Advances in Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Computer Science & Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 20291

Special Issue Editors

1. BISITE Research Group, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
2. Air Institute, IoT Digital Innovation Hub, 37188 Salamanca, Spain
3. Department of Electronics, Information and Communication, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka 535-8585, Japan
Interests: artificial intelligence; smart cities; smart grids
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Science program, University of Texas A&M at Qatar, Doha 23874, Qatar
Interests: smart cities; modeling; mathematical and numerical analysis of non-darcy fluid flow through porous media

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is expected that the world's population will reach 9.7 billion in 2050. By then, two-thirds of the population will live in urban environments. Critical social and ecological challenges that cities will face include urban violence, inequality, discrimination, unemployment, poverty, unsustainable energy and water use, epidemics, pollution, environmental degradation, and increased risks of natural disasters. The concept of smart cities, born in the early 2000s, attempts to provide solutions to these challenges by implementing information and communication technologies. The initial concept of smart cities focused on the modernization of megacities. However, most of the so-called smart cities are just cities with several smart projects. The most promising trend is the creation of smart micro-territories, defined as hi-tech small towns, districts or satellite towns near megacities. With the current availability of enormous amount of data, the challenge is to identify intelligent and adaptive ways of combining the information to create valuable knowledge. Sensorization has played a fundamental role in the collection of data, which, once analyzed in IoT and smart cities platforms, has allowed for the optimization of multiple decisions regarding governance and resource consumption optimization.

This special issue will include a selection of the papers presented in the International Conference on Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories, an open symposium which brings together researchers and developers from academia and industry to present and discuss the latest scientific and technical advances in the fields of Smart Cities and Smart Territories. It will promote an environment for discussion on how techniques, methods, and tools help system designers to accomplish the transition from the current cities towards those we need in a changing world.


Prof. Dr. Juan M. Corchado
Prof. Dr. Saber Trabelsi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • smart cities and smart territories successful cases and challenges
  • smart homes and smart buildings
  • smart infrastructures (network, 5G, grids, lighting, water and waste)
  • smart urban mobility and intelligent transportation systems
  • smart health and emergency management (epidemy control)
  • smart environments
  • smart travel and smart tourism
  • smart manufacturing and smart logistics
  • new retail and smart commerce
  • smart urban governance
  • eco-urbanism, urban resilience and climate change mitigation and adaptation
  • energy and climate policy
  • intelligent traffic control
  • crowd behaviour capturing and modelling and crowd management
  • human–machine interactions
  • artificial intelligence and machine learning
  • open data and big data analytics
  • data security and safety, blockchain
  • sensor‐driven analytics and services
  • context-aware systems

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 187 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories
Electronics 2022, 11(8), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11081280 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
The smart city concept refers to the implementation of disruptive technologies in the urban environment, with the aim of creating an optimal citizen experience [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

