State of the Art in Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Images

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Imaging and Theranostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2024 | Viewed by 2890

Special Issue Editor

Pathophysiology Department, School of Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, 40-055 Katowice, Poland
Interests: OCT; clinical ophthalmology; ophthalmological diagnostic techniques; eye diseases
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of retinal diseases. OCT uses light waves to capture detailed images of the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. These images provide important information about the structure and function of the retina, which can be used to diagnose and monitor a wide range of retinal disorders, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma.

Recent advancements in OCT technology have greatly improved the resolution and speed of these images, allowing for more accurate and detailed analysis of the retina. New imaging methods, such as swept-source OCT and spectral domain OCT, have increased the axial resolution and speed of the images. This has led to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, such as the use of OCT angiography to visualize the blood vessels in the retina.

In addition to improvements in technology, there have also been significant advancements in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in OCT image analysis. These techniques can be used to automatically detect and quantify retinal disorders, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, and to assist in the monitoring of treatment response.

Dr. Adam Wylęgała
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT)
  • artificial intelligence (AI)
  • machine learning (ML)
  • diagnosis
  • retinal disorders

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 10259 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning with Automatic Data Augmentation for Segmenting Schisis Cavities in the Optical Coherence Tomography Images of X-Linked Juvenile Retinoschisis Patients
Diagnostics 2023, 13(19), 3035; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13193035 - 24 Sep 2023
Viewed by 868
Abstract
X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is an inherited disorder characterized by retinal schisis cavities, which can be observed in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Monitoring disease progression necessitates the accurate segmentation and quantification of these cavities; yet, current manual methods are time consuming and [...] Read more.
X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is an inherited disorder characterized by retinal schisis cavities, which can be observed in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Monitoring disease progression necessitates the accurate segmentation and quantification of these cavities; yet, current manual methods are time consuming and result in subjective interpretations, highlighting the need for automated and precise solutions. We employed five state-of-the-art deep learning models—U-Net, U-Net++, Attention U-Net, Residual U-Net, and TransUNet—for the task, leveraging a dataset of 1500 OCT images from 30 patients. To enhance the models’ performance, we utilized data augmentation strategies that were optimized via deep reinforcement learning. The deep learning models achieved a human-equivalent accuracy level in the segmentation of schisis cavities, with U-Net++ surpassing others by attaining an accuracy of 0.9927 and a Dice coefficient of 0.8568. By utilizing reinforcement-learning-based automatic data augmentation, deep learning segmentation models demonstrate a robust and precise method for the automated segmentation of schisis cavities in OCT images. These findings are a promising step toward enhancing clinical evaluation and treatment planning for XLRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Images)
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13 pages, 3009 KiB  
Article
Retro-Mode in NIDEK Mirante: A Comparative Analysis with Other Imaging Modalities for AMD and CSR
Diagnostics 2023, 13(17), 2846; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13172846 - 02 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Background: Retro-mode is a novel technique capable of creating pseudo-3D images of the retina. However, its clinical utility remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the Nidek Mirante multimodal imaging platform for ocular assessment in patients with various retinal conditions. Methods: A total [...] Read more.
Background: Retro-mode is a novel technique capable of creating pseudo-3D images of the retina. However, its clinical utility remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the Nidek Mirante multimodal imaging platform for ocular assessment in patients with various retinal conditions. Methods: A total of 115 participants with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were included. Two experienced graders independently evaluated the images, and statistical analysis was performed to assess interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between graders and modalities; Results: For CSR detection, retro-mode demonstrated exceptionally high ICC rates (ICC = 1; 100%), while color and autofluorescence (FAF) showed moderate coefficients (0.69 and 0.78, respectively). The detection of pigment epithelial detachment was high across all methods, with only retro-mode deviated right (DR) allowing detection in 69% of cases, while retro-mode DR and deviated left (DL) achieved 100% detection. FAF-green achieved a 95% detection rate. In detecting retinal atrophy, most modalities demonstrated high detection rates, with the lowest detection rates offered by retro-mode DL (ICC = 0.85) and DR (ICC = 0.89), while retro-mode ring aperture offered 0.97. Infra-red and fluorescein angiography imaging offered the highest detection rates among the tested modalities, with 97% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: Retro-mode showed promise for comprehensive ocular evaluation and diagnosis, with certain imaging modalities demonstrating higher accuracy in detecting specific retinal features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Images)
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Review

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16 pages, 37623 KiB  
Review
Advantages of the Utilization of Wide-Field OCT and Wide-Field OCT Angiography in Clinical Practice
Diagnostics 2024, 14(3), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics14030321 - 01 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Wide-field (WF) retinal imaging is becoming a standard diagnostic tool for diseases involving the peripheral retina. Technological progress elicited the advent of wide-field optical coherence tomography (WF-OCT) and WF-OCT angiography (WF-OCTA) examinations. This review presents the results of studies that analyzed the implementation [...] Read more.
Wide-field (WF) retinal imaging is becoming a standard diagnostic tool for diseases involving the peripheral retina. Technological progress elicited the advent of wide-field optical coherence tomography (WF-OCT) and WF-OCT angiography (WF-OCTA) examinations. This review presents the results of studies that analyzed the implementation of these procedures in clinical practice and refers to them as traditional and ultra-wide-field fluorescein angiography (UWF-FA). A PUBMED search was performed using the terms WF-OCT OR WF-OCTA OR UWF-FA AND the specific clinical entity, and another search for diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), Coats disease, peripheral retinal telangiectasia, peripheral retinal degeneration, lattice degeneration, and posterior vitreous detachment. The analysis only included the studies in which the analyzed field of view for the OCT or OCTA exam was larger than 55 degrees. The evaluation of the extracted studies indicates that WF imaging with OCT and OCTA provides substantial information on retinal disorders involving the peripheral retina. Vascular diseases, such as DR or RVO, can be reliably evaluated using WF-OCTA with results superior to standard-field fluorescein angiography. Nevertheless, UWF-FA provides a larger field of view and still has advantages over WF-OCTA concerning the evaluation of areas of non-perfusion and peripheral neovascularization. Detailed information on the vascular morphology of peripheral changes should be obtained via WF-OCTA and not angiographic examinations. WF-OCT can serve as a valuable tool for the detection and evaluation of vitreoretinal traction, posterior vitreous detachment, and peripheral retinal degeneration, and guide therapeutic decisions on a patient’s eligibility for surgical procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Images)
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