Cellular Immune Responses to Infectious Diseases

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 3922

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Virology, Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
Interests: viral infections; bacterial infections; T cells; B cells; dendritic cells

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, research on immune responses against infectious diseases has attracted significant interest. The advances in vaccine development in recent decades have helped the fast development of various types of COVID-19 vaccines, and the studies of how immune cells interact with pathogens have deepened researchers’ understanding of how pathogen invasion can be more effectively blocked. Additionally, it is now widely accepted that a successful vaccine against infections need not only offer protective humoral immune responses mediated by B cells but also effective cellular immune responses mediated by T cells. 

Therefore, we are launching this Special Issue on “Cellular Immune Responses to Infectious Diseases” in Vaccines to publish recent findings on cellular immune responses against pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Implications on vaccine development are highly welcome but not necessary. Acceptable formats include research articles, review articles, and case reports. The research areas of submitted manuscripts may include but are not limited to the following: development of new vaccines against infectious diseases, general T cell responses against pathogens, T cell responses after vaccination, T cell responses in mucosa, interaction between T cells and other immune cells in infections, development of immunological assays related to vaccine development.

Dr. Jianxuan Wu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • T cells
  • viral infections
  • bacterial infections
  • fungal infections
  • parasitic infections
  • vaccines
  • mucosal immunity

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 4446 KiB  
Article
CD4+ T Cell Responses to Toxoplasma gondii Are a Double-Edged Sword
by Kamal El Bissati, Paulette A. Krishack, Ying Zhou, Christopher R. Weber, Joseph Lykins, Dragana Jankovic, Karen L. Edelblum, Laura Fraczek, Harshita Grover, Aziz A. Chentoufi, Gurminder Singh, Catherine Reardon, J. P. Dubey, Steve Reed, Jeff Alexander, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Nilabh Shastri and Rima McLeod
Vaccines 2023, 11(9), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11091485 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
CD4+ T cells have been found to play critical roles in the control of both acute and chronic Toxoplasma infection. Previous studies identified a protective role for the Toxoplasma CD4+ T cell-eliciting peptide AS15 (AVEIHRPVPGTAPPS) in C57BL/6J mice. Herein, we found [...] Read more.
CD4+ T cells have been found to play critical roles in the control of both acute and chronic Toxoplasma infection. Previous studies identified a protective role for the Toxoplasma CD4+ T cell-eliciting peptide AS15 (AVEIHRPVPGTAPPS) in C57BL/6J mice. Herein, we found that immunizing mice with AS15 combined with GLA-SE, a TLR-4 agonist in emulsion adjuvant, can be either helpful in protecting male and female mice at early stages against Type I and Type II Toxoplasma parasites or harmful (lethal with intestinal, hepatic, and spleen pathology associated with a storm of IL6). Introducing the universal CD4+ T cell epitope PADRE abrogates the harmful phenotype of AS15. Our findings demonstrate quantitative and qualitative features of an effective Toxoplasma-specific CD4+ T cell response that should be considered in testing next-generation vaccines against toxoplasmosis. Our results also are cautionary that individual vaccine constituents can cause severe harm depending on the company they keep. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Immune Responses to Infectious Diseases)
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12 pages, 2790 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Immune Effects of an mRNA Vaccine and a Subunit Vaccine against Herpes Zoster Administered by Different Injection Methods
by Kangyang Lin, Han Cao, Ning Luan, Yunfei Wang, Jingping Hu and Cunbao Liu
Vaccines 2023, 11(5), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11051003 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2116
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine Shingrix™ performs well in clinical trials. However, the key ingredient in its adjuvant, QS21, is extracted from rare plants in South America, so vaccine production is limited. Compared with subunit vaccines, mRNA vaccines [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine Shingrix™ performs well in clinical trials. However, the key ingredient in its adjuvant, QS21, is extracted from rare plants in South America, so vaccine production is limited. Compared with subunit vaccines, mRNA vaccines have the advantages of faster production and not requiring adjuvants, but currently, there is no authorized mRNA vaccine for herpes zoster. Therefore, this study focused on herpes zoster subunit and mRNA vaccines. We prepared a herpes zoster mRNA vaccine and compared the effects of vaccine type, immunization route, and adjuvant use on vaccine immunological efficacy. The mRNA vaccine was injected directly into mice via subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. The subunit vaccine was mixed with adjuvants before immunization. The adjuvants include B2Q or alum. B2Q is BW006S + 2395S + QS21. BW006S and 2395S are phosphodiester CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs). Then, we compared the cell-mediated immunity (CIM) and humoral immunity levels of the different groups of mice. The results showed that the immune responses of mice inoculated with the mRNA vaccine prepared in this study were not significantly different from those of mice inoculated with the protein subunit vaccine supplemented with the B2Q. The mRNA vaccine-induced immune responses following subcutaneous or intramuscular injection, and the different immunization routes did not lead to significant differences in immune response intensity. Similar results were also observed for the protein subunit vaccine adjuvanted with B2Q but not alum. The above results suggest that our experiment can provide a reference for the preparation of mRNA vaccines against herpes zoster and has certain reference significance for the selection of the immunization route; that is, there is no significant difference in the immune response caused by subcutaneous versus an intramuscular injection, so the injection route can be determined according to the actual situation of individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Immune Responses to Infectious Diseases)
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