Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 29204

Special Issue Editors

School of Hydrology and Water Resources, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Ningliu Road No. 219, Nanjing 210044, China
Interests: biogeochemistry; environmental impact assessment; environment; eco-hydrology; carbon sequestration; soil analysis; soil chemistry; GHG emission; climate change; water quality; rivers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Hydrology and Water Resources, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
Interests: soil/sediment and water remediation; pollution ecological process; pollutant biogeochemistry; hydrological processes; trace metal cycling and transformations
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Freshwater reservoirs, as with all inland aquatic systems, are a well-known source of greenhouse gas (GHG; CO2, CH4, and N2O) to the atmosphere, but their quantitative measurement and importance are still loosely constrained. This is mainly due to a lack of clear methodology for GHG quantification, unavailability of datasets for medium- to long-term prediction, and model availability. Freshwater bodies (e.g., rivers, lakes, and reservoirs) are actual sites of carbon processing and transport. They receive carbon (C) in various forms (inorganic and organic forms, labile organic carbon, autochthonous and allochthonous); the maximum part of which is released into the atmosphere and partially buried more or less in their sediments and transferred downstream. Since the 1990s (after the pre-industrial era), freshwater has contributed a significant amount of GHG emissions into the atmosphere. Furthermore, it plays an important role in regional and/or global carbon budgeting. The GHG emissions are mainly due to the degradation of organic matter (resulting mainly from the catchments and reaching the freshwater ecosystem through runoffs), occuring aerobically and/or anaerobically in benthic sediment. This quantification (maximum/minimum) is mainly due to the availability of nutrients (particularly carbon and nitrogen), climatic condition, depth, availability of dissolved oxygen, stratification, temperature of water column, etc. In general, tropical eco-regions are hotspots of emissions compared to temperate and sub-tropical regions. Given the worldwide importance of natural ecosystems, questioning man-made reservoirs as to their own carbon footprints is to be expected. There is vast uncertainty surrounding GHG inventory, although part of this uncertainty is the result of the complex biogeochemical processes involved and a lack of clear methodology to assess their GHG footprint.

This Special Issue accepts critical reviews, monographs, mini research articles, and research papers that analyze and discuss GHG emissions from freshwater ecosystems. Special emphasis is placed on (i) the quantification of GHG from rivers, lakes, reservoirs; (ii) their impact on regional and/or global carbon budgeting; (iii) modeling and measurement; (iv) factors affecting emissions; v) carbon budgeting; vi) carbon dynamics and their climate change implications; (vii) the mitigation strategies and/or regulatory policies.

Prof. Dr. Amit Kumar
Prof. Dr. Zhiguo Yu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Greenhouse gas emissions
  • River
  • Lake
  • Peatlands
  • Hydropower reservoir
  • Freshwater bodies
  • CO2, CH4, and N2O
  • Climate and soil environmental factors
  • Carbon dynamics
  • Modeling and measurement
  • Water quality assessment
  • Carbon budgeting
  • Soil carbon sequestration
  • Carbon sources and sink
  • Eco-hydrology
  • GHG footprint
  • C burial

