Diagnostic Procedures for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Laboratory, Endoscopy, Pathology, Imaging and Beyond

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Imaging and Theranostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2024 | Viewed by 1920

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
St. Marien- & St. Annastiftskrankenhaus, Salzburger Str., 15, 67067 Ludwigshafen, Germany
Interests: ultrasound; endoscopic ultrasound; inflammatory bowel disease; diverticulitis; gall bladder

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and unclassified colitis) mainly affect young adults, with a prevalence of up to 1%. Diagnostic procedures are required to establish the correct diagnosis in the first place, to handle further flares, and to detect complications such as colitis-associated cancer or extraintestinal manifestations. Both clinical chemistry including iron as well as vitamins and particularly biomarkers have to be tested on a regular basis. Imaging, e.g., intestinal ultrasound and magnetic resonance enterography, as well as endoscopy, plays a pivotal role in establishing the correct diagnosis and to detect complications (e.g., scaring, stenosis, fistulas, or cancer). Histopathology, including immunohistochemistry (e.g., CMV), is initially and in due course important, as are infectious disease laboratory tests (e.g., clostridium difficile or CMV). Recent advances have been made in regard to pharmacosurveillance (e.g., anti-TNF-a antibody trough levels). Pharmacogenomics, molecular imaging (e.g., endocytoscopy), and dysplasia detection using artificial-intelligence-supported colonoscopy are currently hot research topics. Clinical decision support systems on IBD have started to emerge recently. Therefore, the current Special Issue covers both modern high-end diagnostics as well as future directions in IBD-related diagnostics.

Prof. Dr. Joerg C. Hoffmann
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Crohn’s disease
  • ulcerative colitis
  • ultrasonography
  • pharmacodynamics
  • pharmacokinetics
  • molecular imaging
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • cytomegalovirus
  • drug monitoring
  • cancer surveillance

Published Papers (2 papers)

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21 pages, 542 KiB  
Systematic Review
Novelties and Perspectives of Intestinal Ultrasound in the Personalised Management of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases—A Systematic Review
by Vasile-Claudiu Mihai, Liliana Gheorghe, Ioana-Irina Rezuș, Alina Ecaterina Jucan, Mihaela-Cristiana Andronic, Otilia Gavrilescu, Mihaela Dranga, Andrei-Mihai Andronic, Cristina Cijevschi Prelipcean, Ciprian Rezuș and Cătălina Mihai
Diagnostics 2024, 14(8), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics14080812 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) affect over 4.9 million individuals worldwide. Colonoscopy (CS) is the gold-standard technique for diagnosis. The remissive–recurrent pattern of evolution raises the need for non-invasive techniques to monitor disease activity. This review aims to present the advantages of intestinal ultrasound [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) affect over 4.9 million individuals worldwide. Colonoscopy (CS) is the gold-standard technique for diagnosis. The remissive–recurrent pattern of evolution raises the need for non-invasive techniques to monitor disease activity. This review aims to present the advantages of intestinal ultrasound (IUS) in managing IBDs. Our search was conducted on the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane (CENTRAL) databases, selecting original studies comparing IUS with other imaging and invasive monitoring methods. Our search yielded 8654 results, of which 107 met the inclusion criteria. Increased bowel wall thickness (BWT) and colour Doppler signal (CDS) are discriminative for disease activity. IUS can predict disease outcomes and detect response to treatment or postoperative recurrence. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and elastography help differentiate fibrotic from inflammatory stenoses. The difficult rectal assessment limits the use of IUS in ulcerative colitis (UC). Transmural healing may develop as a therapeutic target as it is associated with better outcomes. Patients are compliant with this technique, and its results correlate well with CS and other imaging methods. In conclusion, IUS proves to be essential in assessing IBD activity and treatment response, predicting outcomes and detecting complications. CEUS and elastography are researched to improve the diagnostic values of IUS. Full article
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13 pages, 3340 KiB  
Systematic Review
Clinical Validity of Anti-Proteinase 3 Antibodies in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Short Meta-Analysis
by Carmen Andalucía, Laura Martínez-Prat, Chelsea Bentow, Mary Ann Aure, Michael P. Horn and Michael Mahler
Diagnostics 2023, 13(24), 3682; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13243682 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1262
Abstract
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed to proteinase 3 (PR3) represent highly established markers for patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). PR3-ANCA have also demonstrated utility in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). More specifically, PR3-ANCA discriminate individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC) from Crohn’s [...] Read more.
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed to proteinase 3 (PR3) represent highly established markers for patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). PR3-ANCA have also demonstrated utility in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). More specifically, PR3-ANCA discriminate individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC) from Crohn’s disease (CD) patients and are associated with disease severity, activity, and treatment non-response. Here, we aim to summarize the current data on the diagnostic utility of PR3-ANCA in IBD. A structured, systematic literature review, including three electronic databases, was conducted on June 6th, 2023, to identify studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of the QUANTA Flash® PR3 assay in UC vs. CD patients. Electronic searches were supplemented by hand searching. A hierarchical, bivariate, mixed-effect meta-analysis was conducted using the metandi function, as per the Cochrane collaboration recommendations. Study quality was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool, which considers the risk of bias and applicability. Six out of a hundred and eleven citations met the inclusion criteria and reported QUANTA Flash® PR3 diagnostic accuracy in UC vs. CD (UC, n = 667, CD, n = 682 patients). The sensitivity/specificity point estimate for UC was 34.9%/95.9%. This resulted in a Diagnostic Odds Ratio (DOR) of 12.6. The risk of bias was low in the index test and reference standard domains. Four of the six studies (67%) showed an unclear risk of bias in patient selection and in flow and timing domains. All studies had low concerns about applicability in all the domains. PR3-ANCA measured with the QUANTA Flash® PR3 assay represent novel diagnostic markers in IBD and enables discrimination between UC and CD. Full article
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