molecules-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Multi-functional Materials and ApplicationsSpecial Issue for ICMMA2020

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Structure".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 24232

Special Issue Editor

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inha University, 100 Inha-ro, Michuhol-gu, Inchenon 22212, Republic of Korea
Interests: computational chemistry; high-energy density material design; computer-aided materials; drug design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In November 2020, the 14th International Conference on Multi-functional Materials and Applications (ICMMA 2020) will be held at the Sun Moon University of Asan, Korea. This conference meeting has been held annually in Korea, China, and Thailand to promote the exchange of research topics and technologies. As the numbers of countries and participants increase every year, it is necessary to publish our works in the international journal Molecules. The topic of the conference is multi-functional materials in all their facets, including technical and methodological developments, as well as theory and applications in small molecules, nanomaterials, biomolecules, catalysts, and polymers. It will cover new research developments and applications of environmentally friendly, advanced composites, building materials, and other photo-induced materials. This Special Issue on “Multi-functional Materials and Applications” is devoted to publishing contributions made at the ICMMA 2020 to facilitate broad dissemination of these new developments and advances beyond the conference. Contributions to this Special Issue, in the form of both original research and review articles, may cover all aspects of multi-functional materials. Studies with multidisciplinary input, offering new methodologies or insights, are particularly welcome.

Molecules, the hosting journal of this Special Issue, is financially supporting the ICMMA conference, enabling us to promote young researchers’ participation.

I am looking forward to your contributions and hope you can support this Special Issue on “Multi-functional Materials and Applications.”

Prof. Dr. Chan Kyung Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Materials: preparation, basic principle, and characterization
  • Catalytic materials and mechanism
  • Environmentally friendly materials and applications
  • Advanced composites and applications
  • Advanced building functional materials
  • Nanomaterials, sensors, and applications
  • Materials related biology, medical, and human health
  • Photo-induced materials and application
  • Other researches related to molecular structures and properties

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

9 pages, 1645 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Static Modulated Fourier Transform Spectrometer for Fast Approximation in Field Application
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3312; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113312 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 1545
Abstract
We discuss the data sampling frequency, the spectral resolution, and the limit for non-aliasing in the static modulated Fourier transform spectrometer based on a modified Sagnac interferometer. The measurement was performed in a very short 4 ms, which is applicable for real time [...] Read more.
We discuss the data sampling frequency, the spectral resolution, and the limit for non-aliasing in the static modulated Fourier transform spectrometer based on a modified Sagnac interferometer. The measurement was performed in a very short 4 ms, which is applicable for real time field operation. The improved spectrometer characteristics were used to investigate the spectral properties of an InGaAs light emitting diode. In addition, The measured spectral peak was shifted from 6420 cm−1 to 6365 cm−1, as the temperature increased from 25 °C to 40 °C, when the operating current is fixed to be 0.55 A. As the applied current increased from 0.30 A to 0.55 A at room temperature, the spectral width was broadened from 316 cm−1 to 384 cm−1. Compared to the conventional Fourier transform spectrometer, the measured spectral width by the static modulated Fourier transform spectrometer showed a deviation less than 10%, and the spectral peak shift according to the temperature rise showed a difference within 2%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2701 KiB  
Article
Raman Scattering Study on the Influence of E-Beam Bombardment on Si Electron Lens
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2766; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092766 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2089
Abstract
Microcolumns have a stacked structure composed of an electron emitter, electron lens (source lens), einzel lens, and a deflector manufactured using a micro electro-mechanical system process. The electrons emitted from the tungsten field emitter mostly pass through the aperture holes. However, other electrons [...] Read more.
Microcolumns have a stacked structure composed of an electron emitter, electron lens (source lens), einzel lens, and a deflector manufactured using a micro electro-mechanical system process. The electrons emitted from the tungsten field emitter mostly pass through the aperture holes. However, other electrons fail to pass through because of collisions around the aperture hole. We used Raman scattering measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses to investigate the influence of electron beam bombardment on a Si electron lens irradiated by acceleration voltages of 0, 20, and 30 keV. We confirmed that the crystallinity was degraded, and carbon-related contamination was detected at the surface and edge of the aperture hole of the Si electron lens after electron bombardment for 24 h. Carbon-related contamination on the surface of the Si electron lens was verified by analyzing the Raman spectra of the carbon-deposited Si substrate using DC sputtering and a carbon rod sample. We report the crystallinity and the origin of the carbon-related contamination of electron Si lenses after electron beam bombardment by non-destructive Raman scattering and XPS analysis methods. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2632 KiB  
Article
Effects of MEH-PPV Molecular Ordering in the Emitting Layer on the Luminescence Efficiency of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2512; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092512 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2387
Abstract
We investigated the effects of molecular ordering on the electro-optical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with an emission layer (EML) of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV). The EML was fabricated by a solution process which can make molecules ordered. The performance of the OLED devices [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of molecular ordering on the electro-optical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with an emission layer (EML) of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV). The EML was fabricated by a solution process which can make molecules ordered. The performance of the OLED devices with the molecular ordering method was compared to that obtained through fabrication by a conventional spin coating method. The turn-on voltage and the luminance of the conventional OLEDs were 5 V and 34.75 cd/m2, whereas those of the proposed OLEDs were 4.5 V and 120.3 cd/m2, respectively. The underlying mechanism of the higher efficiency with ordered molecules was observed by analyzing the properties of the EML layer using AFM, SE, XRD, and an LCR meter. We confirmed that the electrical properties of the organic thin film can be improved by controlling the molecular ordering of the EML, which plays an important role in the electrical characteristics of the OLED. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2134 KiB  
Article
Process Development for the Detoxification of Fermentation Inhibitors from Acid Pretreated Microalgae Hydrolysate
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2435; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092435 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2054
Abstract
The aim of this study was to remove 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) and furfural, known as fermentation inhibitors, in acid pretreated hydrolysates (APH) obtained from Scenedesmus obliquus using activated carbon. Microwave-assisted pretreatment was used to produce APH containing glucose, xylose, and fermentation inhibitors (5-HMF, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to remove 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) and furfural, known as fermentation inhibitors, in acid pretreated hydrolysates (APH) obtained from Scenedesmus obliquus using activated carbon. Microwave-assisted pretreatment was used to produce APH containing glucose, xylose, and fermentation inhibitors (5-HMF, furfural). The response surface methodology was applied to optimize key detoxification variables such as temperature (16.5–58.5 °C), time (0.5–5.5 h), and solid–liquid (S-L) ratio of activated carbon (0.6–7.4 w/v%). Three variables showed significant effects on the removal of fermentation inhibitors. The optimum detoxification conditions with the maximum removal of fermentation inhibitors and the minimum loss of sugars (glucose and xylose) were as follows: temperature of 36.6 °C, extraction time of 3.86 h, and S-L ratio of 3.3 w/v%. Under these conditions, removal of 5-HMF, furfural, and sugars were 71.6, 83.1, and 2.44%, respectively, which agreed closely with the predicted values. When the APH and detoxified APH were used for ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae, the ethanol produced was 38.5% and 84.5% of the theoretical yields, respectively, which confirmed that detoxification using activated carbon was effective in removing fermentation inhibitors and increasing fermentation yield without significant removal of fermentable sugars. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

