Electrochemical Biosensors for Medical Diagnosis (Closed)

A topical collection in Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This collection belongs to the section "Electrochemical Devices and Sensors".

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Collection Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy
Interests: amperometric biosensors based on enzyme immobilization; electrosynthesized conducting and insulating polymers; characterization of modified electrodes by electrochemical; gravimetric (QCM) and spectroscopic techniques (XPS and AFM); metal nanoparticles and electrochemical sensors

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The recent events we are experienced tragically highlight the need of establishing an accurate diagnosis at the early stage of severe diseases to preserve patient healing and, sometimes, even survival. Current methodologies for the detection of specific biomarkers that identify a particular clinical condition certainly assure reliable results but are limited by the expensive equipment, time consuming sample pre-treatment and need of skilled operators.

Among the new analytical methods capable of accomplishing effective clinical diagnostic tools, biosensors play a promising role providing ease of execution, specificity for the target analyte, fast response time and capability for continuous monitoring. Particularly, electrochemical biosensors exploit a detection mechanism based on electrochemical reactions that directly generate an electronic signal. This feature greatly simplifies signal transduction avoiding expensive equipment requirements.

Since the pioneering Clark’s enzyme electrode which was then implemented into blood-glucose self-testing device, a huge number of electrochemical biosensors with application in medical diagnostic has been realized. The success of these devices relies on the feasibility to combine the sensitivity of electrochemical methods with the selectivity of the biocomponent towards the target analyte.

In order to get increasingly performing devices, in the last years many efforts have been devoted to the development of electrode modification approaches able to realize efficient platforms for bioreceptors immobilization along with detection schemes aimed to overcome the undesired effects of electrochemical detection, namely electrode fouling and faradic interference. As an example, novel polymeric films with improved built-in permselectivity and biocompatibility have been electrosynthesized. Particularly, the synergistic interaction of electrochemical detection with electrode modification strategies employing advanced nanostructures and nanomaterials revealed a key element to increase binding sites for anchoring biocomponents on the electrode surface and to enhance the electron transfer between the electrode and target molecules, thus improving the sensitivity of the electrochemical sensor.

The aim of this Special Issue is to focus on the most recent approaches to realize innovative and enhanced electrochemical biosensors for medical diagnosis.

Both review articles and research papers on the highlighted topics are welcome.

Dr. Rosanna Ciriello
Collection Editor

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Keywords

  • Electrochemical biosensors 
  • Enzyme-based sensors 
  • Bioreceptors immobilization 
  • Amperometric detection 
  • Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy 
  • Surface functionalization
  • Modified electrodes 
  • Polymeric films 
  • Composite materials 
  • Nanostructures and Nanomaterials 
  • Medical diagnostics

