Challenges to Interdisciplinary Application of Hydrodynamic Models

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 May 2024 | Viewed by 8976

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Interests: environmental hydraulics; river engineering; flood analysis and control planning; stratified water body; numerical simulation

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan
Interests: environmental hydraulics; saltwater movement in estuary; sediment transport; morphodynamics; density current; reservoir

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the recent advances in computational technology, models for numerically simulating hydrodynamic processes are being applied to practical research in various kinds of fields. Since the purpose, calculation conditions, and evaluation methods of this applied research differ according to the interest of the author, research is often published in separate journals for each field. However, application examples from different fields are expected to inspire researchers in other fields, and may be useful in motivating model developers of fluid mechanics.

This Special Issue aims to cover analytical case studies on regional practical water-related problems that combine models of hydrodynamic processes with numerical models developed in other disciplines. Challengeable interdisciplinary applications of hydrodynamic models in any research field are welcome, including discussions on water quality problems and habitats of organisms, combining the state change process of substances with the hydrodynamic process, discussions on flood damage and water resource problems, combining geographical hydrological conceptual models, or the discussion on old hydraulic facility functions, combining historical document analyses, etc. A detailed description of the currently used hydraulic models is not necessary, but the background and purpose of the research and the role of the hydrodynamic model must be explained in detail.

Prof. Dr. Tadaharu Ishikawa
Prof. Dr. Katsuhide Yokoyama
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • hydrodynamic process
  • numerical simulation
  • interdisciplinary application
  • field study
  • environmental process
  • public works for water flow control
  • historical hydraulic facility
  • regional water problems

