Fiber Recycling

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 October 2023) | Viewed by 5737

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Industrial Systems and Technologies for Advanced Manufacturing, Italian National Research Council, Corso Giuseppe Pella 16, 13900 Biella, Italy
Interests: sustainable textile processes; recycling; animal fibers waste valorization; biopolymers, composites; wool; fine animal fibers; silk
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute of Industrial Systems and Technologies for Advanced Manufacturing, Italian National Research Council, Corso Giuseppe Pella 16, 13900 Biella, Italy
Interests: fiber science; fiber recycling; textile functionalization; fiber-based biomaterials; sustainable textile processing; biopolymers; fiber identification

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is an ever-increasing amount of postindustrial and postconsumer fiber waste due to the constantly growing global consumption of fiber as the world population and living standards continue to rise.

This waste is produced in addition to fiber subproducts deriving from agriculture (e.g., technical hemp) or animal breeding (e.g., coarse wool).

Recycling these fiber wastes is increasingly becoming a necessity, and efforts should be made in several directions, in particular towards recycling postconsumer textile waste, which is very difficult due to its complexity (being composed of fiber blends, various chemicals, etc.).

This Special Issue of Fibers intends to cover recent advances in the field of fiber waste recycling through a collection of original research and review papers.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Value-added materials from fiber wastes;
  • Chemical recycling of fiber wastes;
  • Mechanical recycling of fiber wastes;
  • Thermal recycling of fiber wastes;
  • Sorting of textile wastes;
  • Identification of fibrous recycled materials;
  • Separation of textile wastes from blends;
  • Characterization of fiber wastes;
  • Issues in textile recycling processing;
  • Textile design and de-manufacturing for recycling;
  • Recovery and exploitation of high-value molecules from fiber wastes;
  • Artificial fibers from plant wastes;
  • Recycling surgical masks.

Dr. Marina Zoccola
Dr. Alessia Patrucco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fibers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • recycling
  • natural fibers
  • fiber wastes
  • post-industrial textile wastes
  • post-consumer textile wastes
  • fiber sub-products
  • textile
  • identification of recycled material
  • up-cycling
  • down-cycling

