Gut Microbiota Modulation: Probiotics, Postbiotics and other Bioactive Compounds

A special issue of Pharmaceuticals (ISSN 1424-8247). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 26 April 2024 | Viewed by 11643

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Centro de Apoio Tecnológico Agro Alimentar (CATAA) de Castelo Branco, 6000-459 Castelo Branco, Portugal
Interests: gut microbiota; immune system; nutrition respiratory health

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CATAA - Centro de Apoio Tecnológico Agro-Alimentar – Agrofood Technological Center, 6000-459 Castelo Branco, Portugal
Interests: Research on the field of food and nutrition, including the effect of natural food probiotics on gut health and homeostasis, antimicrobial properties of natural products, and new sustainable technologies for food conservation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, gut microbiota has been intensively explored at various levels. With the advent of multi-omics techniques such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the structure and function of the microbiota have begun to be understood. Given that 70–80% of immune cells are found in the gut, it is clear what a major impact this “super organ” has on health.

Strategies to promote a “good” microbial community turn out to be crucial for a fine-tuned symbiotic relationship with the host, contributing to the prevention of disease occurrence and to the management of diseases that are usually correlated with dysbiosis states, as already observed in metabolic and respiratory disorders, among others.

Probiotics can be cost-effective in preventing and managing some diseases; however, it is usually very difficult to provide experimental evidence for health claims on probiotics as there are many variables to consider, such as specific species, strain, dose or duration of treatment, and host individual responses. There is still uncertainty about whether living probiotic strains are able to colonize and function in the human tract as some people appear to be more resistant to colonization.

Alternatively, the use of standardized doses of certain purified inactivated microbial cells or cell components, microbial metabolites and bioactive compounds generated by fermentation/enzyme hydrolyses, administered alone, have been recently suggested to modulate the gut microbiota and impact host health and disease.

Topics to be covered within this Special Issue include (but are not limited to):

  • Novel probiotic strains;
  • Influence of probiotics and/or bioactive compounds on gut microbiota modulation;
  • Influence of probiotics and/or bioactive compounds in health and disease states;
  • Signaling pathways mediating probiotics-host effects;
  • Safety and regulations for the use of probiotics;
  • Bioactive compounds able to modulate the gut microbiota and generated by fermentation/enzyme hydrolyses or food processing methods.

Contributions of original research to review articles are welcome.