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 8056 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Large Wood Export and the Long-Term Large Wood Budget on an Annual Scale in Japan, Using Storage Function with the Lumped Hydrological Method
by Yuta Abe, Sartsin Phakdimek and Daisuke Komori
Water 2024, 16(7), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16070920 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 554
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to verify the two relationships on large wood export, as follows: (1) the relationship between large wood recruitment and landslides triggered by intense rainfalls and (2) the relationship between large wood export and the long-term large wood budget [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to verify the two relationships on large wood export, as follows: (1) the relationship between large wood recruitment and landslides triggered by intense rainfalls and (2) the relationship between large wood export and the long-term large wood budget on an annual scale, based on the direct export of large wood caused by an increase in large wood recruitment with extreme rainfall events, as well as the baseflow of large wood, which is mainly old large wood recruitment stored at the slopes and in the stream. To reproduce these two relationships, the model consisted of two frameworks, as follows: (1) the rainfall-induced analytical shallow landslide model, with 30 m spatial resolution for large wood recruitment and (2) the double/triple storage function, with the lumped hydrological method at a watershed scale for large wood entrainment. Application of the model to 212 dam reservoir watersheds across Japan resulted in reproducibility in the estimation of large wood export volumes in 134 of the target dam reservoir watersheds, which contribute 63.2% of the target basins. This indicated that our results verified these two relationships as primary relationships. To analyse the difference in large wood export systems, a frequency analysis was conducted using correlation analysis based on large wood export volume and the cumulative values of six patterns of large wood recruitment volumes. The results indicated that there might be differences in large wood export systems between the watersheds represented by the double storage function model and those represented by the triple storage function model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges to Interdisciplinary Application of Hydrodynamic Models)
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20 pages, 6063 KiB  
Article
Spur Dike Applications for the Sustainability of Channels in Incised Steep Bend Streams
by Kazuaki Ohtsuki, Takanori Kono, Takashi Arikawa, Hisashi Taniwaki and Rei Itsukushima
Water 2024, 16(4), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16040575 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 692
Abstract
Japan’s rivers are shaped by distinctive topography and abundant rainfall, and they face flooding and sediment supply escalation concerns under climate change. Small- and medium-sized rivers tend to catch unprecedented forces that exceed planned levels, leading to substantial widening and excavation. Thus, there [...] Read more.
Japan’s rivers are shaped by distinctive topography and abundant rainfall, and they face flooding and sediment supply escalation concerns under climate change. Small- and medium-sized rivers tend to catch unprecedented forces that exceed planned levels, leading to substantial widening and excavation. Thus, there is a demand for a method that is capable of managing significant flood flows over an extended period. The spur dike can maintain channel clearance by promoting erosion as well as providing bank protection. However, the effectiveness of this spur dike function has not been well studied in small- and medium-sized rivers and curved reaches. In this study, we evaluate the function of spur dikes in improving channel sustainability based on examples of small- and medium-sized rivers that have maintained their channel for more than ten years after spur dike installation. First, the applicability of the empirical rule was evaluated by comparing it with actual cases of erosion depths in curved sections in Japan. Next, one-dimensional simulations were performed to evaluate the sustainability of the section over a long period. Finally, a depth-averaged morphodynamic simulation, including the secondary flow effect, was applied to evaluate the location of the flow core and elevation changes due to the spur dike. The results showed that a slight difference in the ratio of river curvature radius to river width (r/B) caused the river channel to be erosive and sedimentary. The reasons for the difference were the cross-sectional expansion caused by the excavation of the bend and the difference in the plane flow regime caused by the shift of the flow core to the inside of the bend. Although it is structurally challenging to reproduce localized scour around a spur dike in a depth-averaged simulation, it is essential for designing to apply the simulation model and combine empirical knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges to Interdisciplinary Application of Hydrodynamic Models)
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19 pages, 3368 KiB  
Article
Identifying Challenges to 3D Hydrodynamic Modeling for a Small, Stratified Tropical Lake in the Philippines
by Maurice Alfonso Duka, Malone Luke E. Monterey, Niño Carlo I. Casim, Jake Henson R. Andres and Katsuhide Yokoyama
Water 2024, 16(4), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16040561 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling for small, stratified tropical lakes in the Philippines and in Southeast Asia in general is not deeply explored. This study pioneers investigating the hydrodynamics of a small crater lake in the Philippines with a focus on temperature simulation using a [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling for small, stratified tropical lakes in the Philippines and in Southeast Asia in general is not deeply explored. This study pioneers investigating the hydrodynamics of a small crater lake in the Philippines with a focus on temperature simulation using a Fantom Refined 3D model that has been tested mostly for temperate and sub-tropical lakes. The lake’s monthly temperature during the dry season served as a reference for the model’s initial condition and validation. For the simulation to proceed, input data such as weather, inflow, and bathymetry were prepared. In the absence of hourly meteorological data from local weather stations, this paper adopted the satellite weather data from Solcast. Simple correlation analysis of daily weather data between local stations and Solcast showed valid and acceptable results. Inflow values were estimated using the rational method while the stream temperature was estimated from a regression equation using air temperatures as input. The validated satellite-derived data and runoff model can therefore be employed for 3D modeling. The simulations resulted in extremely higher temperatures compared with those observed when using previous default model settings. Direct modifications were then applied to weather parameters, compromising their integrity but resulting in reasonable profiles. By adding scaling factors to heat flux equations and multiplying their components by 0.75 (shortwave), 1.35 (longwave), 0.935 (air temperature), and 0.80 (wind), better results were achieved. This study identifies several challenges in performing 3D hydrodynamic modeling, such as paucity in input hydro-meteorologic and limnologic data and the need for heat flux model improvement. Overall, this study was successful in employing 3D hydrodynamic modeling in a tropical lake, which can pave directions and serve as an excellent reference for future modeling in the same region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges to Interdisciplinary Application of Hydrodynamic Models)
