Special Issue "Neutrophils and Host Immunity"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2024 | Viewed by 11391

Special Issue Editors

Translational Pulmonary and Immunology Research Center, Long Beach, CA, USA
Interests: neutrophils biology; influenza virus infection; bacterial pneumonia; host-pathogen interaction; sepsis; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); immunosenescence; obesity; antimicrobial peptides
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA
Interests: host-pathogen interactions; bacterial pathogenesis; neutrophil biology; innate and adaptive immune responses; vaccine response; lung infections; immunosenescence and pneumonia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent years have seen a surge in research focusing on Neutrophils as one of the central key players in orchestrating both, the innate and adaptive host immune response. Given their vast array of effector functions, these cells are required for the host defense and are traditionally known as “first responders” to reach the site of infection or inflammation. Not only do they kill and clear invading pathogens through different antimicrobial functions, including recently discovered neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs) formation, but also play a critical role in tissue homeostasis and regeneration following inflammation. Apart from their role in innate immunity, neutrophils have recently been acknowledged to play an important role in shaping host adaptive immune response to infectious agents and vaccines.  However, dysregulated neutrophil responses can trigger significantly host pathology and autoimmune disease. With the emerging knowledge in neutrophil biology research, it is becoming apparent that besides the infectious agents, there are other host factors including environment-related stress, underlying co-morbidities, and Immunosenescence which impact neutrophil activity and phenotype.

This Special Issue aims to expand the current knowledge and include new contributions to the understanding of the role of neutrophils in overall host immunity. This special issue seeks to include original research articles and reviews that highlight or discover the role of neutrophils in host protection, immunopathology, autoimmune disease, shaping or modulating adaptive immunity either post-infection or in response to the vaccine, and different strategies employed by pathogens to avoid neutrophil-mediated killing. Observations of immune pathologies related to neutrophil effector functions without substantial mechanistic insight will also be considered but should be of a novel significance to the field. Novel information regarding the role of neutrophils in shaping host response to cancers are highly encouraged. Papers highlighting the effect of age or inflammation on neutrophil phenotype and its effect on host susceptibility to various infections are appreciated. Authors are also encouraged to submit relevant findings ruling out certain aspects of neutrophil functions or signaling pathways while shaping up host immune response. 

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Jitendra Kumar Tripathi
Dr. Manmeet Pal Singh Bhalla
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • neutrophil biology
  • inflammation
  • Neutrophil Extracellular traps (NETs)
  • neutrophil recruitment
  • pneumonia and sepsis
  • immunology of infectious diseases
  • innate immunity
  • phagocytosis
  • granulopoiesis
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • age-associated decline in neutrophil functions
  • role of neutrophils in vaccine response

