Polymer Fibers and Composites

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 14654

Special Issue Editors

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, 29208 SC, USA
Interests: composites; manufacturing; computational mechanics; experimental mechanics; processing-structure-property
Center for Composite Materials, University of Delaware, Newark, 19716 DE, USA
Interests: multiscale modeling; composite mechanics and manufacturing; composite interphase; nanostructured materials; machine learning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The primary aim of this Special Issue is to capture the recent scientific and technological advances on fiber composite and their constituent properties, microstructure, processing, deformation, failure and energy absorption mechanisms of these materials, at different length scales pertinent to the application. The Special Issue will also consider challenges and future research directions. Considering your extensive knowledge and experience in this field, we would like to invite you to contribute original research articles to this Special Issue, which will increase basic and cutting-edge subject knowledge on fiber composites and may lead to the development of new technologies and innovations for their efficient and economic utilization.

Prof. Dr. Subramani Sockalingam
Dr. Sanjib Chowdhury
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • Fiber composites
  • Polymer fibers
  • Polymer resins and adhesives
  • Processing-structure-property
  • Multiscale modeling
  • Characterization of structure
  • Process simulations

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 14123 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Metallic Coatings on Yarn Pull-Out Behavior in Kevlar® Fabrics
Fibers 2023, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11010007 - 11 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1446
Abstract
This work reports yarn pull-out studies of commercially available Kevlar® KM2+ individual yarns coated with metallic layers (copper, aluminum, aluminum nitride and silver) via a directed vapor deposition process. The uncoated control and metal-coated Kevlar® yarns are hand-woven into fabric swatches [...] Read more.
This work reports yarn pull-out studies of commercially available Kevlar® KM2+ individual yarns coated with metallic layers (copper, aluminum, aluminum nitride and silver) via a directed vapor deposition process. The uncoated control and metal-coated Kevlar® yarns are hand-woven into fabric swatches for quasi-static pull-out experiments. To perform these experiments, a yarn pull-out fixture is custom-designed and fabricated to apply transverse pre-tension to the fabric. Three levels of transverse pre-tensions are studied at 100 N, 200 N, and 400 N. The results showed that both peak pull-out force and energy absorption during the pull-out process increase with increase in transverse pre-tension. All the metal-coated groups showed an approximately 200% increase in peak pull-out force and a 20% reduction in tenacity compared to uncoated control. Furthermore, all the metal-coated groups showed an increase in energy absorption, with aluminum-coated yarns showing the highest increase of 230% compared to control. These results suggest enhanced frictional interactions during yarn pull-out in metal-coated yarns compared to uncoated control as evidenced by the surface roughness profile of individual fibers and inter-yarn frictional calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Fibers and Composites)
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27 pages, 15184 KiB  
Article
Framework for Predicting Failure in Polymeric Unidirectional Composites through Combined Experimental and Computational Mesoscale Modeling Techniques
Fibers 2021, 9(8), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9080050 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
As composites continue to be increasingly used, finite element material models that homogenize the composite response become the only logical choice as not only modeling the entire composite microstructure is computationally expensive but obtaining the entire suite of experimental data to characterize deformation [...] Read more.
As composites continue to be increasingly used, finite element material models that homogenize the composite response become the only logical choice as not only modeling the entire composite microstructure is computationally expensive but obtaining the entire suite of experimental data to characterize deformation and failure may not be possible. The focus of this paper is the development of a modeling framework where plasticity, damage, and failure-related experimental data are obtained for each composite constituent. Mesoscale finite elements models consisting of multiple repeating unit cells are then generated and used to represent a typical carbon fiber/epoxy resin unidirectional composite to generate the complete principal direction stress-strain curves. These models are subjected to various uniaxial states of stress and compared with experimental data. They demonstrate a reasonable match and provide the basic framework to completely define the composite homogenized material model that can be used as a vehicle for failure predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Fibers and Composites)
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11 pages, 2524 KiB  
Article
Zeolite Composite Nanofiber Mesh for Indoxyl Sulfate Adsorption toward Wearable Blood Purification Devices
Fibers 2021, 9(6), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9060037 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3330
Abstract
A nanofiber mesh was prepared for the adsorption of indoxyl sulfate (IS), a toxin associated with chronic kidney disease. Removing IS is highly demanded for efficient blood purification. The objective of this study is to develop a zeolite composite nanofiber mesh to remove [...] Read more.
