Pattern Recognition Receptors for Bacteria and Fungi and the Innate Immune Response

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 8969

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Departments of Pathology and Medicine, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
Interests: coccidioidomycosis; valley fever; fungal genomics; vaccine development
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am soliciting an article from you and/or one of your colleagues for this Special Issue entitled “Pattern Recognition Receptors for Bacteria and Fungi and the Innate Immune Response” to be published in Vaccines. Both manuscripts reporting original data and reviews are wlcome.

Infections caused by bacteria and fungi are a major medical challenge throughout the world. One of the first lines of defense against these organisms is the innate immune system, which involves phagocytosis, inflammation, and cytokine production, in addition to the adaptive immune response. Receptors for bacterial and fungal products are critical components of the innate immune response.  

Vaccines is a rapidly growing journal that is indexed by PubMed and SCIE and it offers a rapid review and time to publication. It employs many respected scientists serving as editors and contributors. We expect your paper will be an importantcontribution to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Theo N. Kirkland
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • receptors
  • innate immunity
  • bacteria
  • fungi
  • microbial products

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

21 pages, 533 KiB  
Review
Innate Immune Receptors and Defense Against Primary Pathogenic Fungi
by Theo N. Kirkland and Joshua Fierer
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020303 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3659
Abstract
The innate immune system is critical for natural resistance to all pathogenic microorganisms, including fungi. The innate response plays a vital role in resistance to infections before the antigen-specific immune response and also influences antigen-specific adaptive immunity. There are many different receptors for [...] Read more.
The innate immune system is critical for natural resistance to all pathogenic microorganisms, including fungi. The innate response plays a vital role in resistance to infections before the antigen-specific immune response and also influences antigen-specific adaptive immunity. There are many different receptors for the innate immune response to fungi, and some receptors have been found to play a significant role in the response to human infections with opportunistic fungi. Most human infections are caused by opportunistic fungi, but a small number of organisms are capable of causing infections in normal hosts. The primary pathogenic fungi that cause invasive infections include Blastomyces spp., Cryptococcus gattii, Coccidioides spp., Histoplasma spp., and Paracoccidioides spp. In this review of innate immune receptors that play a role in infections caused by these organisms, we find that innate immunity differs between organisms. Full article
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20 pages, 1232 KiB  
Review
RNA Sensing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Impact on TB Vaccination Strategies
by Sanne Burkert and Ralf R. Schumann
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010067 - 4 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4841
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important global threat and although the causing organism has been discovered long ago, effective prevention strategies are lacking. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a unique pathogen with a complex host interaction. Understanding the immune responses upon infection with MTB [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important global threat and although the causing organism has been discovered long ago, effective prevention strategies are lacking. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a unique pathogen with a complex host interaction. Understanding the immune responses upon infection with MTB is crucial for the development of new vaccination strategies and therapeutic targets for TB. Recently, it has been proposed that sensing bacterial nucleic acid in antigen-presenting cells via intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a central mechanism for initiating an effective host immune response. Here, we summarize key findings of the impact of mycobacterial RNA sensing for innate and adaptive host immunity after MTB infection, with emphasis on endosomal toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic sensors such as NLRP3 and RLRs, modulating T-cell differentiation through IL-12, IL-21, and type I interferons. Ultimately, these immunological pathways may impact immune memory and TB vaccine efficacy. The novel findings described here may change our current understanding of the host response to MTB and potentially impact clinical research, as well as future vaccination design. In this review, the current state of the art is summarized, and an outlook is given on how progress can be made. Full article
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