29 pages, 7501 KiB  
Article
Surface Modification Effect and Electrochemical Performance of LiOH-High Surface Activated Carbon as a Cathode Material in EDLC
Molecules 2021, 26(8), 2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082187 - 10 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
This study aimed to improve the performance of the activated carbon-based cathode by increasing the Li content and to analyze the effect of the combination of carbon and oxidizing agent. The crystal structure and chemical structure phase of Li-high surface area activated carbon [...] Read more.
This study aimed to improve the performance of the activated carbon-based cathode by increasing the Li content and to analyze the effect of the combination of carbon and oxidizing agent. The crystal structure and chemical structure phase of Li-high surface area activated carbon material (Li-HSAC) was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, the surface state and quantitative element by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and the surface properties with pore-size distribution by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) and t-plot methods. The specific surface area of the Li-YP80F is 1063.2 m2/g, micropore volume value is 0.511 cm3/g and mesopore volume is 0.143 cm3/g, and these all values are higher than other LiOH-treated carbon. The surface functional group was analyzed by a Boehm titration, and the higher number of acidic groups compared to the target facilitated the improved electrolyte permeability, reduced the interface resistance and increased the electrochemical properties of the cathode. The oxidizing agent of LiOH treated high surface area of activated carbon was used for the cathode material for EDLC (electric double layer capacitor) to determine its electrochemical properties and the as-prepared electrode retained excellent performance after 10 cycles and 100 cycles. The anodic and cathodic peak current value and peak segregation of Li-YP80F were better than those of the other two samples, due to the micropore-size and physical properties of the sample. The oxidation peak current value appeared at 0.0055 mA/cm2 current density and the reduction peak value at –0.0014 mA/cm2, when the Li-YP80F sample used to the Cu-foil surface. The redox peaks appeared at 0.0025 mA/cm2 and –0.0009 mA/cm2, in the case of using a Nickel foil, after 10 cycling test. The electrochemical stability of cathode materials was tested by 100 recycling tests. After 100 recycling tests, peak current drop decreased the peak profile became stable. The LiOH-treated high surface area of activated carbon had synergistically upgraded electrochemical activity and superior cycling stability that were demonstrated in EDLC. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 6646 KiB  
Article
Guanidine–Amide-Catalyzed Aza-Henry Reaction of Isatin-Derived Ketimines: Origin of Selectivity and New Catalyst Design
Molecules 2021, 26(7), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071965 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2030
Abstract
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate the mechanism and the enantioselectivity of the aza-Henry reaction of isatin-derived ketimine catalyzed by chiral guanidine–amide catalysts at the M06-2X-D3/6-311+G(d,p)//M06-2X-D3/6-31G(d,p) (toluene, SMD) theoretical level. The catalytic reaction occurred via a three-step mechanism: (i) the [...] Read more.
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate the mechanism and the enantioselectivity of the aza-Henry reaction of isatin-derived ketimine catalyzed by chiral guanidine–amide catalysts at the M06-2X-D3/6-311+G(d,p)//M06-2X-D3/6-31G(d,p) (toluene, SMD) theoretical level. The catalytic reaction occurred via a three-step mechanism: (i) the deprotonation of nitromethane by a chiral guanidine–amide catalyst; (ii) formation of C–C bonds; (iii) H-transfer from guanidine to ketimine, accompanied with the regeneration of the catalyst. A dual activation model was proposed, in which the protonated guanidine activated the nitronate, and the amide moiety simultaneously interacted with the ketimine substrate by intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The repulsion of CPh3 group in guanidine as well as N-Boc group in ketimine raised the Pauli repulsion energy (∆EPauli) and the strain energy (∆Estrain) of reacting species in the unfavorable si-face pathway, contributing to a high level of stereoselectivity. A new catalyst with cyclopropenimine and 1,2-diphenylethylcarbamoyl as well as sulfonamide substituent was designed. The strong basicity of cyclopropenimine moiety accelerated the activation of CH3NO2 by decreasing the energy barrier in the deprotonation step. The repulsion between the N-Boc group in ketimine and cyclohexyl group as well as chiral backbone in the new catalyst raised the energy barrier in C–C bond formation along the si-face attack pathway, leading to the formation of R-configuration product. A possible synthetic route for the new catalyst is also suggested. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