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2074 KiB  
Article
Chemokine Levels among Patients with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection
Vaccines 2023, 11(6), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11061048 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 886
Abstract
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to intense pulmonary inflammation. Enhanced chemokine-mediated leukocyte infiltration in lungs has been linked with unfavorable outcomes with respect to the disease. This cross-sectional study assessed the levels of chemokines [...] Read more.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to intense pulmonary inflammation. Enhanced chemokine-mediated leukocyte infiltration in lungs has been linked with unfavorable outcomes with respect to the disease. This cross-sectional study assessed the levels of chemokines among 46 MERS-CoV-infected patients (19 asymptomatic and 27 symptomatic) and 52 healthy controls using a customized Luminex human chemokine magnetic multiplex panel. The plasma levels of interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10 (568.5 ± 114.7 vs. 55.19 ± 5.85 pg/mL; p < 0.0001), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha (MIP-1A) (30.78 ± 2.81 vs. 18.16 ± 0.91 pg/mL; p < 0.0001), MIP-1B (36.63 ± 4.25 vs. 25.26 ± 1.51 pg/mL; p < 0.003), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (1267 ± 309.5 vs. 390.0 ± 35.51 pg/mL; p < 0.0002), and monokine-induced gamma interferon (MIG) (28.96 ± 3.93 vs. 16.29 ± 1.69 pg/mL; p < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-8 (147.9 ± 21.57 vs. 84.63 ± 10.62 pg/mL; p < 0.004) were significantly higher in symptomatic patients than healthy controls. Likewise, the levels of IP-10 (247.6 ± 80.09 vs. 55.19 ± 5.85 pg/mL; p < 0.0002) and MCP-1 (650.7 ± 149 pg/mL vs. 390 ± 35.51 pg/mL; p < 0.02) were also significantly higher in asymptomatic patients compared to healthy controls. However, no differences were observed in the plasma levels of MIP-1A, MIP-1B, MIG, and IL-8 between asymptomatic patients and uninfected controls. Conversely, the mean plasma levels of regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) (3039 ± 301.0 vs. 4390 ± 223 pg/mL; p < 0.001) and eotaxin (176.9 ± 30.20 vs. 296.2 ± 28.11 pg/mL; p < 0.01) were significantly lower in symptomatic MERS-CoV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. Likewise, the levels of eotaxin (162.7 ± 21.60 vs. 296.2 ± 28.11 pg/mL; p < 0.01) were also significantly lower in asymptomatic patients. Interestingly, the level of MCP-1 (2139 ± 548.2 vs. 776.5 ± 165.3 pg/mL; p < 0.004) was significantly higher in deceased symptomatic patients compared to recovered symptomatic patients. MCP-1 was the only chemokine associated with a higher risk of mortality. Symptomatic MERS-CoV-infected patients had a significant elevation of plasma chemokines and elevated MCP-1 levels were found to be associated with fatal outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophils and Host Immunity)
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10 pages, 920 KiB  
Article
The Role of CD1 Gene Polymorphism in the Genetic Susceptibility to Spondyloarthropathies in the Moroccan Population and the Possible Cross-Link with Celiac Disease
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020237 - 20 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Spondyloarthropathies (SpA) are a group of chronic inflammatory disorders usually affecting the axial spine and asymmetrical peripheral joints. Strong evidence links genetic and environmental factors to SpA pathogenesis. The HLA-B27 is the most important genetic factor associated with SpA. Nevertheless, the involvement of [...] Read more.
Spondyloarthropathies (SpA) are a group of chronic inflammatory disorders usually affecting the axial spine and asymmetrical peripheral joints. Strong evidence links genetic and environmental factors to SpA pathogenesis. The HLA-B27 is the most important genetic factor associated with SpA. Nevertheless, the involvement of other HLA and non-HLA loci has been also reported. Some patients with SpA may also manifest features of celiac disease (CeD), thus suggesting a genetic overlap across these autoimmune diseases. Recently, CD1 glycoproteins, a class of molecules able to bind and present non peptidic antigens to T cells, aroused interest for their contribution to the pathogenesis of CeD. Therefore, to evaluate whether functional polymorphisms of CD1A and E genes also influence susceptibility to SpA, we analyzed 86 patients from Morocco affected by SpA and 51 healthy controls, using direct sequencing analysis. An increase of CD1E*01/01 homozygous genotype (p = 0.046) was found in SpA, compared with controls. CD1E*01/01 genotype was associated particularly to patients with sacroiliac joints/spine/peripheral joints pain (p = 0.0068), while a decrease of CD1E*01/02 genotype was evidenced compared to controls (p = 0.0065). Results from haplotypes analysis demonstrated that CD1A*02-E*02 decreased the risk of SpA, while CD1A*02-E*01 increased risk to develop disease. Our data indicate a relationship between CD1 genes and susceptibility to SpA in the Moroccan population and suggest the existence of shared genetic risk loci across SpA and CeD that might be useful to explain common pathogenetic features and define novel therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophils and Host Immunity)
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11 pages, 2284 KiB  
Article
Unravelling the Differential Host Immuno-Inflammatory Responses to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Infections in Sepsis
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101648 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Previous reports from our lab have documented dysregulated host inflammatory reactions in response to bacterial infections in sepsis. Both Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) play a significant role in the development and progression of sepsis by releasing several virulence factors. During [...] Read more.
Previous reports from our lab have documented dysregulated host inflammatory reactions in response to bacterial infections in sepsis. Both Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) play a significant role in the development and progression of sepsis by releasing several virulence factors. During sepsis, host cells produce a range of inflammatory responses including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, nitrite generation, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) release, and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. The current study was conducted to discern the differences in host inflammatory reactions in response to both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus along with the organ dysfunction parameters in patients of sepsis. We examined 60 ICU sepsis patients identified based on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA II) scores. Pathogen identification was carried out using culture-based methods and gene-specific primers by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Samples of blood from healthy volunteers were spiked with E. coli (GNB) and S. aureus (GPB). The incidence of NETs formation, iNOS expression, total nitrite content, and pro-inflammatory cytokine level was estimated. Prevalence of E. coli, A. baumannii (both GNB), S. aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis (both GPB) was found in sepsis patients. Augmented levels of inflammatory mediators including iNOS expression, total nitrite, the incidence of NETs, and proinflammatory cytokines, during spiking, were found in response to S. aureus infections in comparison with E. coli infections. These inflammatory mediators were found to be positively correlated with organ dysfunction in both GN and GP infections in sepsis patients. Augmented host inflammatory response was generated in S. aureus infections as compared with E. coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophils and Host Immunity)
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Review

