RF/Microwave Device and Circuit Integration Technology

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Circuit and Signal Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 4344

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau SAR 999078, China
Interests: wireless communications; remote sensing; compact antenna and antenna system

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Guest Editor
College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Interests: patch antennas; filtering antennas; broadband antennas; circularly polarized antennas

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Guest Editor
School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215031, China
Interests: antenna; antenna arrays; microwave sensors; impedance matching

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rapid and innovative advancement of wireless/broadband communications in recent years have driven the development of various novel device applications. Numerous fabrication processes are also available for such device realization which provide adequate circuit integration. In addition to wireless communications, integrated RF/MW components and devices, emerging applications for remote sensing, radars and RFID, some of which also incorporate AI and machine learning technologies, are proposed to improve the function of the devices.  RF/MW components are not just limited to communication usages, but are also adapted to the applications of microwave sensors. However, due to the different nature of these applications, varied concerns regarding system and component design arise, e.g., broadband for high-throughput/datarate, robust spectrum utilization for multiband and cognitive communication, and low-latency communications for V2V or V2X applications. Intelligent antenna with variable beam patterns and polarization elevates the performance of the system.

Numerous designs, either based on guided-wave or radiated-wave, are being engineered to meet the requirements of these emerging wireless applications in different fields. This Special Issue is aimed at addressing the issues involved in the analysis, design, and implementation of the novel RF/MW components, antenna, and systems for different wireless applications. This includes, but not limited to, the following:

  • Passive and active components;
  • Various integration technologies for RF/Microwave device design;
  • High-frequency integrated circuit analysis and design;
  • Integrated antenna and arrays;
  • Integrated radar;
  • Remote sensing systems based on RF/MW techniques.

Dr. Wai-Wa Choi
Dr. Xiao Zhang
Dr. Wenhai Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

