Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardiac Diseases

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 3806

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Third Clinical Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care, 1160 Vienna, Austria
2. Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
Interests: atrial fibrillation; transcatheter aortic valve implantation

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Internal Medicine A, Division of Cardiology, Angiology, Nephrology and Intensive Medical Care, University Hospital Ruppin-Brandenburg (UKRB) of the Medical School of Brandenburg (MHB), Fehrbelliner Strasse 38, D-16816 Neuruppin, Germany
2. Medical Faculty, Martin Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger Strasse 8, D-06112 Halle (Saale), Germany
Interests: structural heart interventions; TAVI; TAVR; TEER; carillon; LAA occlusion; heart failure; cardiomyopathies; myocarditis; arrhythmia; atrial fibrillation; cryo-PVI

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Guest Editor
3rd Department of Cardiology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 17674 Athens, Greece
Interests: cardiac electrophysiology; device therapy; atrial fibrillation; ventricular arrhythmias; sudden cardiac death; catheter ablation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world of cardiology moves at a fast pace, with new practice-changing studies emerging almost every week. Even small studies and analyses are very important to enable progress in research, especially when the causes and effects of treatment in daily clinical practice are documented. This Special Issue is devoted to novel and established therapies in cardiology, from bench to bedside, from diagnosis to treatment and prevention. Thereby, we seek to actively take part in the fascinating journey of cardiology research, to enhance the diagnosis and treatment of patients with all kinds of cardiac diseases in the future.

Dr. David Zweiker
Prof. Dr. Michel Noutsias
Dr. Michael Spartalis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • cardiology
  • cardiac arrhythmias
  • primary prevention
  • secondary prevention
  • coronary artery disease
  • heart failure
  • cardiac procedures
  • cardiac implantable electronic devices

Published Papers (3 papers)

