Advances in Diagnostic Imaging of Head and Neck Tumors

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Imaging and Theranostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 11368

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Guest Editor
Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Interests: diagnostic radiology; head and neck imaging; neuroradiology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

This Special Issue showcases recent advances in the realm of head and neck tumour imaging. In particular, original research articles that explore novel aspects of CT and MRI for characterizing the head and neck tumours. This can include enhancements of these modalities, such as dual-energy CT and spectral MRI, as well as post-processing techniques that exploit artificial intelligence, implement automated segmentation, exploit radiomics to differentiate lesions, predict optimal treatment selection, and assess treatment responses. Relevant review articles and technical notes may also be considered.

Dr. Daniel Thomas Ginat
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • head and neck tumour imaging
  • CT
  • MRI
  • quantitative

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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13 pages, 1842 KiB  
Article
The Associations between the Maxillary Sinus Volume, Infraorbital Ethmoid Cells, and the Infraorbital Canal: A CT-Based Study
by Einat Kedar, Ilan Koren, Bahaa Medlej and Israel Hershkovitz
Diagnostics 2023, 13(23), 3593; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13233593 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1755
Abstract
This CT-based study aimed to characterize and explain the existence of two anatomical structures positioned near the maxillary sinuses, which are of clinical relevance in rhinology and maxillofacial surgery. A total of 182 head scans (92 males and 90 females) were inspected for [...] Read more.
This CT-based study aimed to characterize and explain the existence of two anatomical structures positioned near the maxillary sinuses, which are of clinical relevance in rhinology and maxillofacial surgery. A total of 182 head scans (92 males and 90 females) were inspected for infraorbital ethmoid cells (IECs) and for the type (route) of infraorbital canal (IOC). The maxillary sinuses were segmented, and their volumes were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted to reveal the associations between the two anatomical variations, namely, sex and the maxillary sinus volume. Infraorbital ethmoid cells were noted in 43.9% of the individuals studied; they were more frequent in males (53.3%) than in females (34.4%). The descending infraorbital nerve (type 3 IOC) was found in 13.2% of individuals and was independent of sex. Infraorbital ethmoid cells were associated with the IOC types. The maxillary sinus volume was found to be sex-dependent. A large sinus volume is significantly associated with IOC Type 3 (the descending canal) and the presence of IEC. Dentists, radiologists, and surgeons should be aware that individuals with extensive pneumatization of the maxillary sinuses are more likely to display a descending IOC and IEC. These findings should be studied, along with CT scans, before treatment and surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic Imaging of Head and Neck Tumors)
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12 pages, 1563 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Assessment of Depth of Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Analysis of 125 Clinical Cases
by Adam Michcik, Adam Polcyn, Łukasz Garbacewicz, Tomasz Wach, Maciej Sikora, Marta Bień and Barbara Drogoszewska
Diagnostics 2023, 13(23), 3578; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13233578 - 01 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Radiological diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the main steps in treatment planning. T (tumor size), DOI (depth of invasion) (AJCC 8th edition), and nodal metastases (N+) were evaluated using CT and MRI to assess the most effective imaging [...] Read more.