37 pages, 9886 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Design of Antenna and Chip Coupling Circuits on the Performance of Textronic RFID UHF Transponders
by Anna Ziobro, Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz, Mariusz Węglarski and Patryk Pyt
Electronics 2024, 13(9), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13091759 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 517
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to design, investigate, and compare different designs of coupling circuits for textronic RFID transponders, particularly focusing on magnetic coupling between an antenna and a chip. The configuration of the inductively coupled antenna module and the microelectronic module [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to design, investigate, and compare different designs of coupling circuits for textronic RFID transponders, particularly focusing on magnetic coupling between an antenna and a chip. The configuration of the inductively coupled antenna module and the microelectronic module housing the chip can be varied in several ways. This article explores various geometries of coupling circuits and assesses the effects of altering their dimensions on mutual inductance, chip voltage, and the transponder’s read range. The investigation comprised an analytical description of inductive coupling, calculations of mutual inductance and chip voltage based on simulation models of transponders, and laboratory measurements of the read range for selected configurations. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that various designs of textile transponders are capable of achieving satisfactory read ranges, with some configurations extending beyond 10 m. This significant range provides clothing designers with the flexibility to select transponder designs that best meet their specific aesthetic and functional requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RF/Microwave Device and Circuit Integration Technology)
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14 pages, 6258 KiB  
Article
Design of 2.5 Bit Programmable Metasurface Unit Cell for Electromagnetic Manipulation
by Yuchen Luan, Yuyang Lu, Jian Ren and Fukun Sun
Electronics 2024, 13(9), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13091648 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Programmable metasurfaces are two-dimensional electromagnetic structures characterized by a low profile, conformability, and the ability to flexibly manipulate the amplitude and phase of electromagnetic waves. For high-quality beam scanning with the metasurface, it is essential that the metasurface possesses high-precision phase response quantization [...] Read more.
Programmable metasurfaces are two-dimensional electromagnetic structures characterized by a low profile, conformability, and the ability to flexibly manipulate the amplitude and phase of electromagnetic waves. For high-quality beam scanning with the metasurface, it is essential that the metasurface possesses high-precision phase response quantization characteristics. This paper constructs a reflection-type metasurface unit cell featuring four P-I-N diodes and six operating states. To address the unit cell’s complexity and optimization challenges, we developed an automatic optimization algorithm, derived from the genetic optimization algorithm, for the metasurface unit cell. This algorithm was used to optimize a six-phase reflective 2.5 bit programmable metasurface cell operating at 5 GHz. The unit cell’s prototype was fabricated and measured to verify the design. Additionally, a metasurface comprising 16 × 16 unit cells was designed and simulated. The results highlight the metasurface unit cell’s excellent phase response quantization characteristics, and investigate the impact of quantization accuracy on beam scanning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RF/Microwave Device and Circuit Integration Technology)
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14 pages, 20720 KiB  
Article
A P/X Dual-Band Co-Aperture Array with Dual-Polarized Antenna Based on Forest Biomass Measurement Applications
by Fukun Sun, Xian Wu, Yuchen Luan and Duo Wang
Electronics 2024, 13(8), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13081565 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 375
Abstract
In this paper, a co-aperture dual-polarized antenna array is proposed. The frequency band covers the P-band (0.4–0.7 GHz) and the X-band (9.3–9.9 GHz). The P-band array is designed in the form of an all-metal Vivaldi, while minimizing the impact of the P-band antenna [...] Read more.
In this paper, a co-aperture dual-polarized antenna array is proposed. The frequency band covers the P-band (0.4–0.7 GHz) and the X-band (9.3–9.9 GHz). The P-band array is designed in the form of an all-metal Vivaldi, while minimizing the impact of the P-band antenna array structure on the X-band electrical performance. The final profile design for the dual-band antenna structure is only 0.12 λ00 corresponds to the wavelength of 0.4 GHz). The X-band design adopts the miniaturized waveguide slot structure, which can be well embedded in the P-band array structure. In order to verify the feasibility of the scheme, prototype processing and testing were carried out, and the test results are consistent with the simulation results. The active VSWRs of the overall design are less than 2.0. Additionally, the dual-band antenna array has favorable radiation performance in each frequency band. It can be used in forest biomass measurements and other interferometric applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RF/Microwave Device and Circuit Integration Technology)
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12 pages, 3394 KiB  
Article
A Circularly Polarized Complementary Antenna with Substrate Integrated Coaxial Line Feed for X-Band Applications
by Zhuoqiao Ji, Guanghua Sun, Kaixu Wang, Hang Wong, Zhan Yu, Zhengguo Li, Changning Wei and Pei Liu
Electronics 2024, 13(4), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13040785 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 884
Abstract
This work presents a design for a complementary antenna with circular polarization that has a wide operating bandwidth, stable broadside radiation, and stable gain for X-band applications. The proposed antenna consists of an irregular loop and a parasitic electric dipole, which work together [...] Read more.
This work presents a design for a complementary antenna with circular polarization that has a wide operating bandwidth, stable broadside radiation, and stable gain for X-band applications. The proposed antenna consists of an irregular loop and a parasitic electric dipole, which work together to produce equivalent radiation from the magnetic and electric dipoles. By arranging the dipole and the loop in a specific geometry, this antenna effectively generates circularly polarized wave propagation. A substrate integrated coaxial line (SICL) is applied to feed the antenna through an aperture cutting on the ground. The proposed antenna achieves a wide axial ratio (AR) and impedance bandwidths of 27.4% (from 8.5 to 11.22 GHz, for the AR ≤ 3 dB) and 39.6% (from 7.5 to 11.2 GHz, for the reflection coefficient ≤ −10 dB), respectively. Moreover, the antenna maintains a stable broadside radiation pattern across the operating bandwidth, with an average gain of 10 dBic. This proposed antenna design is competitive for X-band wireless communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RF/Microwave Device and Circuit Integration Technology)
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13 pages, 10098 KiB  
Article
RFID-Based Localization System for Monitoring the Dispersal of Oak Acorns
by Maciej Ciężkowski, Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz and Kacper Skrobacz
Electronics 2024, 13(3), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13030567 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Radio techniques are widely used in wildlife tracking. Currently, the most common tracking methods include radio tracking (operating on Very high frequency (VHF) and Ultra high frequency (UHF)), satellite tracking (e.g., Argos satellite Doppler-based positioning system), and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) tracking. [...] Read more.
Radio techniques are widely used in wildlife tracking. Currently, the most common tracking methods include radio tracking (operating on Very high frequency (VHF) and Ultra high frequency (UHF)), satellite tracking (e.g., Argos satellite Doppler-based positioning system), and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) tracking. One of the radio tracking systems is the Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) system, characterized by small dimensions and a long operational period due to energy-efficient features. The advantages of RFID make it possible to apply this technique to track oak acorns in the process of zoochoric dispersal. In our study, we explored the potential applications of RFID systems for monitoring the dispersal of oak acorns. We developed a tracking system based on a semi-passive RFID tag, which we tested under laboratory and quasi-realistic conditions. The obtained results confirm the feasibility of using our system in radio tracking small objects such as oak acorns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RF/Microwave Device and Circuit Integration Technology)
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12 pages, 2950 KiB  
Article
CMOS Voltage-Controlled Oscillator with Complementary and Adaptive Overdrive Voltage Control Structures
by Yu-Hsin Chang and Yong-Lun Luo
Electronics 2024, 13(2), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13020440 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 864
Abstract
This paper displays a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with high performance implemented in 0.18 µm CMOS. The proposed CMOS VCO adopts a current-reused method, analog coarse and fine tuning mechanisms, and an adaptive overdrive voltage control structure to increase the overall performance, such as [...] Read more.
This paper displays a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with high performance implemented in 0.18 µm CMOS. The proposed CMOS VCO adopts a current-reused method, analog coarse and fine tuning mechanisms, and an adaptive overdrive voltage control structure to increase the overall performance, such as the power dissipation, phase noise, and tuning range, and has a robust start-up condition. The current-reused complementary structure with higher transistor transconductances is to save power consumption; the analog coarse and fine tuning mechanisms are to effectively widen the tuning range; and the adaptive overdrive voltage control technique is to change the transconductances of the transistors to improve power consumption by reasonably biasing the gate and body terminals in a class-AB mode to adjust the threshold voltage of the NMOS transistors. The proposed CMOS VCO adopts the class-AB mode to improve the overall performance and the start-up condition. The figure-of-merit (FOM) and FOM with tuning range (FOMT) are used in evaluating the CMOS VCO performance. The measured phase noise at 1 MHz and 10 MHz offsets is –130.34 dBc/Hz and –150.96 dBc/Hz at the 3.38 GHz operating frequency, respectively. The proposed CMOS VCO has a tuning range between 2.85 and 3.62 GHz corresponding to 23.8% for the fifth-generation (5G) wireless communication applications. The proposed CMOS VCO core using a 1.4-V supply consumes 7.5 mW DC power. The FOMs and FOMTs at 1- and 10-MHz offsets are −192.2, −192.8, −199.7, and −200.3 dBc/Hz, respectively, from the 3.38 GHz output frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RF/Microwave Device and Circuit Integration Technology)
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