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 3554 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Hydrolysis Regime on the Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Medium-Density Fiberboards Manufactured from Recycled Wood Fibers
by Viktor Savov, Petar Antov, Christian Panchev, Muhammad Adly Rahandi Lubis, Hamid R. Taghiyari, Seng Hua Lee, Ľuboš Krišťák and Martina Todorova
Fibers 2023, 11(12), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11120103 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Recycling medium-density fiberboards (MDF) presents notable technological challenges, primarily due to the deteriorated properties of the recycled wood fibers obtained from MDF waste. On the other hand, the enhanced valorization of recycled wood in the manufacturing of wood composites represents a viable approach [...] Read more.
Recycling medium-density fiberboards (MDF) presents notable technological challenges, primarily due to the deteriorated properties of the recycled wood fibers obtained from MDF waste. On the other hand, the enhanced valorization of recycled wood in the manufacturing of wood composites represents a viable approach for implementing the principles of a circular bio-economy in the wood-based panel industry and lowering its carbon footprint. This research aimed to investigate and evaluate the impact of the hydrothermal hydrolysis regime on the physical and mechanical properties of recycled MDF panels (rMDF). The hydrolysis temperature was varied from 121 °C (saturated steam pressure 0.2 MPa) to 134 °C (saturated steam pressure 0.3 MPa), and three hydrolysis durations, i.e., 30, 45, and 60 min, were applied. A control MDF panel, manufactured in laboratory conditions from industrial pulp, was used to perform the comparative analyses. It was observed that the degradation of the rMDF panels occurred when the hydrolysis temperature was increased from 121 °C to 134 °C. The research confirmed the deteriorated physical and mechanical properties of rMDF compared to the panels manufactured from natural wood fibers. Markedly, no significant differences were detected between the density profiles of the rMDF panels and the control boards fabricated from industrial pulp. As a result of the study, it was found that the hydrolysis temperature has a more significant effect than the processing time. It was also established that, in the preliminary preparation of the MDF panels into samples with dimensions similar to those of pulp chips, the optimal hydrolysis regime is at a temperature of 121° C (saturated steam pressure 0.2 MPa) and a time of 30 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Recycling)
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12 pages, 2657 KiB  
Article
Effect of Hydrolysis Regime on the Properties of Fibers Obtained from Recycling Medium-Density Fiberboards
by Viktor Savov, Petar Antov, Christian Panchev, Muhammad Adly Rahandi Lubis, Seng Hua Lee, Hamid R. Taghiyari, Martina Todorova and Stoyko Petrin
Fibers 2023, 11(7), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11070064 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Unlike the recycling of particleboards, the recycling of medium-density fiberboards (MDF) is not a widespread industrial practice, and currently, most waste MDF panels are landfilled or incinerated after the end of their life cycle. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop cost-effective [...] Read more.
Unlike the recycling of particleboards, the recycling of medium-density fiberboards (MDF) is not a widespread industrial practice, and currently, most waste MDF panels are landfilled or incinerated after the end of their life cycle. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop cost-effective methods for MDF recycling. The extraction of resins used for bonding the panels, mostly urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, is carried out mainly with hydrolysis. Hydrothermal hydrolysis is a more environmentally friendly and cheaper recycling technique compared to acid hydrolysis and allows obtaining a high yield of recycled fibers. The aim of this research work was to investigate and evaluate the effect of hydrolysis regime applied on its efficiency and on the properties of the recycled MDF fibers. For this purpose, thermal hydrolysis was carried out in an autoclave with saturated steam as a heat carrier. The main novelty of the research is the preliminary preparation of the recyclable MDF in samples with dimensions close to those of pulp chips. The effect of hydrolysis regime characteristics, i.e., process time and temperature on the properties of recycled MDF wood fibers, was studied. The hydrolysis temperatures used were 121 °C (saturated steam pressure of 0.2 MPa) and 134 °C (saturated steam pressure of 0.3 MPa); for each temperature, three durations were applied—30, 45, and 60 min. After hydrolysis, the resulting fiber fraction was refined using a hammer mill. The fractional and elemental composition of the recycled fibers obtained were evaluated. The hemicellulose content after each hydrolysis treatment was also determined. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was defined as an indicator of wastewater contamination and as an indirect indicator of the quantitative yield of the process. The results revealed no significant changes in the elemental composition of the recycled fibers, and the hydrolysis regimes used showed no decrease in pentosan content. The recycled MDF fibers exhibited similar fiber morphology and fractional composition, being shorter than fibers from industrial pulp. The increased temperature and time of hydrolysis resulted in a significant increase in COD values. Based on the obtained results, with a view to the slightest contamination of wastewater (as determined by COD), the most promising hydrolysis regime was at a temperature of 121 °C and a time of 30 min. It should be emphasized that for a confirmation of this statement, the properties of MDF panels fabricated with fibers recycled in different regimes should be subsequently investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Recycling)
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11 pages, 1403 KiB  
Article
The Quality of Blended Cotton and Denim Waste Fibres: The Effect of Blend Ratio and Waste Category
by Mohammad Kanan, Bechir Wannassi, Ahmad S. Barham, Mohamed Ben Hassen and Ramiz Assaf
Fibers 2022, 10(9), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib10090076 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2431
Abstract
Cotton is one of the most-used natural fibres in the world due to its relative comfort and strength compared with other natural fibres. However, the processing of cotton for manufacturing products consumes a lot of water, while harvesting cotton uses significant amounts of [...] Read more.
Cotton is one of the most-used natural fibres in the world due to its relative comfort and strength compared with other natural fibres. However, the processing of cotton for manufacturing products consumes a lot of water, while harvesting cotton uses significant amounts of pesticides. One solution to this ecological problem is to recycle cotton waste. This study investigated the effect of blending virgin cotton with two categories of denim cotton waste—sourced during the winding and dyeing processes and used in various ratios—on the quality of blended denim cotton. The study was realised in collaboration with a large manufacturer of denim fabrics in Tunisia and a producer of preparation machines in Italy and aimed to use an adequate process to recycle cotton yarn waste and to obtain fibres with acceptable quality. The research aimed at providing a solution to the great demand for denim with the use of reclaimed fabric, which accompanies the increased need for denim with a fancy effect and the obligation of denim producers to follow environmental standards required by many brands The results show that it is possible to obtain a good quality of blend yarn using virgin cotton and cotton waste even when the waste content exceeds 50%. These results are significant for textile mills. Reprocessing fibres from denim colour-processing waste has a lot of advantages, including reductions in wastewater treatment and the consumption of energy, chemicals and water. In addition, the process eliminates the need for the dyeing and finishing processes of these coloured fibres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Recycling)
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