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16 pages, 1346 KiB  
Article
Gender Differences and Amputation Risk in Peripheral Artery Disease—A Single-Center Experience
by Viviana Onofrei, Cristina Andreea Adam, Dragos Traian Marius Marcu, Maria-Magdalena Leon, Carmen Cumpăt, Florin Mitu and Doina-Clementina Cojocaru
Diagnostics 2023, 13(19), 3145; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13193145 - 07 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects both genders, but the knowledge of clinical and therapeutic aspects particular to each gender has a prognostic value, modulating the risk of amputation and helping to reduce the risk of death or the occurrence [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects both genders, but the knowledge of clinical and therapeutic aspects particular to each gender has a prognostic value, modulating the risk of amputation and helping to reduce the risk of death or the occurrence of an acute vascular event secondary to optimal management. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study that included 652 patients with PAD who were evaluated at “St. Spiridon” Hospital’s Cardiology Department and divided into two groups according to gender: women (100 cases) and men (552 cases). We evaluated demographics, anthropometric data, as well as clinical and paraclinical parameters in the two groups. Results: Men had a lower mean age (p < 0.001), higher mean BMI (p = 0.049) and were more frequent smokers. (p = 0.008). Hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.026), obesity (p = 0.009), concomitant cerebrovascular (p = 0.005) and chronic kidney disease (p = 0.046) were more common in women, while coronary artery disease (p = 0.033) was more common in men. The number of angiographic stenotic lesions (p = 0.037) is a statistically significant parameter in our study, with both genders predominantly associated with stenotic lesions. In addition, directly proportional relationships were found between smoking, uric acid, inflammatory markers, and the number of stenotic lesions and thromboses or the ankle–brachial index (ABI). In the subgroup of men, the number of stenotic and thrombosed lesions positively correlated with the ABI value (p < 0.001). The presence of more than three cardiovascular risk factors (p = 0.001) and serum triglyceride levels (p = 0.019) significantly correlated with the number of angiographically detected lesions. We applied several risk scores (PREVENT III, Finnvasc Score, or GermanVasc risk score) in our study group for prognostic purposes, without showing statistically significant differences between genders. Men, rest pain, gangrene, smoking status, the presence of more than three cardiovascular risk factors, or a serum HDL-cholesterol level below 40 mg/dL (p < 0.001 for all parameters) are independent predictors associated with amputation in our study group. Conclusions: In our study, we demonstrated that several clinical–paraclinical particularities guide the diagnosis, providing the clinician with prognostic and therapeutic tools to choose the optimal management with maximum benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardiac Diseases)
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11 pages, 646 KiB  
Article
Cardiometabolic Phenotyping in Heart Failure: Differences between Patients with Reduced vs. Preserved Ejection Fraction
by Alessio Balletti, Nicolò De Biase, Lavinia Del Punta, Francesco Filidei, Silvia Armenia, Filippo Masi, Valerio Di Fiore, Matteo Mazzola, Alessandra Bacca, Frank L. Dini, Stefano Taddei, Stefano Masi and Nicola Riccardo Pugliese
Diagnostics 2023, 13(4), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13040790 - 20 Feb 2023
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Abstract
Aims. We explored multiple cardiometabolic patterns, including inflammatory and congestive pathways, in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results. We enrolled 270 HF patients with reduced (<50%, HFrEF; n = 96) and preserved (≥50%, HFpEF; n = 174) ejection fraction. In HFpEF, [...] Read more.
Aims. We explored multiple cardiometabolic patterns, including inflammatory and congestive pathways, in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results. We enrolled 270 HF patients with reduced (<50%, HFrEF; n = 96) and preserved (≥50%, HFpEF; n = 174) ejection fraction. In HFpEF, glycated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) seemed to be relevant in its relationship with inflammation as Hb1Ac positively correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient ρ = 0.180, p < 0.05). In HFrEF, we found a correlation between Hb1Ac and norepinephrine (ρ = 0.207, p < 0.05). In HFpEF, we found a positive correlation between Hb1Ac and congestion expressed as pulmonary B lines (ρ = 0.187, p < 0.05); the inverse correlation, although not significant, was found in HFrEF between Hb1Ac and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (ρ = 0.079) and between Hb1Ac and B lines (ρ = −0.051). In HFrEF, we found a positive correlation between E/e’ ratio and Hb1Ac (ρ = 0.203, p < 0.05) and a negative correlation between tricuspid annular systolic excursion (TAPSE)/echocardiographically measured systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) (TAPSE/sPAP ratio) (ρ = −0.205, p < 0.05) and Hb1Ac. In HFpEF, we found a negative correlation between TAPSE/sPAP ratio and uric acid (ρ = −0.216, p < 0.05). Conclusion. In HF patients, HFpEF and HFrEF phenotypes are characterized by different cardiometabolic indices related to distinct inflammatory and congestive pathways. Patients with HFpEF showed an important relationship between inflammatory and cardiometabolic parameters. Conversely, in HFrEF, there is a significant relationship between congestion and inflammation, while cardiometabolism appears not to influence inflammation, instead affecting sympathetic hyperactivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardiac Diseases)
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9 pages, 15767 KiB  
Case Report
Application of Novel Technologies in Cardiac Electrotherapy to Prevent Complications
by Szymon Budrejko, Maciej Kempa, Justyna Rohun, Ludmiła Daniłowicz-Szymanowicz, Agnieszka Zienciuk-Krajka, Anna Faran and Grzegorz Raczak
Diagnostics 2023, 13(9), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13091584 - 28 Apr 2023
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Abstract
(1) Background: Cardiac electrotherapy is developing quickly, which implies that it will face a higher number of complications, with cardiac device-related infective endocarditis (CDRIE) being the most frequent, but not the only one. (2) Methods: This is a retrospective case study followed by [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Cardiac electrotherapy is developing quickly, which implies that it will face a higher number of complications, with cardiac device-related infective endocarditis (CDRIE) being the most frequent, but not the only one. (2) Methods: This is a retrospective case study followed by a literature review, which presents a patient with a rare but dangerous complication of electrotherapy, which could have been prevented if modern technology had been used. (3) Results: A 34-year-old female was admitted with suspicion of CDRIE based on an unclear echocardiographic presentation. However, with no signs of infection, that diagnosis was not confirmed, though an endocardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead was found folded into the pulmonary trunk. The final treatment included transvenous lead extraction (TLE) and subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD) implantation. (4) Conclusions: With the increasing number of implantations of cardiac electronic devices and their consequences, a high index of suspicion among clinicians is required. The entity of the clinical picture must be thoroughly considered, and various diagnostic tools should be applied. Lead dislocation into the pulmonary trunk is an extremely rare complication. Our findings align with the available literature data, where asymptomatic cases are usually effectively treated with TLE. Modern technologies, such as S-ICD, can effectively prevent lead-related problems and are indicated in young patients necessitating long-term ICD therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardiac Diseases)
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