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16 pages, 2293 KiB  
Article
Research on Hydrolithospheric Processes Using the Results of Groundwater Inflow Testing
by Mir-Amal M. Asadulagi, Ivan M. Pershin and Valentina V. Tsapleva
Water 2024, 16(3), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16030487 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
The article considers a mathematical model of the hydrolithospheric process taking into account the skin effect. A methodology for using the results of groundwater inflow testing to determine the parameters of approximating models that take into account skin effects is presented. In addition, [...] Read more.
The article considers a mathematical model of the hydrolithospheric process taking into account the skin effect. A methodology for using the results of groundwater inflow testing to determine the parameters of approximating models that take into account skin effects is presented. In addition, the problems of modeling hydrodynamic processes taking into account random factors are considered. A statistical analysis of well monitoring data was carried out and an algorithm for studying processes was developed. Using the obtained approximating models, a procedure for solving the problem of selecting the optimal number of production wells has been developed. Based on the results of the groundwater inflow testing, the prospects for the development and use of new aquifers can be determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges to Interdisciplinary Application of Hydrodynamic Models)
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19 pages, 16669 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Riverbank Protection along the Jamuna River, Bangladesh: Review of Previous Countermeasures and Morphological Assessment through Groyne-Based Solutions Using Numerical Modeling
by Md. Zakir Hasan and Yuji Toda
Water 2024, 16(2), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020297 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 907
Abstract
This study investigated riverbank protection strategies along the dynamic Jamuna River in Bangladesh, a braided river prone to erosion and sedimentation. It reviews past countermeasures and emphasizes the effectiveness of groyne-type structures in redirecting flow and preventing erosion. Notably, the left bank exhibited [...] Read more.
This study investigated riverbank protection strategies along the dynamic Jamuna River in Bangladesh, a braided river prone to erosion and sedimentation. It reviews past countermeasures and emphasizes the effectiveness of groyne-type structures in redirecting flow and preventing erosion. Notably, the left bank exhibited greater stability than the right bank, emphasizing the need for effective groyne installations. A systematic methodology utilizing numerical modeling using International River Interface Cooperation (iRIC Nays2DH) ensured accuracy in assessing morphological impacts. This research presents novel countermeasures incorporating groyne installations along the right bank of the Jamuna River. Simulations are undertaken to assess the effectiveness of these measures under a range of flood scenarios, identifying a zone highly prone to erosion that exhibits the utmost vulnerability. The simulation scenarios comprised a base condition without groynes, two series of groynes separately placed in two selected zones, and a combined approach for both areas. Analysis of the four simulation cases, each encompassing three flood conditions, revealed that implementing two ‘I’-shaped perpendicular groynes in series within the erosion-prone area effectively diverted oblique flow. This approach proved optimal, mitigating erosion risk by redirecting flow and shaping sandbars along the Jamuna River’s riverbank. This study enhances Jamuna River protection, emphasizing groyne-type structures’ importance and promoting a holistic understanding of morphological dynamics for future river management and effective countermeasures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges to Interdisciplinary Application of Hydrodynamic Models)
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27 pages, 10969 KiB  
Article
Subgrid Model of Water Storage in Paddy Fields for a Grid-Based Distributed Rainfall–Runoff Model and Assessment of Paddy Field Dam Effects on Flood Control
by Yasuo Nihei, Yuki Ogata, Ryosuke Yoshimura, Takehiko Ito and Jin Kashiwada
Water 2024, 16(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020255 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 700
Abstract
Paddy field dams are basin-level flood control measures that promote rainwater storage; however, a general runoff model cannot adequately describe the water balance in paddy fields. This study develops a subgrid model for evaluating paddy water balance considering land use on a computational [...] Read more.
Paddy field dams are basin-level flood control measures that promote rainwater storage; however, a general runoff model cannot adequately describe the water balance in paddy fields. This study develops a subgrid model for evaluating paddy water balance considering land use on a computational grid. Subgrid models can account for the storage effect of paddy field dams without disregarding the general grid-based distributed rainfall–runoff model framework. To investigate the effect of current paddy field storage and the introduction of paddy field dams on reducing peak flood discharge, rainfall–runoff analysis was conducted using the proposed model in the Kashima River basin, which flows into Lake Inba-numa in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. The computational results indicated that the rainwater storage effect of current paddy fields reduces the peak river discharge, suggesting that the drainage process of the paddy field should be incorporated into runoff models. Furthermore, the storage effect of paddy fields became more pronounced as the height of the drainage pipe in the paddy field dam increased. The calculated results quantitatively show the flood control effect of paddy field storage over the entire basin; thus, the proposed subgrid model may be a useful tool for promoting basin-level flood control measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges to Interdisciplinary Application of Hydrodynamic Models)
