Vaccines against Antimicrobial-Resistant Infections

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 8674

Special Issue Editor

Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
Interests: human viruses; delivery systems; vaccines; preclinical development; immune metabolisms
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The worldwide increase in diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to overuse and misuse of antibiotics presents an alarming concern for public health. Antibiotic resistance, which is genetically transmitted and diffused among bacteria species, arises each time a new drug is introduced into clinical practice, and the spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria from animals to humans can occur frequently. Antibiotics are therefore insufficient to control the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The development of new vaccines both for veterinary and human use appears to be a promising way to prevent or stop the spread of antibiotic-resistant infections. Also, increasing evidence indicates that vaccination can reduce the increase in antibiotic-resistant strain development by decreasing the need for the use of antibiotics. Newly developed technologies and adjuvants make it possible to generate vaccines against virtually every pathogen, thus offering an effective solution to the problem of antibiotic resistance.

This Special Issue aims to present an extensive overview of the latest scientific knowledge on, and current state-of-the-art vaccines against, antibiotic-resistant infections such as those included in the list of antibiotic-resistant “priority pathogens” published by WHO. We invite authors to contribute original reports, original observations, or reviews that address this major public health emergency.

Dr. Aldo Tagliabue
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 5089 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Immune Response and Anti-Infection of Mice by Porcine Antimicrobial Peptides and Interleukin-4/6 Fusion Gene Encapsulated in Chitosan Nanoparticles
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030552 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2879
Abstract
In order to develop a novel and effective immunoregulator to enhance both the immune response and antimicrobial function, a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid-pVAX1 co-expressing fusion cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) and fusion porcine interleukin-4/6 gene (IL-4/6) was constructed and encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles (CS-VAP4/6), [...] Read more.
In order to develop a novel and effective immunoregulator to enhance both the immune response and antimicrobial function, a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid-pVAX1 co-expressing fusion cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) and fusion porcine interleukin-4/6 gene (IL-4/6) was constructed and encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles (CS-VAP4/6), prepared by the ionotropic gelation method. Four-week-old female Kunming mice were divided into three groups and intramuscularly injected, respectively, with CS-VAP, CS-VAP4/6, and CS-pVAX1. On 28 days post-inoculation, the mice were challenged by intraperitoneal injection with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922); IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells increased significantly in the VAP- and VAP4/6- treated mice, detected by ELISA and flow cytometry, correspondingly (p < 0.05). As analyzed by qPCR, expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1, TLR4, TLR6, TLR9, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, IL-15, IL-23, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) genes were also significantly up-regulated in comparison with those of the control mice (p < 0.05). Their immunological markers were elevated significantly to different degrees in CS-VAP4/6-treated mice compared with CS-VAP in different days post-inoculation (p < 0.05). After challenge with E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, most of the VAP- and VAP4/6- treated mice survived, and no symptoms of bacterial infection were observed. In contrast, 80% of control mice died of infection. Among the treated groups, VAP4/6 had a stronger resistance against challenge with E. coli infection. These results demonstrated that the fusion gene of antimicrobial peptide and interleukin-4/6 has the promising potential as a safe and effective immunomodulator for the control of bacterial infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines against Antimicrobial-Resistant Infections)
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Review

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11 pages, 1205 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Effect of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Postbiotics in Strengthening Immune Activity in the Elderly
Vaccines 2021, 9(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020136 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5354
Abstract
Vaccination is the easiest way to stimulate the immune system to confer protection from disease. However, the inefficacy of vaccination in the elderly, especially those under nutritional control such as individuals receiving artificial nutrition after cerebral infarction or during dementia, has led to [...] Read more.
Vaccination is the easiest way to stimulate the immune system to confer protection from disease. However, the inefficacy of vaccination in the elderly, especially those under nutritional control such as individuals receiving artificial nutrition after cerebral infarction or during dementia, has led to the search for an adjuvant to augment the acquired immune response in this population. The cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the host immune system is gaining attention as a potential adjuvant for vaccines. Probiotics, prebiotics, and postbiotics, which are commonly used to modulate gut health, may enhance the immune response and the effectiveness of vaccination in the elderly. This review summarizes the use of these gut modulators as adjuvants to boost both the innate and acquired immune responses in the elderly under nutritional control. Although the clinical evidence on this topic is limited and the initial findings await clarification through future studies with large sample sizes and proper study designs, they highlight the necessity for additional research in this field, especially in light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which is disproportionately affecting the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines against Antimicrobial-Resistant Infections)
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