productive ecosystems in terms of global biomass production. However, under the influence of intensive human activity, global coastal wetlands have undergone rapid degradation. In this study, [...] Read more.
Coastal wetlands are natural complexes situated between terrestrial and marine ecosystems and are one of the most productive ecosystems in terms of global biomass production. However, under the influence of intensive human activity, global coastal wetlands have undergone rapid degradation. In this study, RS technology, landscape ecology, and object-oriented methods were used to interpret remote sensing images from different periods and analyze the dynamic changes in landscape patterns and their driving mechanisms in coastal wetlands in the Luoyangjiang River estuary from 1983 to 2021 by considering changes in the landscape pattern index. The results show that the patch areas of all the types of wetland landscapes in the Luoyangjiang River estuary changed, and the patch areas of mangroves and Spartina alterniflora increased. The patch density of the coastal wetlands increased significantly, the index of mangrove aggregation increased, and the index of separation decreased. From the perspective of the overall characteristic value of the landscape pattern, the landscape diversity index and the evenness index of the study area gradually increased, and the difference in the proportion of different types of landscape was reduced. Additionally, the patch number and patch diversity significantly increased, the maximum patch index and the spread index decreased, and the landscape separation index significantly increased. Rapid urbanization and the implementation of many ecological restoration projects were shown to be the main factors driving changes in the landscape indices of coastal wetlands in the Luoyangjiang River estuary. In the study period, rapid urbanization significantly reduced the area of coastal wetlands, and the implementation of ecological restoration projects increased the fragmentation, heterogeneity, and dispersion of wetland landscapes in the study area and decreased the aggregation of wetland landscapes. Moreover, the distribution of all the types of landscapes gradually became more uniform. Full article
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23 pages, 14498 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Sedimentary Organic Matter in Tidal Estuaries: A Case Study from the Minjiang River Estuary
by Shuilan Wu, Shuqin Tao, Xiang Ye, Aijun Wang, Zitong Liu, Chang Ran, Haoshen Liang, Haiqi Li, Yuxin Yang, Wangze Zhang and James T. Liu
Water 2023, 15(9), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091682 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2405
Abstract
As one of the main interfaces of the Earth system, estuaries show the strongest land–sea interaction in the carbon cycle, which links terrestrial ecosystems to the marginal sea. Furthermore, estuaries are considered as one of the most active intermediate reservoirs for both terrestrial [...] Read more.
As one of the main interfaces of the Earth system, estuaries show the strongest land–sea interaction in the carbon cycle, which links terrestrial ecosystems to the marginal sea. Furthermore, estuaries are considered as one of the most active intermediate reservoirs for both terrestrial and marine matter due to complex hydrodynamic processes regulated by the river runoff, wave and tide. Processing of organic matter (OM) in tidal estuaries modifies its transfer and transformation from the river to the sea, so studies of on the source and distributions of estuarine OM can help us understand the behavior of production, exchange, transport and burial of diverse OM within this transition zone before entering the marginal sea. In this paper, we took the Minjiang River Estuary (MRE) as a typical system in which there is strong influence of the tide. The source, composition and spatial distribution of OM in surface sediments of MRE were deciphered based on multiple organic geochemical properties for source-specific biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-alkanols, sterols) and bulk OM. Results show that sedimentary organic components were negatively correlated with sediment grain size, which indicates fine particles such as silt and clay are the major carriers of the OM signals in tidal estuaries. Source-specific biomarker proxies indicate that in terms of source diversity the sedimentary OM in the MRE shows mixed signals of terrestrial and marine sources, and the proportion of terrestrial OM decreases with the increase in distance from the land. The fractional contributions of OM from the riverine (i.e., terrestrial), marine and deltaic sources were quantitatively estimated using a Monte Carlo (MC) three-end-member mixing model based on C/N and δ13C values, and the average contributions of the three sources are 40 ± 10%, 48 ± 10% and 12 ± 4%, respectively, with little contribution from deltaic sources. The dispersion of sedimentary OM from different sources in the MRE is primarily controlled by the depositional environment determined by dynamic conditions and tidal processes play a significant role in the redistribution of sedimentary OM dispersion patterns. Compared with other large estuaries in southeast China, the OM accumulation contribution in the tide dominated small and medium-sized estuaries such as the MRE which is largely dependent on riverine and marine deliveries. The MRE has a high potential for both terrestrial and marine organic carbon (OC) burial, with an accumulation rate of 3.39 ± 1.83 mg cm−2 yr−1 for terrestrial OC, and an accumulation rate of 3.18 ± 0.68 mg cm−2 yr−1 for marine OC in muddy sediment, making it an important contributor to the sedimentary carbon sink of the marginal sea. Full article
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15 pages, 25138 KiB  
Article
Estimation of the Spring Tide Bedload Transport at the Eastern Entrance of the Qiongzhou Strait
by Changliang Tong, Maogang Qin, Xuemu Wang and Xiangbai Wu
Water 2023, 15(4), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040724 - 11 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1625
Abstract
Marine sediment deposits near the Qiongzhou Strait have great potential as sources for beach nourishment and infrastructure industry aggregates. Estimation of bedload transport during the spring tide improves the understanding of the sediment movement characteristic under dynamic conditions, which would further favor the [...] Read more.