Radiological diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the main steps in treatment planning. T (tumor size), DOI (depth of invasion) (AJCC 8th edition), and nodal metastases (N+) were evaluated using CT and MRI to assess the most effective imaging method. The effectiveness of the radiological imaging methods was compared with histopathological results. Imaging diagnostic studies were performed and retrospectively analyzed in 125 patients with OSCC (CT n = 54 and MRI n = 71). Histopathology evaluated T, DOI, and N+. The radiological T results of CT in comparison with histopathological examination showed agreement in 62.5% of cases for T1, 56.25% for T2, 25% for T3, and 42.8% for T4 (p-value = 0.07), and regarding MRI, 52.2% for T1, 36.4% for T2, 33.3% in T3, and 33.3% for T4. The DOI results of CT and MRI juxtaposed against the histopathological findings were as follows: for CT, n = 18 for DOI ≤ 10 mm and n = 36 for >10 mm; for MRI, n = 29 for DOI ≤ 10 mm and n = 42 for >10 mm (DOI CT vs. DOI hist. pat. p-value = 0.23; DOI MRI vs. DOI hist. pat. p-value = 0.006). Regarding nodal metastasis, n = 21 for N0 and n = 32 for N+ for CT (p-value = 0.02), and n = 49 for N0 and n = 22 for N+ for MRI (p-value = 0.1). In the radiological N+ group, the histopathological findings coincided with the results of MRI and CT in 27% and 62.5% of cases, respectively (N0: 83.6% for MRI; 85.7% for CT). Upon evaluating T, a decreasing percentage of overlapping results with an increasing tumor size was observed. The accuracy of both imaging studies was at a similar level, with a slight advantage for MRI. Among the patients on whom CT was performed, DOI analysis did not show statistically significant differences. This led to the conclusion that, in most cases, the DOI results based on CT overlapped with those described via histopathological examination. However, among the group of patients with MRI as the imaging method of choice, the differences proved to be statistically significant (p-value = 0.006). The results of this study indicate that CT is a more accurate method for DOI assessment. The results of the radiologic metastasis evaluation (N+ group) overlapped more in the CT group, while the percentage of corresponding results in the radiologic N0 vs. hist. pat. N0 group was high and similar in both groups. These results indicate that it is easier to confirm the absence of a metastasis than its presence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic Imaging of Head and Neck Tumors)
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13 pages, 6284 KiB  
Article
Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Tumors Using Transfer Learning with Fine-Tuning and Gradual Unfreezing
by Ping-Chia Cheng and Hui-Hua Kenny Chiang
Diagnostics 2023, 13(21), 3333; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13213333 - 29 Oct 2023
Viewed by 843
Abstract
Ultrasound is the primary tool for evaluating salivary gland tumors (SGTs); however, tumor diagnosis currently relies on subjective features. This study aimed to establish an objective ultrasound diagnostic method using deep learning. We collected 446 benign and 223 malignant SGT ultrasound images in [...] Read more.
Ultrasound is the primary tool for evaluating salivary gland tumors (SGTs); however, tumor diagnosis currently relies on subjective features. This study aimed to establish an objective ultrasound diagnostic method using deep learning. We collected 446 benign and 223 malignant SGT ultrasound images in the training/validation set and 119 benign and 44 malignant SGT ultrasound images in the testing set. We trained convolutional neural network (CNN) models from scratch and employed transfer learning (TL) with fine-tuning and gradual unfreezing to classify malignant and benign SGTs. The diagnostic performances of these models were compared. By utilizing the pretrained ResNet50V2 with fine-tuning and gradual unfreezing, we achieved a 5-fold average validation accuracy of 0.920. The diagnostic performance on the testing set demonstrated an accuracy of 89.0%, a sensitivity of 81.8%, a specificity of 91.6%, a positive predictive value of 78.3%, and a negative predictive value of 93.2%. This performance surpasses that of other models in our study. The corresponding Grad-CAM visualizations were also presented to provide explanations for the diagnosis. This study presents an effective and objective ultrasound method for distinguishing between malignant and benign SGTs, which could assist in preoperative evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic Imaging of Head and Neck Tumors)
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12 pages, 2908 KiB  
Communication
Comparable Accuracy of Quantitative and Visual Analyses of [18F]FDG PET/CT for the Detection of Lymph Node Metastases from Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
by Philippe d’Abadie, Nicolas Michoux, Thierry Duprez, Sandra Schmitz, Michèle Magremanne, Pascal Van Eeckhout and Olivier Gheysens
Diagnostics 2023, 13(16), 2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13162638 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 995
Abstract
Background: In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), [18F]FDG PET/CT is recommended for detecting recurrent disease and in the initial staging for evaluating distant metastases, but its use in detecting cervical lymph metastases remains unclear. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Background: In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), [18F]FDG PET/CT is recommended for detecting recurrent disease and in the initial staging for evaluating distant metastases, but its use in detecting cervical lymph metastases remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of [8F]FDG-PET/CT using visual and semi-quantitative analyses for detecting the nodal involvement in HNSCC. Methods: We analyzed consecutive patients who underwent a preoperative [18F]FDG-PET/CT and neck dissection for HNSCC at our tertiary hospital. A blinded evaluation of the [18F]FDG uptake in each neck level was performed using a semi-quantitative approach (SUVmax and SUVR) and a visual grading system (uptake superior to the internal jugular vein for grade 1 and superior to the liver for grade 2). Analyses were compared to the histological results. Results: In our 211 patients, analyses demonstrated similar diagnostic accuracy using a semi-quantitative approach or a visual grading system. Regarding the visual grading system, [18F]FDG-PET/CT detected nodal metastases with a specificity of 83% for lymph nodes classified as grade 1 and 98% for those classified as grade 2. The sensitivity was moderate, ranging from 60 to 63%. Conclusions: [18F]FDG PET/CT has a high specificity for detecting lymph node metastases in HNSCC and therefore must be considered in the nodal clinical staging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic Imaging of Head and Neck Tumors)
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9 pages, 4177 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Carotid Bodies in Magnetic Resonance—A Head-to-Head Comparison with Computed Tomography
by Lukasz Budynko, Tomasz K. Nowicki, Mariusz F. Kaszubowski, Dominik Swieton and Maciej Piskunowicz
Diagnostics 2023, 13(5), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13050993 - 05 Mar 2023
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Abstract
Objectives: To evaluate carotid body visibility in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) studies and to compare the results to contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Methods: Two observers separately evaluated MR and CT examinations of 58 patients. MR scans were acquired with contrast-enhanced isometric T1-weighted water-only [...] Read more.
Objectives: To evaluate carotid body visibility in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) studies and to compare the results to contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Methods: Two observers separately evaluated MR and CT examinations of 58 patients. MR scans were acquired with contrast-enhanced isometric T1-weighted water-only Dixon sequence. CT examinations were performed 90 s after contrast agent administration. Carotid bodies’ dimensions were noted and their volumes calculated. To quantify the agreement between both methods, Bland–Altman plots were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and its localization-oriented variant (LROC) curves were plotted. Results: Of the 116 expected carotid bodies, 105 were found on CT and 103 on MR at least by a single observer. Significantly more findings were concordant in CT (92.2%) than in MR (83.6%). The mean carotid body volume was smaller in CT (19.4 mm3) than in MR (20.8 mm3). The inter-observer agreement on volumes was moderately good (ICC (2,k) 0.42, p < 0.001), but with significant systematic error. The diagnostic performance of the MR method added up to 88.4% of the ROC’s area under the curve and 78.0% in the LROC algorithm. Conclusions: Carotid bodies can be visualized on contrast-enhanced MR with good accuracy and inter-observer agreement. Carotid bodies assessed on MR had similar morphology as described in anatomical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic Imaging of Head and Neck Tumors)
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14 pages, 2186 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Performance of Selected MRI-Derived Radiomics Able to Discriminate Progression-Free and Overall Survival in Patients with Midline Glioma and the H3F3AK27M Mutation
by Maria-Fatima Chilaca-Rosas, Melissa Garcia-Lezama, Sergio Moreno-Jimenez and Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
Diagnostics 2023, 13(5), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13050849 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Background: Radiomics refers to a recent area of knowledge that studies features extracted from different imaging techniques and subsequently transformed into high-dimensional data that can be associated with biological events. Diffuse midline gliomas (DMG) are one of the most devastating types of cancer, [...] Read more.
Background: Radiomics refers to a recent area of knowledge that studies features extracted from different imaging techniques and subsequently transformed into high-dimensional data that can be associated with biological events. Diffuse midline gliomas (DMG) are one of the most devastating types of cancer, with a median survival of approximately 11 months after diagnosis and 4–5 months after radiological and clinical progression. Methods: A retrospective study. From a database of 91 patients with DMG, only 12 had the H3.3K27M mutation and brain MRI DICOM files available. Radiomic features were extracted from MRI T1 and T2 sequences using LIFEx software. Statistical analysis included normal distribution tests and the Mann–Whitney U test, ROC analysis, and calculation of cut-off values. Results: A total of 5760 radiomic values were included in the analyses. AUROC demonstrated 13 radiomics with statistical significance for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Diagnostic performance tests showed nine radiomics with specificity for PFS above 90% and one with a sensitivity of 97.2%. For OS, 3 out of 4 radiomics demonstrated between 80 and 90% sensitivity. Conclusions: Several radiomic features demonstrated statistical significance and have the potential to further aid DMG diagnostic assessment non-invasively. The most significant radiomics were first- and second-order features with GLCM texture profile, GLZLM_GLNU, and NGLDM_Contrast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic Imaging of Head and Neck Tumors)
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9 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
Association of Tumor Volumetry with Postoperative Outcomes for Cervical Paraganglioma
by Carola Marie Hoffmann-Wieker, Artur Rebelo, Martin Moll, Ulrich Ronellenfitsch, Fabian Rengier, Philipp Erhart, Dittmar Böckler and Jörg Ukkat
Diagnostics 2023, 13(4), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13040744 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Objectives: To analyze the association of tumor volume with outcome after surgery for cervical paraganglioma. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included consecutive patients undergoing surgery for cervical paraganglioma from 2009–2020. Outcomes were 30-day morbidity, mortality, cranial nerve injury, and stroke. Preoperative CT/MRI [...] Read more.
Objectives: To analyze the association of tumor volume with outcome after surgery for cervical paraganglioma. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included consecutive patients undergoing surgery for cervical paraganglioma from 2009–2020. Outcomes were 30-day morbidity, mortality, cranial nerve injury, and stroke. Preoperative CT/MRI was used for tumor volumetry. An association between the volume and the outcomes was explored in univariate and multivariable analyses. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The study was conducted and reported according to the STROBE statement. Results: Volumetry was successful in 37/47 (78.8%) of included patients. A 30-day morbidity occurred in 13/47 (27.6%) patients with no mortality. Fifteen cranial nerve lesions occurred in eleven patients. The mean tumor volume was 6.92 cm3 in patients without and 15.89 cm3 in patients with complications (p = 0.035) and 7.64 cm3 in patients without and 16.28 cm3 in patients with cranial nerve injury (p = 0.05). Neither the volume nor Shamblin grade was significantly associated with complications on multivariable analysis. The AUC was 0.691, indicating a poor to fair performance of volumetry in predicting postoperative complications. Conclusions: Surgery for cervical paraganglioma bears a relevant morbidity with a particular risk of cranial nerve lesions. Tumor volume is associated with morbidity, and MRI/CT volumetry can be used for risk stratification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic Imaging of Head and Neck Tumors)
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8 pages, 1254 KiB  
Article
Additional Diffusion-Weighted Imaging with Background Body Signal Suppression (DWIBS) Improves Pre-Therapeutical Detection of Early-Stage (pT1a) Glottic Cancer: A Feasibility and Interobserver Reliability Study
by Stephan Schleder, Matthias May, Werner Habicher, Johannes Dinkel, Andreas G. Schreyer, Antoniu-Oreste Gostian and Andreas Schicho
Diagnostics 2022, 12(12), 3200; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12123200 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1089
Abstract
(1) Background: Early-stage glottic cancer is easily missed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) may improve diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, our aim was to assess the value of adding diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) to pre-therapeutic MRI staging. (2) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Early-stage glottic cancer is easily missed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) may improve diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, our aim was to assess the value of adding diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) to pre-therapeutic MRI staging. (2) Methods: Two radiologists with 8 and 13 years of experience, blinded to each other’s findings, initially interpreted only standard MRI, later DWIBS alone, and afterward, standard MRI + DWIBS in 41 patients with histopathologically proven pT1a laryngeal cancer of the glottis. (3) Results: Detectability rates with standard MRI, DWIBS only, and standard MRI + DWIBS were 68–71%, 63–66%, and 73–76%, respectively. Moreover, interobserver reliability was calculated as good (κ = 0.712), very good (κ = 0.84), and good (κ = 0.69) for standard MRI, DWIBS only, and standard MRI + DWIBS, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Standard MRI, DWIBS alone, and standard MRI + DWIBS showed an encouraging detection rate, as well as distinct interobserver reliability in the diagnosis of early-stage laryngeal cancer when compared to the definitive histopathologic report. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic Imaging of Head and Neck Tumors)
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4 pages, 2441 KiB  
Case Report
Imaging Features of Intratumoral Injection of NBTXR3 for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lymph Node Metastases
by Daniel Thomas Ginat, Aditya Juloori, Omar I. Vivar, Leonard A. Farber, Zhen Gooi and Ari J. Rosenberg
Diagnostics 2022, 12(9), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12092156 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
NBTXR3 nanoparticle injection is a relatively novel radioenhancer for treatment of various cancers. CT scans following NBTXR3 injection of metastatic lymph nodes from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were reviewed in a small series of patients. The radioenhancing appears as hyperattenuating, with [...] Read more.
NBTXR3 nanoparticle injection is a relatively novel radioenhancer for treatment of various cancers. CT scans following NBTXR3 injection of metastatic lymph nodes from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were reviewed in a small series of patients. The radioenhancing appears as hyperattenuating, with a mean attenuation of the injected material of 1516 HU. The material was found to leak beyond the margins of the tumor in some cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic Imaging of Head and Neck Tumors)
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