34 pages, 12671 KiB  
Article
Interactive System for Package Delivery in Pedestrian Areas Using a Self-Developed Fleet of Autonomous Vehicles
Electronics 2022, 11(5), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11050748 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2583
Abstract
In the context of automation and digitalization technologies and due to the existing trends of re-urbanization, autonomous vehicles for execution of services such as package delivery, transportation, vegetation care and street cleaning are considered innovative solutions. This paper presents a concept and implementation [...] Read more.
In the context of automation and digitalization technologies and due to the existing trends of re-urbanization, autonomous vehicles for execution of services such as package delivery, transportation, vegetation care and street cleaning are considered innovative solutions. This paper presents a concept and implementation of a system developed to plan and deliver packages within pedestrian areas, using autonomous vehicles. The novelty of the system lies in the systematic view of this use case, which considers all stakeholder views from the CEP (courier, express, and parcel services) provider, traffic participants, and customers and where the technical and technological innovation is guided by interactivity with the users. This work outlines the design and integration of user interaction, the developed vehicles within the fleet designed for operating within pedestrian environments, and localization and navigation strategies. After the vehicles were approved and certified from a technical point of view to operate in pedestrian areas, the entire system was tested and evaluated in a new city district of Heilbronn with approximately 800 inhabitants. In the last six weeks of experiments, 572 packages were delivered in an autonomous way. The interactive way of planning and executing services on demand led, according to a market study in Heilbronn, to an increased acceptance of the users for autonomous package delivery services from 76% to 91%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories)
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10 pages, 1194 KiB  
Article
IoT-Based Human Fall Detection System
Electronics 2022, 11(4), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11040592 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5069
Abstract
Human falls are an issue that especially affects elderly people, resulting in permanent disabilities or even in the person’s death. Preventing human falls is a social desire, but it is almost impossible to achieve because it is not possible to ensure full prevention. [...] Read more.
Human falls are an issue that especially affects elderly people, resulting in permanent disabilities or even in the person’s death. Preventing human falls is a social desire, but it is almost impossible to achieve because it is not possible to ensure full prevention. A possible solution is the detection of human falls in near real-time so that help can quickly be provided. This has the potential to greatly reduce the severity of the fall in long-term health consequences. This work proposes a solution based on the internet of things devices installed in people’s homes. The proposed non-wearable solution is non-intrusive and can be deployed not only in homes but also in hospitals, rehabilitation facilities, and elderly homes. The solution uses a three-layered computation architecture composed of edge, fog, and cloud. A mathematical model using the Morlet wavelet and an artificial intelligence model using artificial neural networks are used for human fall classification; both approaches are compared. The results showed that the combination of both models is possible and brings benefits to the system, achieving an accuracy of 92.5% without false negatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories)
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18 pages, 1192 KiB  
Article
Towards the Prioritised Use of Transportation Infrastructures: The Case of Vehicle-Specific Dynamic Access Restrictions in City Centres
Electronics 2022, 11(4), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11040576 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
One of the main problems that local authorities of large cities have to face is the regulation of urban mobility. They need to provide the means to allow for the efficient movement of people and distribution of goods. However, the provisioning of transportation [...] Read more.
One of the main problems that local authorities of large cities have to face is the regulation of urban mobility. They need to provide the means to allow for the efficient movement of people and distribution of goods. However, the provisioning of transportation services needs to take into account general global objectives, like reducing emissions and having more healthy living environments, which may not always be aligned with individual interests. Urban mobility is usually provided through a transport infrastructure that includes all the elements that support mobility. On many occasions, the capacity of the elements of this infrastructure is lower than the actual demand and thus different transportation activities compete for their use. In this paper, we argue that scarce transport infrastructure elements should be assigned dynamically and in a prioritised manner to transport activities that have a higher utility from the point of view of society; for example, activities that produce less pollution and provide more value to society. In this paper, we define a general model for prioritizing the use of a particular type of transportation infrastructure element called time-unlimited elements, whose usage time is unknown a priori, and illustrate its dynamics through two use cases: vehicle-specific dynamic access restriction in city centres (i) based on the usage levels of available parking spaces and (ii) to assure sustained admissible air quality levels in the city centre. We carry out several experiments using the SUMO traffic simulation tool to evaluate our proposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories)
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12 pages, 1028 KiB  
Article
Intelligent One-Class Classifiers for the Development of an Intrusion Detection System: The MQTT Case Study
Electronics 2022, 11(3), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11030422 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
The ever-increasing number of smart devices connected to the internet poses an unprecedented security challenge. This article presents the implementation of an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) based on the deployment of different one-class classifiers to prevent attacks over the Internet of Things (IoT) [...] Read more.
The ever-increasing number of smart devices connected to the internet poses an unprecedented security challenge. This article presents the implementation of an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) based on the deployment of different one-class classifiers to prevent attacks over the Internet of Things (IoT) protocol Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT). The utilization of real data sets has allowed us to train the one-class algorithms, showing a remarkable performance in detecting attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories)
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14 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
Demand-Responsive Shared Transportation: A Self-Interested Proposal
Electronics 2022, 11(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11010078 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
With the world population highly increasing, efficient methods of transportation are more necessary than ever. On the other hand, the sharing economy must be explored and applied where possible, aiming to palliate the effects of human development on the environment. In this paper [...] Read more.
With the world population highly increasing, efficient methods of transportation are more necessary than ever. On the other hand, the sharing economy must be explored and applied where possible, aiming to palliate the effects of human development on the environment. In this paper we explore demand-responsive shared transportation as a system with the potential to serve its users’ displacement needs while being less polluting. In contrast with previous works, we focus on a distributed proposal that allows each vehicle to retain its private information. Our work describes a partially dynamic system in which the vehicles are self-interested: they decide which users to serve according to the benefit it reports them. With our modelling, the system can be adapted to mobility platforms of autonomous drivers and even simulate the competition among different companies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories)
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17 pages, 1097 KiB  
Article
Risk Analysis with the Dempster–Shafer Theory for Smart City Planning: The Case of Qatar
Electronics 2021, 10(24), 3080; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10243080 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
Smart cities support the enhancement of the quality of life of their residents, for which the use of a robust integrated platform of information and communication technology is required. However, not all cities have similar technology infrastructure and a similar understanding of the [...] Read more.
Smart cities support the enhancement of the quality of life of their residents, for which the use of a robust integrated platform of information and communication technology is required. However, not all cities have similar technology infrastructure and a similar understanding of the quality of life. Therefore, holistic planning, resource support, security, continuous updates, and dynamic operational enhancements should be considered while planning smart cities. However, a smart city could be vulnerable to security threats and a loss of personal or classified information due to the complexity of technology integration. Therefore, understanding and assessing different risks and embedding risk management mechanisms would be required to minimize vulnerability exposure in smart cities. This paper proposes a risk assessment method using the Dempster–Shafer theory for smart city planning. The Dempster–Shafer theory is used here to analyze the risks perceptions of experts. The principal component analysis method is used to analyze the data obtained from risk assessment. The application of this method is determined through a smart city test case in Qatar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories)
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12 pages, 678 KiB  
Article
Neural Network Explainable AI Based on Paraconsistent Analysis: An Extension
Electronics 2021, 10(21), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10212660 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
This paper explores the use of paraconsistent analysis for assessing neural networks from an explainable AI perspective. This is an early exploration paper aiming to understand whether paraconsistent analysis can be applied for understanding neural networks and whether it is worth further develop [...] Read more.
This paper explores the use of paraconsistent analysis for assessing neural networks from an explainable AI perspective. This is an early exploration paper aiming to understand whether paraconsistent analysis can be applied for understanding neural networks and whether it is worth further develop the subject in future research. The answers to these two questions are affirmative. Paraconsistent analysis provides insightful prediction visualisation through a mature formal framework that provides proper support for reasoning. The significant potential envisioned is the that paraconsistent analysis will be used for guiding neural network development projects, despite the performance issues. This paper provides two explorations. The first was a baseline experiment based on MNIST for establishing the link between paraconsistency and neural networks. The second experiment aimed to detect violence in audio files to verify whether the paraconsistent framework scales to industry level problems. The conclusion shown by this early assessment is that further research on this subject is worthful, and may eventually result in a significant contribution to the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories)
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