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Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Photochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019) | Viewed by 43074

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado Denver, Campus Box 194, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217, USA
Interests: synthesis; computational chemistry; cheminformatics; bioinformatics; pharmacogenomics; green chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado Denver, Campus Box 194, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217, USA
Interests: theranostic imaging; biosensors; nanoprobes; optical imaging; fluorescence guided surgery; molecular recognition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials can enhance the delivery and performance of phototherapeutic agents. Furthermore, the unique properties of nanomaterials mean that they can act as phototherapeutics or adjuvants to phototherapy. Recent advances in the areas of phototherapy using nanomaterials have laid the groundwork for vibrant new interdisciplinary research. We look forward to receiving contributions in these research areas that push the boundaries of this exciting new field.

Prof. Scott Reed
Prof. Jung-Jae Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Theranostic nanomedicine (diagnostics and therapy)
  • Targeted phototherapy
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Photothermal therapy (Photothermolysis)
  • Nanoparticle-photosensitizer interactions
  • Nanoparticle delivery of phototherapeutics
  • Light-sensitive drug delivery systems

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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27 pages, 19653 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Mediated by Curcumin-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles in a Murine Model of Oral Candidiasis
by Vinicius Tatsuyuji Sakima, Paula Aboud Barbugli, Paulo Sérgio Cerri, Marlus Chorilli, Juliana Cabrini Carmello, Ana Cláudia Pavarina and Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira Mima
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2075; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082075 - 19 Aug 2018
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 5583
Abstract
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an alternative method for oral candidiasis (OC), while nanocarriers have been used to improve the water solubility of curcumin (CUR). The aim of this study is to encapsulate CUR in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and to [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an alternative method for oral candidiasis (OC), while nanocarriers have been used to improve the water solubility of curcumin (CUR). The aim of this study is to encapsulate CUR in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and to evaluate its photodynamic effects on a murine model of OC. Anionic and cationic CUR-NP is synthesized using poly-lactic acid and dextran sulfate and then characterized. Female mice are immunosuppressed and inoculated with Candida albicans (Ca) to induce OC. aPDT is performed by applying CUR-NP or free CUR on the dorsum of the tongue, followed by blue light irradiation for five consecutive days. Nystatin is used as positive control. Afterward, Ca are recovered and cultivated. Animals are euthanized for histological, immunohistochemical, and DNA damage evaluation. Encapsulation in NP improves the water solubility of CUR. Nystatin shows the highest reduction of Ca, followed by aPDT mediated by free CUR, which results in immunolabelling of cytokeratins closer to those observed for healthy animals. Anionic CUR-NP does not show antifungal effect, and cationic CUR-NP reduces Ca even in the absence of light. DNA damage is associated with Ca infection. Consecutive aPDT application is a safe treatment for OC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications)
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Review