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25 pages, 1622 KiB  
Review
Neutrophils in Cancer and Potential Therapeutic Strategies Using Neutrophil-Derived Exosomes
Vaccines 2023, 11(6), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11061028 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
Neutrophils are the most abundant immune cells and make up about 70% of white blood cells in human blood and play a critical role as the first line of defense in the innate immune response. They also help regulate the inflammatory environment to [...] Read more.
Neutrophils are the most abundant immune cells and make up about 70% of white blood cells in human blood and play a critical role as the first line of defense in the innate immune response. They also help regulate the inflammatory environment to promote tissue repair. However, in cancer, neutrophils can be manipulated by tumors to either promote or hinder tumor growth depending on the cytokine pool. Studies have shown that tumor-bearing mice have increased levels of neutrophils in peripheral circulation and that neutrophil-derived exosomes can deliver various cargos, including lncRNA and miRNA, which contribute to tumor growth and degradation of extracellular matrix. Exosomes derived from immune cells generally possess anti-tumor activities and induce tumor-cell apoptosis by delivering cytotoxic proteins, ROS generation, H2O2 or activation of Fas-mediated apoptosis in target cells. Engineered exosome-like nanovesicles have been developed to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs precisely to tumor cells. However, tumor-derived exosomes can aggravate cancer-associated thrombosis through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Despite the advancements in neutrophil-related research, a detailed understanding of tumor-neutrophil crosstalk is still lacking and remains a major barrier in developing neutrophil-based or targeted therapy. This review will focus on the communication pathways between tumors and neutrophils, and the role of neutrophil-derived exosomes (NDEs) in tumor growth. Additionally, potential strategies to manipulate NDEs for therapeutic purposes will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophils and Host Immunity)
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22 pages, 1491 KiB  
Review
The Interplay of Oxidative Stress and ROS Scavenging: Antioxidants as a Therapeutic Potential in Sepsis
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101575 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2569
Abstract
Oxidative stress resulting from the disproportion of oxidants and antioxidants contributes to both physiological and pathological conditions in sepsis. To combat this, the antioxidant defense system comes into the picture, which contributes to limiting the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress resulting from the disproportion of oxidants and antioxidants contributes to both physiological and pathological conditions in sepsis. To combat this, the antioxidant defense system comes into the picture, which contributes to limiting the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to the reduction of oxidative stress. However, a strong relationship has been found between scavengers of ROS and antioxidants in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models. ROS is widely believed to cause human pathology most specifically in sepsis, where a small increase in ROS levels activates signaling pathways to initiate biological processes. An inclusive understanding of the effects of ROS scavenging in cellular antioxidant signaling is essentially lacking in sepsis. This review compiles the mechanisms of ROS scavenging as well as oxidative damage in sepsis, as well as antioxidants as a potent therapeutic. Direct interaction between ROS and cellular pathways greatly affects sepsis, but such interaction does not provide the explanation behind diverse biological outcomes. Animal models of sepsis and a number of clinical trials with septic patients exploring the efficiency of antioxidants in sepsis are reviewed. In line with this, both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were effective, and results from recent studies are promising. The usage of these potent antioxidants in sepsis patients would greatly impact the field of medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophils and Host Immunity)
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29 pages, 2638 KiB  
Review
Diagnostic Tools for Rapid Screening and Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081200 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2239
Abstract
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has severely impacted human health and the health management system globally. The ongoing pandemic has required the development of more effective diagnostic strategies for restricting deadly disease. For [...] Read more.
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has severely impacted human health and the health management system globally. The ongoing pandemic has required the development of more effective diagnostic strategies for restricting deadly disease. For appropriate disease management, accurate and rapid screening and isolation of the affected population is an efficient means of containment and the decimation of the disease. Therefore, considerable efforts are being directed toward the development of rapid and robust diagnostic techniques for respiratory infections, including SARS-CoV-2. In this article, we have summarized the origin, transmission, and various diagnostic techniques utilized for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These higher-end techniques can also detect the virus copy number in asymptomatic samples. Furthermore, emerging rapid, cost-effective, and point-of-care diagnostic devices capable of large-scale population screening for COVID-19 are discussed. Finally, some breakthrough developments based on spectroscopic diagnosis that could revolutionize the field of rapid diagnosis are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophils and Host Immunity)
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