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 2652 KiB  
Article
Development and Application of a Hydrogeochemical Model for the Groundwater Treatment Process in Waterworks
Water 2022, 14(13), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132103 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
Drinking water quality is one of the most important factors affecting human health. The task of the waterworks is to purify raw water into drinking water. The quality of drinking water depends on two major factors: the raw water quality, and the treatment [...] Read more.
Drinking water quality is one of the most important factors affecting human health. The task of the waterworks is to purify raw water into drinking water. The quality of drinking water depends on two major factors: the raw water quality, and the treatment measures that are applied in the waterworks. Since the raw water quality develops over time, it must be determined whether the treatment measures currently used are also suitable when the raw water quality changes. For this reason, a hydrogeochemical model relevant to the drinking water quality during the treatment process was developed. By comparing the modeled results with the measured values, with the exception of chloride and sodium, all other relevant water quality parameters were consistent with one another. Therefore, the model proved to be plausible. This was also supported by the results of mass balance. The model can be used to forecast the development of drinking water quality, and can be applied as a tool to optimize the treatment measures if the raw water conditions change in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
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13 pages, 5139 KiB  
Article
Hydrological Effects of Prefabricated Permeable Pavements on Parking Lots
Water 2022, 14(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010045 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2826
Abstract
Permeable pavements can infiltrate and reduce stormwater runoff in parking lots, but issues around long construction periods and proper maintenance still required proper research and further understanding. The application of precast concrete can help to solve this. In this study, precast concrete components [...] Read more.
Permeable pavements can infiltrate and reduce stormwater runoff in parking lots, but issues around long construction periods and proper maintenance still required proper research and further understanding. The application of precast concrete can help to solve this. In this study, precast concrete components were applied to the design of permeable pavements to form prefabricated permeable pavements. The laboratory study is one of the first to examine the hydrological effect of prefabricated pervious pavements in parking lots. Four kinds of permeable pavements were designed and manufactured. These had different materials (natural sand-gravel, medium sand) which comprised the leveling layer or different assembly forms of precast concrete at the base. Three scenarios of rainfall intensity (0.5, 1, and 2 mm/min) and three rainfall intervals (one, three, and seven days) were simulated using rainfall simulators. The initial runoff time, runoff coefficient, and runoff control rate of each permeable pavement were investigated during the process of simulating. Results showed that the initial runoff time was no earlier than 42 min, the maximum runoff coefficient was 0.52, and the minimum runoff control rate was 47.7% within the rainfall intensity of 2 mm/min. The initial runoff time of each permeable pavement was no earlier than 36 min when the rainfall interval was one day, whereas, the maximum runoff coefficient was 0.64, and the average runoff control rate was 41.5%. The leveling layer material had a greater impact on the hydrological effect of permeable pavements, while the assembly form of precast concrete had no significant effect. Compared with natural sand-gravel, when the leveling layer was medium sand, the runoff generation was advanced by 4.5–7.8 min under different rainfall intensities, and 7–10 min under different rainfall intervals. The maximum runoff coefficient increased with about 14.6% when the rainfall interval was one day. Among four kinds of permeable pavements, the type I permeable pavement had the best runoff regulation performance. The results revealed that all prefabricated permeable pavements used in this study had good runoff control performance, and this design idea proved to be an alternative for the future design of permeable pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
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23 pages, 2644 KiB  
Article
Comparing GHG Emissions from Drained Oil Palm and Recovering Tropical Peatland Forests in Malaysia
Water 2021, 13(23), 3372; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233372 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2750
Abstract
For agricultural purposes, the drainage and deforestation of Southeast Asian peatland resulted in high greenhouse gases’ (GHGs, e.g., CO2, N2O and CH4) emission. A peatland regenerating initiative, by rewetting and vegetation restoration, reflects evidence of subsequent forest [...] Read more.
For agricultural purposes, the drainage and deforestation of Southeast Asian peatland resulted in high greenhouse gases’ (GHGs, e.g., CO2, N2O and CH4) emission. A peatland regenerating initiative, by rewetting and vegetation restoration, reflects evidence of subsequent forest recovery. In this study, we compared GHG emissions from three Malaysian tropical peatland systems under the following different land-use conditions: (i) drained oil palm plantation (OP), (ii) rewetting-restored forest (RF) and (iii) undrained natural forest (NF). Biweekly temporal measurements of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were conducted using a closed-chamber method from July 2017 to December 2018, along with the continuous measurement of environmental variables and a one-time measurement of the soil physicochemical properties. The biweekly emission data were integrated to provide cumulative fluxes using the trapezoidal rule. Our results indicated that the changes in environmental conditions resulting from draining (OP) or rewetting historically drained peatland (RF) affected CH4 and N2O emissions more than CO2 emissions. The cumulative CH4 emission was significantly higher in the forested sites (RF and NF), which was linked to their significantly higher water table (WT) level (p < 0.05). Similarly, the high cumulative CO2 emission trends at the RF and OP sites indicated that the RF rewetting-restored peatland system continued to have high decomposition rates despite having a significantly higher WT than the OP (p < 0.05). The highest cumulative N2O emission at the drained-fertilized OP and rewetting-restored RF sites was linked to the available substrates for high decomposition (low C/N ratio) together with soil organic matter mineralization that provided inorganic nitrogen (N), enabling ideal conditions for microbial mediated N2O emissions. Overall, the measured peat properties did not vary significantly among the different land uses. However, the lower C/N ratio at the OP and the RF sites indicated higher decomposition rates in the drained and historically drained peat than the undrained natural peat (NF), which was associated with high cumulative CO2 and N2O emissions in our study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
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11 pages, 1567 KiB  
Article
Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen Input via Net Nitrogen Mineralization under Antibiotics and Warming from the Water Level Fluctuation Zone of a Three Gorges Tributary
Water 2021, 13(18), 2502; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182502 - 12 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1750
Abstract
The water level fluctuation (WLF) zone is one of the dominant sources of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDN) export via net nitrogen (N) mineralization in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). However, antibiotics pollution may impact the process of TND exports from WLF zone [...] Read more.
The water level fluctuation (WLF) zone is one of the dominant sources of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDN) export via net nitrogen (N) mineralization in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). However, antibiotics pollution may impact the process of TND exports from WLF zone in the TGR, especially under drying-rewetting processes and climate warming, and thus increasing the risk of eutrophication in the tributaries of the TGR. The effects of the antibiotics Griseofulvin (GIN) and Fosfomycin (FIN) with 0, 0.2 and 0.4 g kg−1 net N mineralization rate (NMR) from WLF-zone soil in the Pengxi river, a typical tributary of the Yangtze River, under 25 and 35 °C were estimated in 30-day flooding and drying incubations. The results showed that GIN concentrations, temperatures and their interaction significantly affect net-nitrification rates (NNR) and NMR under drying and did not significantly affect NNR under flooding. FIN concentrations and temperatures solely influenced the NNR under flooding. The amounts of TDN exports via NMR without antibiotics from the WLF zone of Pengxi River are 6883.8 (flooding, 25 °C), 9987.3 (flooding, 35 °C), 9781.6 (drying, 25 °C), and 27,866.5 (drying, 35 °C) t year−1, which is 21.0, 29.8, 30.4 and 84.8 times of the permissible Class A discharge in China according to (GB18918-2002). Thus, the NMR of WLF zone should be controlled whether there is antibiotics pollution or not, especially during the dry period for alleviating water eutrophication. This study will be helpful for the assessment of nitrogen budgets in the WLF zone to eutrophication in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
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12 pages, 4502 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Existing Equations for Calculating the Settling Velocity
Water 2021, 13(14), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141987 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3183
Abstract
The settling velocity of sediment is one of the essential parameters in studying freshwater reservoirs and transporting sediment in flowing water, mainly when the suspension is the dominant process. Hence, their quantitative measurements are crucial. An error during the prediction of the settling [...] Read more.
The settling velocity of sediment is one of the essential parameters in studying freshwater reservoirs and transporting sediment in flowing water, mainly when the suspension is the dominant process. Hence, their quantitative measurements are crucial. An error during the prediction of the settling velocity may be increased by a factor of three or more in the estimation of the suspended load transport in the flowing water. Despite its significance, obtaining its real value in situ is practically impossible, and it is usually derived via laboratory tests or anticipated by empirical formulas. Numerous equations are available to calculate the settling velocity of the particle. However, it is exceedingly difficult to choose the best method when giving a specific solution for the same problem. Hence, a review of the existing equations is required. In this study, extensive data on settling velocity is collected from the literature, and previously proposed equations are analysed using graphical and statistical analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
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19 pages, 1241 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Hydropower and Coal Consumption on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Comparison between China and India
Water 2021, 13(10), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101387 - 16 May 2021
Cited by 63 | Viewed by 4083
Abstract
This study mainly aims to investigate carbon status according to the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH) in developing countries such as India and China based on annual time series data from 1980 to 2016. The recently developed bootstrap autoregressive distributed lag procedure is applied [...] Read more.
This study mainly aims to investigate carbon status according to the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH) in developing countries such as India and China based on annual time series data from 1980 to 2016. The recently developed bootstrap autoregressive distributed lag procedure is applied to observe the long-run effect of FDI, hydropower, and coal-based fossil fuel consumption on three repressive measures of carbon emissions. The empirical results of the analysis show that hydropower and coal consumption lead to an upsurge in carbon emissions and the size of the carbon footprint in China. Similarly, Chinese FDI increases the carbon footprint. Moreover, Indian FDI and coal consumption accelerate carbon emissions while hydropower has no impact on environmental degradation. These results suggest that the PHH exists in China and India and that the validity of the PHH varies according to differing carbon indicators. Based on the empirical results, effective policy practices can be implemented by replacing coal and hydropower with more effective renewable energy sources and allowing foreign investors to pursue environmental concerns in the fight against environmental degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
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Review