Marine sediment deposits near the Qiongzhou Strait have great potential as sources for beach nourishment and infrastructure industry aggregates. Estimation of bedload transport during the spring tide improves the understanding of the sediment movement characteristic under dynamic conditions, which would further favor the assessment and mining of marine sand resources. To study the bedload transport at the eastern entrance of the Qiongzhou Strait, the surficial sediment distributions were obtained through hundreds of sediment samples from field work. A semi-implicit cross-scale hydrological science integrated system model was adopted and validated to simulate the tidal currents in the Qiongzhou Strait. With field observation and simulated data, we estimated the spring tide bedload transport in the study area using the Bagnold Model. The transport rate in the study area was found to have large temporal and spatial variation. The net transport direction during the spring tide cycle was eastward in the southern parts of the strait and westward in the northern strait. Our research has important implications for regional engineering and marine resources management. Full article
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10 pages, 1769 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Experiments to Assess the Effect of Chlorella on Turbidity Estimation
by Wenxiang Zhang, Dan Zhang, Benwei Shi, Zhonghao Zhao, Jianxiong Sun, Yujue Wang, Xing Wang, Yang Lv, Yue Li and Youcai Liu
Water 2022, 14(19), 3184; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193184 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
Turbidity is an important parameter in monitoring water quality, and thus attracts significant attention. Changes in the various components and constituent elements of water directly affect turbidity measurements. The turbidity of water is generally quantified by measuring the absorbance or scattering characteristics of [...] Read more.
Turbidity is an important parameter in monitoring water quality, and thus attracts significant attention. Changes in the various components and constituent elements of water directly affect turbidity measurements. The turbidity of water is generally quantified by measuring the absorbance or scattering characteristics of substances suspended in it. The complex composition of environmental water bodies complicates the determination of factors influencing their turbidity. Controlled experiments that quantitatively analyze the effect of a single factor on the measurement of turbidity in the laboratory are an important means to improve the accuracy of turbidity assessment. Properties of suspended materials in a water column that may affect its measured turbidity include the concentration of algae, particle size, and the color of soluble substances, etc. The laboratory experiments reported here used Chlorella as an example to investigate the effect of algal concentration on turbidity measurement. The results are as follows. When the turbidity is low (100 NTU), the average relative error between the theoretical and practical absorbance is about 37.52%, which decreases to 19.20% at 100–200 NTU and 5.16% at 200–400 NTU. The characteristic spectral bands sensitive to turbidity (680 nm) and Chlorella (240 nm) were selected, and the theoretical and practical turbidity results were analyzed. The average relative errors of mixed liquids of less than 100, 100–200, and 200–400 NTU are 65.07%, 34.18%, and 3.95%, respectively. Therefore, the concentration of Chlorella significantly affects the measured turbidity, and results in a more complex effect at low turbidity (<100 NTU). Combining the analysis of absorbance peak values and characteristic spectral bands, we can assess the turbidity changes in different components, and through calibration, information regarding the concentration and variation of different components in water bodies can be obtained. The results of this research could improve the accuracy of on-site measurement of the concentrations of different components suspended in water, and also facilitate the development of new turbidity sensors. Full article
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17 pages, 13431 KiB  
Article
Microfacies and Reservoir Connectivity of Shore Sandbar, Southern Indus Basin, Pakistan
by Yuwen Dong, Iftikhar Satti and Xu Chen
Water 2022, 14(10), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101614 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Shore sand bar reservoirs have attracted much attention as one of the target intervals with the greatest potential for petroleum exploration and development in marine sedimentary basins. Nevertheless, due to lack of effective research methods, it is difficult to analyze the rapid lateral [...] Read more.
Shore sand bar reservoirs have attracted much attention as one of the target intervals with the greatest potential for petroleum exploration and development in marine sedimentary basins. Nevertheless, due to lack of effective research methods, it is difficult to analyze the rapid lateral change and heterogeneity in a sand bar reservoir, which has a major impact on the efficient petroleum development that seriously restricts the rolling evaluation and efficient development of sand-bar reservoirs. In this study, based on integrated analysis of cores, thin sections, logging, 3D seismic data, production test and dynamic data, through a combination analysis of drilling and seismic interpretation data—the petromineral composition, microfacies and reservoir connectivity of the shore sand bar in the southern Indus basin are investigated, which is used for the fine description of the sandbar reservoir. The results show that the shore sand bar is located in a relatively high-energy shore sedimentary environment, which is conducive to forming a favorable lithologic reservoir. Four sedimentary microfacies types are identified, including center bar, bar edge, inter bar and local mudstone interbeds. The sandbar microfacies are changed rapidly, and different microfacies types overlap each other, especially the inter bar and local mudstone interbeds that overlap and intersect in the center bar and bar edge, which significantly reduces the internal reservoir connectivity as well as intensifying the heterogeneity of the sandbar reservoir. The sandbar reservoir is not connected transversely, the physical properties are changing rapidly, and the sandbar reservoir is cut into several relatively independent oil reservoirs. Full article
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