Dr. Inês Brandão
Dr. Christophe Ruis Espírito Santo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • gut microbiota
  • bioactive compounds
  • immune system
  • nutrition respiratory health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 9221 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Formulations Containing Fixed and Essential Oils Ameliorates SIBO-Induced Gut Dysbiosis in Rats
by Ismail Aslan, Leyla Tarhan Celebi, Hulya Kayhan, Emine Kizilay, Mustafa Yavuz Gulbahar, Halil Kurt and Bekir Cakici
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(7), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16071041 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2875
Abstract
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and metabolic disease states such as allergies, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes. SIBO is a condition [...] Read more.
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and metabolic disease states such as allergies, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes. SIBO is a condition characterized by an increased number (>1 × 103 CFU) of abnormal bacterial species in the small intestine. Interest in SIBO has gained importance due to increased awareness of the human microbiome and its potential relationships with human health and disease, which has encouraged new work in this area. In recent years, standard antibiotic regimens (rifaximin and metronidazole) have been used to treat SIBO, but solo antibiotics or their derivatives are insufficient. In this study, the therapeutic effects of the probiotic form, which contains coconut oil and traces of peppermint-lemon-patchouli essential oil, were evaluated on the Dysbiosis-Based Rat SIBO Model. There are significant differences between sick and healthy rats (p = 0.014), between sick rats and rats treated with the oil mix plus probiotic mix protocol (p = 0.026), and between rats treated with only the probiotic and only oil protocols (p = 0.030) in the evaluation of TNF-α levels. Histologically, villi distortion and loss of crypts, epithelial shedding and necrotic changes in the apical regions of the villi, and inflammatory cell infiltrations extending to the lamina propria and submucosa were observed in sick rats. Mitotic figures in villus epithelium and crypts were observed in rats treated with 9.2 × 109 CFU/1000 mg/coconut oil + trace amounts of peppermint-lemon-patchouli essential oil and a probiotic mixture (oil + probiotic mix protocol). A regression of inflammatory reactions and an increase in goblet cells were observed. A decrease was observed in inflammation markers in sick rats. On the other hand, the oil plus probiotic mix protocol recovered digestive system defects in the animals caused by dysbiosis. In the future, these treatment approaches can be effective in the treatment of SIBO. Full article
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18 pages, 1779 KiB  
Article
Influence of Bifidobacterium breve on the Glycaemic Control, Lipid Profile and Microbiome of Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: A Preliminary Randomized Clinical Trial
by Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Narissara Lailerd, Sasithorn Sirilun, Subramanian Thangaleela, Suchanat Khongtan, Muruganantham Bharathi, Periyanaina Kesika, Manee Saelee, Thiwanya Choeisoongnern, Pranom Fukngoen, Sartjin Peerajan and Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(5), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16050695 - 04 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most highly prevalent metabolic disorders worldwide. Uncontrolled T2DM can lead to other health threats such as cardiac arrest, lower-limb amputation, blindness, stroke, impaired kidney function, and microvascular and macrovascular complications. Many studies have demonstrated [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most highly prevalent metabolic disorders worldwide. Uncontrolled T2DM can lead to other health threats such as cardiac arrest, lower-limb amputation, blindness, stroke, impaired kidney function, and microvascular and macrovascular complications. Many studies have demonstrated the association between gut microbiota and diabetes development and probiotic supplementation in improving glycemic properties in T2DM. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of Bifidobacterium breve supplementation on glycemic control, lipid profile, and microbiome of T2DM subjects. Forty participants were randomly divided into two groups, and they received probiotics (50 × 109 CFU/day) or placebo interventions (corn starch; 10 mg/day) for 12 weeks. The changes in the blood-urea nitrogen (BUN), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), creatinine levels, and other factors such as body-mass index, visceral fat, body fat, and body weight were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. B. breve supplementation significantly reduced BUN, creatinine, LDL, TG, and HbA1c levels compared to the placebo group. Significant changes were observed in the microbiome of the probiotic-treated group compared to the placebo group. Firmicutes and proteobacteria were predominant in the placebo and probiotic-treated groups. Genera Streptococcus, Butyricicoccus, and species Eubacterium hallii were significantly reduced in the probiotic-treated group compared to the placebo. Overall results suggested that B. breve supplementation could prevent worsening of representative clinical parameters in T2DM subjects. The current study has limitations, including fewer subjects, a single probiotic strain, and fewer metagenomic samples for microbiome analysis. Therefore, the results of the current study require further validation using more experimental subjects. Full article
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Review

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28 pages, 1068 KiB  
Review
Gut Microbiota in Anxiety and Depression: Unveiling the Relationships and Management Options
by Akash Kumar, Jhilam Pramanik, Nandani Goyal, Dimple Chauhan, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Bhupendra G. Prajapati and Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(4), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16040565 - 09 Apr 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6223
Abstract
The gut microbiota is critical for maintaining human health and the immunological system. Several neuroscientific studies have shown the significance of microbiota in developing brain systems. The gut microbiota and the brain are interconnected in a bidirectional relationship, as research on the microbiome–gut–brain [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota is critical for maintaining human health and the immunological system. Several neuroscientific studies have shown the significance of microbiota in developing brain systems. The gut microbiota and the brain are interconnected in a bidirectional relationship, as research on the microbiome–gut–brain axis shows. Significant evidence links anxiety and depression disorders to the community of microbes that live in the gastrointestinal system. Modified diet, fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake, macro- and micro-nutrient intake, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and 5-HTP regulation may all be utilized to alter the gut microbiota as a treatment approach. There are few preclinical and clinical research studies on the effectiveness and reliability of various therapeutic approaches for depression and anxiety. This article highlights relevant research on the association of gut microbiota with depression and anxiety and the different therapeutic possibilities of gut microbiota modification. Full article
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