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28 pages, 48992 KiB  
Article
Waterborne Disease Risk Assessment and Mapping for a Floating Village by Combining 3D Hydraulic Simulation and Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
by Takashi Nakamura, Hideto Fujii, Toru Watanabe, Sarann Ly, Sambo Lun, Yoichi Fujihara, Keisuke Hoshikawa, Kazuhiko Miyanaga and Chihiro Yoshimura
Water 2023, 15(23), 4199; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234199 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Spatiotemporal changes in waterborne disease risk were evaluated for the Chhnok Tru floating village in the Tonle Sap Lake by combining a hydraulic simulation and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). First, a three-dimensional (3D) hydraulic simulation was performed, and the transport of Escherichia [...] Read more.
Spatiotemporal changes in waterborne disease risk were evaluated for the Chhnok Tru floating village in the Tonle Sap Lake by combining a hydraulic simulation and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). First, a three-dimensional (3D) hydraulic simulation was performed, and the transport of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was simulated. Prior to the simulation, by coupling satellite imagery analysis using the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and a sounding survey using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), a new digital elevation model was generated for the complex channel network with high resolution. The results of the 3D hydraulic simulation revealed the flow regime and nonuniform pathogen distribution in the floating village. QMRA was performed for the village using the E. coli distribution calculated by the 3D hydraulic model. Subsequently, the disease risk in the village was visualized through an effective and easy-to-understand disease risk map. To demonstrate the usefulness of the hydraulic-simulation-based disease risk map, the map was used to quantitatively compare simple policies by evaluating their reduction in disease risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges to Interdisciplinary Application of Hydrodynamic Models)
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16 pages, 7380 KiB  
Article
Proposed Flood Mitigation Using Backwater in Highly Developed Watersheds with Consideration of Crop Calendars and Spatial Resolution: Toward Consensus Formation
by Yohei Ueno, Taichi Tebakari, Keigo Noda and Kazuhiro Yoshimi
Water 2023, 15(23), 4139; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234139 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 940
Abstract
In this study, we examine the possibility of proactive floodwater diversion to fields via backwater in numerical experiments using multiple elevation data products with different spatial resolutions and explore the optimal timing of water diversion from the perspective of crop calendars. This study [...] Read more.
In this study, we examine the possibility of proactive floodwater diversion to fields via backwater in numerical experiments using multiple elevation data products with different spatial resolutions and explore the optimal timing of water diversion from the perspective of crop calendars. This study targeted the Ida River System Land Improvement District, which has beneficiary lands on both banks of the Ida River, one of the tributaries of the Jinzu River that flows through Toyama and Gifu Prefectures in the Hokuriku and Chubu Regions of Japan. First, a comparison of the elevation data products revealed that photogrammetric data can capture microtopography, such as the footpaths between rice paddies and drainage channels around a field. Numerical experiments using two elevation data products, 5m DEM and LP-derived approximately 5m DEM, showed that flood peaks were reduced downstream in both cases using 5m DEM and LP approximately 5m DEM by directing floodwaters. Interviews with land improvement districts and a review of previous studies revealed that the ear-burst period is particularly vulnerable to flooding. Although the effect of flood peak reduction is reduced due to flooding of the field, it is possible that floodwater can be channeled during the ripening period in August and in late September and October when the ears have been harvested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges to Interdisciplinary Application of Hydrodynamic Models)
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15 pages, 7618 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Evaluation of Suspended Solid Runoff from Large-Scale Landslide Areas Presumed to Be the Source of Turbid Water
by Mitsuteru Irie, Atsuki Nakagawa and Takayoshi Higashi
Water 2023, 15(18), 3186; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183186 - 07 Sep 2023
Viewed by 713
Abstract
In the uppermost stream of the Mimikawa River, in northern Miyazaki Prefecture, the contribution to river turbidity of a huge, collapsed slope alternating sandstone and mudstone layers was qualitatively shown in our previous study. In this study, the water level and turbidity were [...] Read more.
In the uppermost stream of the Mimikawa River, in northern Miyazaki Prefecture, the contribution to river turbidity of a huge, collapsed slope alternating sandstone and mudstone layers was qualitatively shown in our previous study. In this study, the water level and turbidity were continuously observed, to obtain a quantitative estimation of this contribution. The conversion equation from the water level to the flow rate is required, but field measurements during the flooding term in the mountainous site are difficult. In this study, a high-resolution survey was conducted, and the relationship was determined via a small-scale hydraulic model shaped using a 3D printer from the survey results, to determine the relationship between the water level and the flow rate. The flow rate time series was reproduced with the distributed runoff model that is verified with the flow rate converted from the water level. The flow rate and turbidity load time series were also estimated from the long-term rainfall. The area of the bare soil surface of each small basin was obtained via satellite image analysis, and the soil yield from each surface condition was calculated. Furthermore, the amount of turbidity produced upstream of Kamishiiba Dam was calculated for each small basin. It was estimated that 24% of the turbidity was generated from the small basin covering 5.7% of the total catchment area. This study showed that it is possible to verify the hydrological model by obtaining the water-level–discharge relationship, even in the mountains, where it is difficult to observe the discharge on-site, via small-scale hydraulic model experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges to Interdisciplinary Application of Hydrodynamic Models)
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