8 pages, 4997 KiB  
Article
Effect of Viscosity on the Formation of Porous Polydimethylsiloxane for Wearable Device Applications
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051471 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2422
Abstract
Medical devices, which enhance the quality of life, have experienced a gradual increase in demand. Various research groups have attempted to incorporate soft materials such as skin into wearable devices. We developed a stretchable substrate with high elasticity by forming a porous structure [...] Read more.
Medical devices, which enhance the quality of life, have experienced a gradual increase in demand. Various research groups have attempted to incorporate soft materials such as skin into wearable devices. We developed a stretchable substrate with high elasticity by forming a porous structure on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). To optimize the porous structure, we propose a manufacturing process that utilizes a high-pressure steam with different viscosities (400, 800, 2100, and 3000 cP) of an uncured PDMS solution. The proposed method simplifies the manufacturing of porous structures and is cost-effective compared to other technologies. Porous structures of various viscosities were formed, and their electrical and mechanical properties evaluated. Porous PDMS (3000 cP) was formed in a sponge-like three-dimensional porous structure, compared to PDMS formed by other viscosities. The elongation of porous PDMS (3000 cP) was increased by up to 30%, and the relative resistance changed to less than 1000 times with the maximum strain test. The relative resistance increased the initial resistance (R0) by approximately 10 times during the 1500-times repeated cycling tests with 30% strain. As a result, patch-type wearable devices based on soft materials can provide an innovative platform that can connect with the human skin for robotics applications and for continuous health monitoring. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 3349 KiB  
Article
Surface Characterization, Biocompatibility and Antifungal Efficacy of a Denture-Lining Material Containing Cnidium officinale Extracts
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051440 - 07 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1555
Abstract
Herein, we investigated the surface characterization and biocompatibility of a denture-lining material containing Cnidium officinale extracts and its antifungal efficacy against Candida albicans. To achieve this, a denture-lining material containing various concentrations of C. officinale extract and a control group without C. [...] Read more.
Herein, we investigated the surface characterization and biocompatibility of a denture-lining material containing Cnidium officinale extracts and its antifungal efficacy against Candida albicans. To achieve this, a denture-lining material containing various concentrations of C. officinale extract and a control group without C. officinale extract were prepared. The surface characterization and biocompatibility of the samples were investigated. In addition, the antifungal efficacy of the samples on C. albicans was investigated using spectrophotometric growth and a LIVE/DEAD assay. The results revealed that there was no significant difference between the biocompatibility of the experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant difference between the antifungal efficiency of the denture material on C. albicans and that of the control group (p < 0.05), which was confirmed by the LIVE/DEAD assay. These results indicate the promising potential of the C. officinale extract-containing denture-lining material as an antifungal dental material. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 32642 KiB  
Article
Behaviors of Perfluorocarbon Emulsion during Dissolution of Oxide Layers
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051329 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1667
Abstract
This study investigates the dissolution behavior of oxide layers containing radionuclides using perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion as a reusable medium. Chemicals such as PFC, anionic surfactant, and H2SO4 are used for preparing the PFC emulsion, and emulsified using an ultrasonication process. [...] Read more.
This study investigates the dissolution behavior of oxide layers containing radionuclides using perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion as a reusable medium. Chemicals such as PFC, anionic surfactant, and H2SO4 are used for preparing the PFC emulsion, and emulsified using an ultrasonication process. The FTIR results show O–H stretching that is formed by the interaction of the carboxyl group of the anionic surfactant with the hydroxyl group of water containing H2SO4, and find that the H2SO4 can be homogeneously dispersed in the PFC–anionic surfactant–H2SO4 emulsion. The dissolution test of the simulated Cr2O3 specimen is conducted using PFC emulsion containing KMnO4. Through the weight losses of specimens and Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDS) analysis, it is confirmed that the Cr2O3 layer on the SUS304 specimen is easily dissolved using PFC emulsion. During the dissolution of the Cr2O3, it is observed that the dispersed H2SO4–KMnO4 became unstable and separated from PFC emulsion. Based on these results, the behavior of the PFC emulsion during the dissolution of the oxide layer is explained. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2599 KiB  
Article
Skin-Whitening and Anti-Wrinkle Effects of Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Peanut Shell Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051231 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3244
Abstract
Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for simultaneous optimization of dependent variables, including DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), tyrosinase activity inhibition (TAI), and collagenase activity inhibition (CAI) of peanut shell extracts. The effects of the main variables [...] Read more.
Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for simultaneous optimization of dependent variables, including DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), tyrosinase activity inhibition (TAI), and collagenase activity inhibition (CAI) of peanut shell extracts. The effects of the main variables including extraction time (5.0~55.0 min, X1), extraction temperature (26.0~94.0 °C, X2), and ethanol concentration (0.0%~99.5%, X3) were optimized. Based on experimental values from each condition, quadratic regression models were derived for the prediction of optimum conditions. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the independent variable was in the range of 0.89~0.96, which demonstrates that the regression model is suitable for the prediction. In predicting optimal UAE conditions based on the superimposing method, extraction time of 31.2 min, extraction temperature of 36.6 °C, and ethanol concentration of 93.2% were identified. Under these conditions, RSA of 74.9%, TAI of 50.6%, and CAI of 86.8% were predicted, showing good agreement with the experimental values. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that peanut shell extract decreased mRNA levels of tyrosinase-related protein-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 genes in B16-F0 cell. Therefore, we identified the skin-whitening and anti-wrinkle effects of peanut shell extracts at protein as well as gene expression levels, and the results show that peanut shell is an effective cosmetic material for skin-whitening and anti-wrinkle effects. Based on this study, peanut shell, which was considered a byproduct, can be used for the development of healthy foods, medicines, and cosmetics. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