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14 pages, 751 KiB  
Review
Greenhouse Gases Trade-Off from Ponds: An Overview of Emission Process and Their Driving Factors
Water 2022, 14(6), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060970 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 9707
Abstract
Inland water bodies (particularly ponds) emit a significant amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and a comparatively low amount of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. In recent decades, ponds (<10,000 m [...] Read more.
Inland water bodies (particularly ponds) emit a significant amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and a comparatively low amount of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. In recent decades, ponds (<10,000 m2) probably account for about 1/3rd of the global lake perimeter and are considered a hotspot of GHG emissions. High nutrients and waterlogged conditions provide an ideal environment for CH4 production and emission. The rate of emissions differs according to climatic regions and is influenced by several biotic and abiotic factors, such as temperature, nutrients (C, N, & P), pH, dissolved oxygen, sediments, water depth, etc. Moreover, micro and macro planktons play a significant role in CO2 and CH4 emissions from ponds systems. Generally, in freshwater bodies, the produced N2O diffuses in the water and is converted into N2 gas through different biological processes. There are several other factors and mechanisms which significantly affect the CH4 and CO2 emission rate from ponds and need a comprehensive evaluation. This study aims to develop a decisive understanding of GHG emissions mechanisms, processes, and methods of measurement from ponds. Key factors affecting the emissions rate will also be discussed. This review will be highly useful for the environmentalists, policymakers, and water resources planners and managers to take suitable mitigation measures in advance so that the climatic impact could be reduced in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
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