A nanofiber mesh was prepared for the adsorption of indoxyl sulfate (IS), a toxin associated with chronic kidney disease. Removing IS is highly demanded for efficient blood purification. The objective of this study is to develop a zeolite composite nanofiber mesh to remove IS efficiently. Eight zeolites with different properties were used for IS adsorption, where a zeolite with a pore size of 7 Å, H+ cations, and a silica to aluminum ratio of 240 mol/mol exhibited the highest adsorption capacity. This was primarily attributed to its suitable silica to aluminum ratio. The zeolites were incorporated in biocompatible poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) nanofibers, and a zeolite composite nanofiber mesh was successfully fabricated via electrospinning. The nanofiber mesh exhibited an IS adsorption capacity of 107 μg/g, while the adsorption capacity by zeolite increased from 208 μg/g in powder form to 386 μg/g when dispersed in the mesh. This also led to an increase in cell viability from 86% to 96%. These results demonstrated that this zeolite composite nanofiber mesh can be safely and effectively applied in wearable blood purification devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Fibers and Composites)
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12 pages, 5081 KiB  
Article
The Mechanical Properties of PVC Nanofiber Mats Obtained by Electrospinning
Fibers 2021, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9010002 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4557
Abstract
This paper investigates the mechanical properties of oriented polyvinyl chloride (PVC) nanofiber mats, which, were obtained by electrospinning a PVC solution. PVC was dissolved in a solvent mixture of tetrahydrofuran/dimethylformamide. Electrospinning parameters used in our work were, voltage 20 kV; flow rate 0.5 [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the mechanical properties of oriented polyvinyl chloride (PVC) nanofiber mats, which, were obtained by electrospinning a PVC solution. PVC was dissolved in a solvent mixture of tetrahydrofuran/dimethylformamide. Electrospinning parameters used in our work were, voltage 20 kV; flow rate 0.5 mL/h; the distance between the syringe tip and collector was 15 cm. The rotating speed of the drum collector was varied from 500 to 2500 rpm with a range of 500 rpm. Nanofiber mats were characterized by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry methods. The mechanical properties of PVC nanofiber mats, such as tensile strength, Young’s modulus, thermal degradation, and glass transition temperature were also analyzed. It was shown that, by increasing the collector’s rotation speed from 0 (flat plate collector) to 2500 rpm (drum collector), the average diameter of PVC nanofibers decreased from 313 ± 52 to 229 ± 47 nm. At the same time, it was observed that the mechanical properties of the resulting nanofiber mats were improved: tensile strength increased from 2.2 ± 0.2 MPa to 9.1 ± 0.3 MPa, Young’s modulus from 53 ± 14 to 308 ± 19 MPa. Thermogravimetric analysis measurements showed that there was no difference in the process of thermal degradation of nanofiber mats and PVC powders. On the other hand, the glass transition temperature of nanofiber mats and powders did show different values, such values were 77.5 °C and 83.2 °C, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Fibers and Composites)
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18 pages, 6425 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Transverse Loading Behavior of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Yarns
Fibers 2020, 8(10), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8100066 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) Dyneema® SK-76 fibers are widely used in personnel protection systems. Transverse ballistic impact onto these fibers results in complex multiaxial deformation modes such as axial tension, axial compression, transverse compression, and transverse shear. Previous experimental studies on [...] Read more.
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) Dyneema® SK-76 fibers are widely used in personnel protection systems. Transverse ballistic impact onto these fibers results in complex multiaxial deformation modes such as axial tension, axial compression, transverse compression, and transverse shear. Previous experimental studies on single fibers have shown a degradation of tensile failure strain due to the presence of such multi-axial deformation modes. In this work, we study the presence and effects of such multi-axial stress-states on Dyneema® SK-76 yarns via transverse loading experiments. Quasi-static transverse loading experiments are conducted on Dyneema® SK-76 single yarn at different starting angles (5°, 10°, 15°, and 25°) and via four different indenter geometries: round (radius of curvature (ROC) = 3.8 mm), 200-micron, 20-micron, and razor blade (ROC ~2 micron). Additionally, transverse loading experiments were also conducted for a 0.30 cal. fragment simulating projectile (FSP) and compared to other indenters. Experimental results show that for the round, 200-micron indenter, and FSP geometry the yarn fails in tension with no degradation in axial failure strain compared to the uniaxial tensile failure strain of SK-76 yarn (2.58%). Whereas for the 20-micron indenter and razor blade, fibers fail progressively in transverse shear followed by progressive strength degradation of the yarn. Strength degradation of yarn occurs at relatively low strains of 0.6–0.7% with eventual failure of the yarn at approximately ~1.8% and ~1.5% strain for the 20-micron indenter and razor blade, respectively. Breaking angles (range of 10°–30°) are observed to have little effect on the failure strain for all indenter geometries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Fibers and Composites)
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