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17 pages, 1662 KiB  
Review
Evolution of Nanoparticle-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy: From Superficial to Deep-Seated Cancers
by Maharajan Sivasubramanian, Yao Chen Chuang and Leu-Wei Lo
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030520 - 31 Jan 2019
Cited by 79 | Viewed by 6608
Abstract
Enthusiasm for photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a potential therapeutic intervention for cancer has increased exponentially in recent decades. Photodynamic therapy constitutes a clinically approved, minimally invasive treatment modality that uses a photosensitizer (light absorbing molecule) and light to kill cancer cells. The principle [...] Read more.
Enthusiasm for photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a potential therapeutic intervention for cancer has increased exponentially in recent decades. Photodynamic therapy constitutes a clinically approved, minimally invasive treatment modality that uses a photosensitizer (light absorbing molecule) and light to kill cancer cells. The principle of PDT is, when irradiated with a light of a suitable wavelength, a photosensitizer absorbs the light energy and generates cytotoxic free radicals through various mechanisms. The overall efficiency of PDT depends on characteristics of activation light and in-situ dosimetry, including the choice of photosensitizer molecule, wavelength of the light, and tumor location and microenvironment, for instance, the use of two-photon laser or an X-ray irradiator as the light source increases tissue-penetration depth, enabling it to achieve deep PDT. In this mini-review, we discuss the various designs and strategies for single, two-photon, and X-ray-mediated PDT for improved clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications)
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23 pages, 2765 KiB  
Review
Improving the Phototherapeutic Efficiencies of Molecular and Nanoscale Materials by Targeting Mitochondria
by Fengming Lin, Yan-Wen Bao and Fu-Gen Wu
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 3016; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23113016 - 18 Nov 2018
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 5299
Abstract
Mitochondria-targeted cancer phototherapy (PT), which works by delivering photoresponsive agents specifically to mitochondria, is a powerful strategy to improve the phototherapeutic efficiency of anticancer treatments. Mitochondria play an essential role in cellular apoptosis, and are relevant to the chemoresistance of cancer cells. Furthermore, [...] Read more.
Mitochondria-targeted cancer phototherapy (PT), which works by delivering photoresponsive agents specifically to mitochondria, is a powerful strategy to improve the phototherapeutic efficiency of anticancer treatments. Mitochondria play an essential role in cellular apoptosis, and are relevant to the chemoresistance of cancer cells. Furthermore, mitochondria are a major player in many cellular processes and are highly sensitive to hyperthermia and reactive oxygen species. Therefore, mitochondria serve as excellent locations for organelle-targeted phototherapy. In this review, we focus on the recent advances of mitochondria-targeting materials for mitochondria-specific PT. The combination of mitochondria-targeted PT with other anticancer strategies is also summarized. In addition, we discuss both the challenges currently faced by mitochondria-based cancer PT and the promises it holds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications)
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21 pages, 4801 KiB  
Review
Utilisation of Targeted Nanoparticle Photosensitiser Drug Delivery Systems for the Enhancement of Photodynamic Therapy
by Cherie Ann Kruger and Heidi Abrahamse
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2628; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102628 - 13 Oct 2018
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 5532
Abstract
The cancer incidence world-wide has caused an increase in the demand for effective forms of treatment. One unconventional form of treatment for cancer is photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT has 3 fundamental factors, namely a photosensitiser (PS) drug, light and oxygen. When a PS [...] Read more.
The cancer incidence world-wide has caused an increase in the demand for effective forms of treatment. One unconventional form of treatment for cancer is photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT has 3 fundamental factors, namely a photosensitiser (PS) drug, light and oxygen. When a PS drug is administered to a patient, it can either passively or actively accumulate within a tumour site and once exposed to a specific wavelength of light, it is excited to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in tumour destruction. However, the efficacy of ROS generation for tumour damage is highly dependent on the uptake of the PS in tumour cells. Thus, PS selective/targeted uptake and delivery in tumour cells is a crucial factor in PDT cancer drug absorption studies. Generally, within non-targeted drug delivery mechanisms, only minor amounts of PS are able to passively accumulate in tumour sites (due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect) and the remainder distributes into healthy tissues, causing unwanted side effects and poor treatment prognosis. Thus, to improve the efficacy of PDT cancer treatment, research is currently focused on the development of specific receptor-based PS-nanocarrier platform drugs, which promote the active uptake and absorption of PS drugs in tumour sites only, avoiding unwanted side effects, as well as treatment enhancement. Therefore, the aim of this review paper is to focus on current actively targeted or passively delivered PS nanoparticle drug delivery systems, that have been previously investigated for the PDT treatment of cancer and so to deduce their overall efficacy and recent advancements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications)
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47 pages, 11716 KiB  
Review
Revisiting Current Photoactive Materials for Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy
by Mariana Q. Mesquita, Cristina J. Dias, Maria G. P. M. S. Neves, Adelaide Almeida and M. Amparo F. Faustino
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102424 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 157 | Viewed by 9867
Abstract
Microbial infection is a severe concern, requiring the use of significant amounts of antimicrobials/biocides, not only in the hospital setting, but also in other environments. The increasing use of antimicrobial drugs and the rapid adaptability of microorganisms to these agents, have contributed to [...] Read more.
Microbial infection is a severe concern, requiring the use of significant amounts of antimicrobials/biocides, not only in the hospital setting, but also in other environments. The increasing use of antimicrobial drugs and the rapid adaptability of microorganisms to these agents, have contributed to a sharp increase of antimicrobial resistance. It is obvious that the development of new strategies to combat planktonic and biofilm-embedded microorganisms is required. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is being recognized as an effective method to inactivate a broad spectrum of microorganisms, including those resistant to conventional antimicrobials. In the last few years, the development and biological assessment of new photosensitizers for PDI were accompanied by their immobilization in different supports having in mind the extension of the photodynamic principle to new applications, such as the disinfection of blood, water, and surfaces. In this review, we intended to cover a significant amount of recent work considering a diversity of photosensitizers and supports to achieve an effective photoinactivation. Special attention is devoted to the chemistry behind the preparation of the photomaterials by recurring to extensive examples, illustrating the design strategies. Additionally, we highlighted the biological challenges of each formulation expecting that the compiled information could motivate the development of other effective photoactive materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications)
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19 pages, 1247 KiB  
Review
Oxygen-Carrying Micro/Nanobubbles: Composition, Synthesis Techniques and Potential Prospects in Photo-Triggered Theranostics
by Muhammad Saad Khan, Jangsun Hwang, Kyungwoo Lee, Yonghyun Choi, Kyobum Kim, Hyung-Jun Koo, Jong Wook Hong and Jonghoon Choi
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2210; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092210 - 31 Aug 2018
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 9485
Abstract
Microbubbles and nanobubbles (MNBs) can be prepared using various shells, such as phospholipids, polymers, proteins, and surfactants. MNBs contain gas cores due to which they are echogenic and can be used as contrast agents for ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging. These bubbles can be [...] Read more.
Microbubbles and nanobubbles (MNBs) can be prepared using various shells, such as phospholipids, polymers, proteins, and surfactants. MNBs contain gas cores due to which they are echogenic and can be used as contrast agents for ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging. These bubbles can be engineered in various sizes as vehicles for gas and drug delivery applications with novel properties and flexible structures. Hypoxic areas in tumors develop owing to an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand. In tumors, hypoxic regions have shown more resistance to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and photodynamic therapies. The efficacy of photodynamic therapy depends on the effective accumulation of photosensitizer drug in tumors and the availability of oxygen in the tumor to generate reactive oxygen species. MNBs have been shown to reverse hypoxic conditions, degradation of hypoxia inducible factor 1α protein, and increase tissue oxygen levels. This review summarizes the synthesis methods and shell compositions of micro/nanobubbles and methods deployed for oxygen delivery. Methods of functionalization of MNBs, their ability to deliver oxygen and drugs, incorporation of photosensitizers and potential application of photo-triggered theranostics, have also been discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications)
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