9 pages, 2961 KiB  
Review
Role of Zinc-Doped Bioactive Glass Encapsulated with Microspherical Gelatin in Localized Supplementation for Tissue Regeneration: A Contemporary Review
Molecules 2021, 26(7), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071823 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1923
Abstract
Gelatin, a natural polymer, provides excellent tissue compatibility for use in tissue rehabilitation. Bioactive glasses (BAG) offer superior capacity in stimulating a bioactive response but show high variability in uptake and solubility. To tackle these drawbacks, a combination of gelatin with BAG is [...] Read more.
Gelatin, a natural polymer, provides excellent tissue compatibility for use in tissue rehabilitation. Bioactive glasses (BAG) offer superior capacity in stimulating a bioactive response but show high variability in uptake and solubility. To tackle these drawbacks, a combination of gelatin with BAG is proposed to form composites, which then offer a synergistic response. The cross-linked gelatin structure’s mechanical properties are enhanced by the incorporation of the inorganic BAG, and the rate of BAG ionic supplementation responsible for bioactivity and regenerative potential is better controlled by a protective gelatin layer. Several studies have demonstrated the cellular benefits of these composites in different forms of functional modification such as doping with zinc or incorporation of zinc such as ions directly into the BAG matrix. This review presents a comprehensive perspective on the individual characteristics of BAG and gelatin, including the synthesis and mechanism of action. Further, adaptation of the composite into various applications for bone tissue engineering is discussed and future challenges are highlighted. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop