Application of Laser Processing Technology in Automobile Manufacturing

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Laser Coatings".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 December 2024 | Viewed by 7966

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China
Interests: laser surface texturing; wire arc additive manufacturing; soldering welding; material characterization; mechanical properties; selective laser melting
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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
Interests: surface engineering; thermal barrier coatings; thermal spraying coatings; mechanical testing; materials characterization; oxidation and corrosion
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Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
Interests: laser welding, laser material processing in body-in-white and lithium-ion battery manufacturing; additive manufacturing; digital manufacturing; advanced material joining technologies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, laser-based material processing has attracted extensive attention from the manufacturing industry due to its high efficiency, flexibility, and productivity. Its applications include laser welding, cutting, inserting additives, drilling, forming, coating, ablation, texturing, polishing, and adding other materials (including metal, ceramics, polymers and natural materials). Considering the recent boom in the transition to electric vehicles, the automotive industry constantly demands higher efficiency and lower costs in manufacturing so that electric cars and lithium-ion products become more affordable. In order to achieve this, laser-based material processing can be applied to rigorously promote the manufacturing of battery-powered products at a lower cost.  Laser welding technology is also able to significantly improve the impact and fatigue resistance of the vehicle body and enhance the quality of the vehicle. Laser-based additive manufacturing (e.g., laser powder bed fusion and laser powder/wire direct deposition) provides a crucial new opportunity to produce high-quality functional parts without geometric constraints in the field of automobile manufacturing.

This Special Issue is dedicated to publishing original research and high-quality review articles that are related to the latest progress in laser processing and automobile manufacturing. The potential topics of this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Applications of laser welding technology in automobile manufacturing.
  • The creation of lightweight automobile structures enabled by laser welding.
  • Laser-based processing for lithium-ion battery-related applications.
  • Improving automobile parts through laser additive manufacturing and topology optimization.
  • The laser marking of production materials used in automobiles.
  • Research on new laser cutting technology in the field of automobile manufacturing.
  • Application of laser welding technology to recycled metals in automotive manufacturing.
  • Life cycle assessment of laser welding in electric vehicles.

Prof. Dr. Peilei Zhang
Dr. Mingwen Bai
Dr. Yingtao Tian
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • laser welding
  • laser additive manufacturing
  • lightweight automobile manufacturing
  • laser cutting

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3042 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Precipitates on the Stress Rupture Properties of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Inconel 718 Alloy
by Jinhong Du, Wenhao Cheng, Yiming Sun, Rui Ma, Hongbing Liu, Xiaoguo Song, Jin Yang and Caiwang Tan
Coatings 2023, 13(12), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13122087 - 14 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
Improving the high-temperature stress rupture properties of Inconel 718 (IN718) alloys is crucial for enhancing aircraft engine performance. By using the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) technique, IN718 alloys were crafted at varying volumetric energy densities (VED) in this study. The dendrite growth [...] Read more.
Improving the high-temperature stress rupture properties of Inconel 718 (IN718) alloys is crucial for enhancing aircraft engine performance. By using the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) technique, IN718 alloys were crafted at varying volumetric energy densities (VED) in this study. The dendrite growth mode, reinforcing phase distribution and high temperature stress rupture properties of various VED samples were investigated. The results showed that the stress rupture life and the uniform elongation of the samples both first increased and then decreased with the increase in VED. When the VED was 60 J/mm3, the maximum rupture life and elongation of the sample were 43 h and 3.8%, respectively. As the VED increased, the angle of dislocation in the dendrite decreased while the spacing between primary dendrite arms increased, resulting in an increase in the size and volume fraction of the Laves phase. Following a heat treatment, the δ phase would nucleate preferentially around the dissolved Laves phase causing an increase in the volume fraction of the δ phase with the increase in VED. The creep voids readily formed around the δ phase are distributed along the grain boundaries, while the inhomogeneous δ phase and fine grains facilitated crack initiation and propagation. Furthermore, a significant quantity of the δ phase consumed the Nb element, thereby hindering adequate precipitation in the γ″ phase and causing cracks. Full article
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13 pages, 4853 KiB  
Article
Effect of Alternating Magnetic Field on the Organization and Corrosion Resistance of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Narrow-Gap Laser-MIG Hybrid Weld Head
by Zhenxing He, Yong Zhao, Juan Fu, Fugang Chen, Guoqiang Chen and Yonghui Qin
Coatings 2023, 13(12), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13122000 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 558
Abstract
In this study, an alternating magnetic field is applied in the narrow-gap laser-MIG hybrid welding of 2205 duplex stainless steel with a thickness of 25 mm to achieve the purpose of balancing the ration of the two phases, refining the grains and improving [...] Read more.
In this study, an alternating magnetic field is applied in the narrow-gap laser-MIG hybrid welding of 2205 duplex stainless steel with a thickness of 25 mm to achieve the purpose of balancing the ration of the two phases, refining the grains and improving the corrosion resistance. With the help of OM, EBSD, TEM, and other microstructural analysis methods, the organization evolution of a 2205 duplex stainless steel narrow-gap laser arc hybrid weld under the effect of alternating magnetic field is revealed. The corrosion resistance of the welded joints is investigated by electrochemical tests. The results show that the use of a 40 mT applied alternating magnetic field can not only effectively inhibit the generation of porosity and unfused defects in the weld, but also that the addition of an alternating magnetic field improves the ratio of austenite to ferrite in the weld, and the ratio of the two phases is increased from 0.657 without a magnetic field to 0.850. The weld grain preferential orientation is affected by the magnetic field, and the weld austenite grains are shifted from the Goss texture to the Copper texture. Under the electromagnetic stirring effect of the applied magnetic field, the average austenite grain size decreased from 4.15 μm to 3.82 μm, and the average ferrite grain size decreased from 4.99 μm to 4.08 μm. In addition, the effect of the alternating magnetic field increases the density of twins in the organization. Electrochemical test results show that the addition of an alternating magnetic field increases the corrosion potential by 75.2 mV and the pitting potential by 134.5 mV, which indicates that the corrosion resistance of the cover-welded specimens is improved by the effect of an alternating magnetic field. The improvement in corrosion resistance mainly depends on the austenite grain refinement and the increase in the austenite content. Full article
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8 pages, 2532 KiB  
Communication
Refining Micron-Sized Grains to Nanoscale in Ni-Co Based Superalloy by Quasistatical Compressive Deformation at High Temperature
by Hui Xu, Yanjun Guo, Jiangwei Wang, Ze Li, Lu Wang, Xiaohui Li and Zhefeng Zhang
Coatings 2023, 13(8), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13081325 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 813
Abstract
Compressive deformation was carried out in an Ni-Co-based superalloy with relatively low stacking fault energy (SFE) at 725 °C and a strain rate of 10−2 s−1; the underlying micromechanisms were investigated under true compression strains varying from 0.1 to 1.0. [...] Read more.
Compressive deformation was carried out in an Ni-Co-based superalloy with relatively low stacking fault energy (SFE) at 725 °C and a strain rate of 10−2 s−1; the underlying micromechanisms were investigated under true compression strains varying from 0.1 to 1.0. It was found that dislocation slipping accompanied by stacking fault (SF) shearing dominated the compressive deformation under the strain of 0.1 and 0.2. As the strain increased to 0.3 and 0.4, microtwinning was activated and then interacted with dislocations, leading to the formation of dislocation tangles or blocky distorted region. When true strain was further increased to 0.6, abundant subgains (SGs) with polygonous shape appeared and then transformed into nanograins as true strain increased to 1.0. It is demonstrated that high strain and microtwinning are the prerequisites for the evolution of nanograins in the deformed Ni-Co-based superalloy. High strain can produce plentiful dislocations and distorted micro-sized SGs; then the microtwins sheared these distorted regions and refined the micro-sized SGs into nanoscale, which subsequently transformed into nanograins with further deformation. Full article
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Review

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32 pages, 12698 KiB  
Review
Application of Laser Welding in Electric Vehicle Battery Manufacturing: A Review
by Junbo Feng, Peilei Zhang, Hua Yan, Haichuan Shi, Qinghua Lu, Zhenyu Liu, Di Wu, Tianzhu Sun, Ruifeng Li and Qingzhao Wang
Coatings 2023, 13(8), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13081313 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2336
Abstract
Electric vehicle battery systems are made up of a variety of different materials, each battery system contains hundreds of batteries. There are many parts that need to be connected in the battery system, and welding is often the most effective and reliable connection [...] Read more.
Electric vehicle battery systems are made up of a variety of different materials, each battery system contains hundreds of batteries. There are many parts that need to be connected in the battery system, and welding is often the most effective and reliable connection method. Laser welding has the advantages of non-contact, high energy density, accurate heat input control, and easy automation, which is considered to be the ideal choice for electric vehicle battery manufacturing. However, the metal materials used for the electrodes of the battery and the connectors used to connect the battery are not the same, so the different materials need to be welded together effectively. Welding different materials together is associated with various difficulties and challenges, as more intermetallic compounds are formed, some of which can affect the microstructure, electrical and thermal properties of the joint. Because the common material of the battery housing is steel and aluminum and other refractory metals, it will also face various problems. In this paper reviews, the challenges and the latest progress of laser welding between different materials of battery busbar and battery pole and between the same materials of battery housing are reviewed. The microstructure, metallographic defects and mechanical properties of the joint are discussed. Full article
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26 pages, 3359 KiB  
Review
Crack Formation Mechanisms and Control Methods of Laser Cladding Coatings: A Review
by Mingke Li, Kepeng Huang and Xuemei Yi
Coatings 2023, 13(6), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13061117 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2836
Abstract
Laser cladding, a novel surface treatment technology, utilizes a high-energy laser beam to melt diverse alloy compositions and form a specialized alloy-cladding layer on the surface of the substrate to enhance its property. However, it can generate substantial residual stresses during the rapid [...] Read more.
Laser cladding, a novel surface treatment technology, utilizes a high-energy laser beam to melt diverse alloy compositions and form a specialized alloy-cladding layer on the surface of the substrate to enhance its property. However, it can generate substantial residual stresses during the rapid cooling and heating stages, due to inadequate selection of cladding process parameters and disparities in thermophysical properties between the clad layer and substrate material, leading to the formation of various types of cracks. These cracks can significantly impact the quality and performance of the coating. This paper presents a comprehensive review of crack types and their causes in laser cladding coatings, and identifies that three primary sources of residual stresses, thermal stress, organizational stress, and restraint stress, are the fundamental causes of crack formation. The study proposes several strategies to control coating cracks, including optimizing the coating layer material, refining the coating process parameters, incorporating heat treatment, applying auxiliary fields, and utilizing numerical simulations to predict crack initiation and propagation. Additionally, the paper summarizes crack control methods for emerging structural materials and novel preparation processes. Lastly, the paper analyzes the prospects, technical approaches, and key research directions for effectively controlling cracks in laser cladding coatings. Full article
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