Published Papers (16 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

29 pages, 3233 KiB  
Review
Electrochemical vs. Optical Biosensors for Point-of-Care Applications: A Critical Review
by Seyedeh Rojin Shariati Pour, Donato Calabria, Afsaneh Emamiamin, Elisa Lazzarini, Andrea Pace, Massimo Guardigli, Martina Zangheri and Mara Mirasoli
Chemosensors 2023, 11(10), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11100546 - 21 Oct 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2737
Abstract
Analytical chemistry applied to medical and diagnostic analysis has recently focused on the development of cost-effective biosensors able to monitor the health status or to assess the level of specific biomarkers that can be indicative of several diseases. The improvement of technologies relating [...] Read more.
Analytical chemistry applied to medical and diagnostic analysis has recently focused on the development of cost-effective biosensors able to monitor the health status or to assess the level of specific biomarkers that can be indicative of several diseases. The improvement of technologies relating to the possibility of the non-invasive sampling of biological fluids, as well as sensors for the detection of analytical signals and the computational capabilities of the systems routinely employed in everyday life (e.g., smartphones, computers, etc.), makes the complete integration of self-standing analytical devices more accessible. This review aims to discuss the biosensors that have been proposed in the last five years focusing on two principal detecting approaches, optical and electrochemical, which have been employed for quantifying different kinds of target analytes reaching detection limits below the clinical sample levels required. These detection principles applied to point-of-care (POC) devices have been extensively reported in literature, and even the limited examples found on the market are based on these strategies. This work will show the latest innovations considering the integration of optical and electrochemical detection with the most commonly reported analytical platforms for POC applications such as paper-based or wearable and implantable devices. Full article
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25 pages, 2673 KiB  
Review
A Critical Overview of Enzyme-Based Electrochemical Biosensors for L-Dopa Detection in Biological Samples
by Carmen Tesoro, Giuseppa Cembalo, Antonio Guerrieri, Giuliana Bianco, Maria Assunta Acquavia, Angela Di Capua, Filomena Lelario and Rosanna Ciriello
Chemosensors 2023, 11(10), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11100523 - 5 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1559
Abstract
L-Dopa is an intermediate amino acid in the biosynthesis of endogenous catecholamines, such as dopamine. It is currently considered to be the optimal dopaminergic treatment for Parkinson’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder affecting around 1% of the population. In an advanced stage of the [...] Read more.
L-Dopa is an intermediate amino acid in the biosynthesis of endogenous catecholamines, such as dopamine. It is currently considered to be the optimal dopaminergic treatment for Parkinson’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder affecting around 1% of the population. In an advanced stage of the disease, complications such as dyskinesia and psychosis are caused by fluctuations in plasma drug levels. Real-time monitoring of L-Dopa levels would be advantageous for properly adjusting drug dosing, thus improving therapeutic efficacy. Electrochemical methods have advantages such as easy-to-use instrumentation, fast response time, and high sensitivity, and are suitable for miniaturization, enabling the fabrication of implantable or wearable devices. This review reports on research papers of the past 20 years (2003–2023) dealing with enzyme-based biosensors for the electrochemical detection of L-Dopa in biological samples. Specifically, amperometric and voltammetric biosensors, whose output signal is a measurable current, are discussed. The approach adopted includes an initial study of the steps required to assemble the devices, i.e., electrode modification and enzyme immobilization. Then, all issues related to their analytical performance in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, and capability to analyze real samples are critically discussed. The paper aims to provide an assessment of recent developments while highlighting limitations such as poor selectivity and long-term stability, and the laborious and time-consuming fabrication protocol that needs to be addressed from the perspective of the integrated clinical management of Parkinson’s disease. Full article
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16 pages, 3265 KiB  
Article
Au Nanoparticles on 4-Thiophenol-Electrodeposited Carbon Surfaces for the Simultaneous Detection of 8-Hydroxyguanine and Guanine
by Niloufar Soltani, Qusai Hassan, Meissam Noroozifar and Kagan Kerman
Chemosensors 2023, 11(6), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11060326 - 2 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1188
Abstract
In this proof-of-concept study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces using a surface-anchored diazonium salt of 4-aminothiophenol (GCE-Ph-S-AuNPs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirmed the attachment of the AuNPs via 4-thiophenol onto the surface of the modified electrode. [...] Read more.
In this proof-of-concept study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces using a surface-anchored diazonium salt of 4-aminothiophenol (GCE-Ph-S-AuNPs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirmed the attachment of the AuNPs via 4-thiophenol onto the surface of the modified electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed for the simultaneous determination of guanine (G) and 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-G). The calibration curves were linear up to 140 µM and 60 µM with a limit of detection of 0.02 µM and 0.021 µM for G and 8-OH-G, respectively. Moreover, chronoamperometric studies were carried out for the determination of diffusion coefficients of 8-OH-G and G. The GCE-Ph-S-AuNPs were also applied in genomic DNA-spiked samples for the determination of G and 8-OH-G with recovery rates between 98.5% and 103.3%. The novel electrochemical surface provided a potential platform for the sensitive detection of 8-OH-G related to oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in clinical studies. Full article
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21 pages, 1060 KiB  
Review
LFA: The Mysterious Paper-Based Biosensor: A Futuristic Overview
by Saumitra Singh, Mohd. Rahil Hasan, Akshay Jain, Roberto Pilloton and Jagriti Narang
Chemosensors 2023, 11(4), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11040255 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3510
Abstract
Lateral flow assay (LFA) is emerging as one of the most popular paper-based biosensors in the field of the diagnostic industry. LFA fills all the gaps between diagnosis and treatment as it provides beneficial qualities to users such as quick response, Point-of-care appeal, [...] Read more.
Lateral flow assay (LFA) is emerging as one of the most popular paper-based biosensors in the field of the diagnostic industry. LFA fills all the gaps between diagnosis and treatment as it provides beneficial qualities to users such as quick response, Point-of-care appeal, early detection, low cost, and effective and sensitive detections of various infectious diseases. These benefits increase LFA’s dependability for disease management because rapid and accurate disease diagnosis is a prerequisite for effective medication. Only 2% of overall healthcare expenditures, according to Roche Molecular Diagnostics, are spent on in vitro diagnostics, even though 60% of treatment choices are based on this data. To make LFA more innovative, futuristic plans have been outlined in many reports. Thus, this review reports on very knowledgeable literature discussing LFA and its development along with recent futuristic plans for LFA-based biosensors that cover all the novel features of the improvement of LFA. LFA might therefore pose a very significant economic success and have a significant influence on medical diagnosis. Full article
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14 pages, 2068 KiB  
Article
RBD-Modified Polyaniline-Based Label-Free Immunosensor for Sensitive Impedimetric Detection of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies
by Tea Romih, Nikola Tasić, Lea Bibič, Ajda Beltram, Ika Fazarinc, Mojca Benčina, Roman Jerala and Samo B. Hočevar
Chemosensors 2023, 11(4), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11040222 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the associated pandemic has affected the entire human population. Human susceptibility to the virus has highlighted a tremendous need for affordable diagnostic systems to manage the pandemic and monitor the effectiveness of vaccination. We have developed [...] Read more.
The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the associated pandemic has affected the entire human population. Human susceptibility to the virus has highlighted a tremendous need for affordable diagnostic systems to manage the pandemic and monitor the effectiveness of vaccination. We have developed a simple and label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of human anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, which consists of a supporting screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with an electrodeposited polyaniline film and glutaraldehyde, allowing effective immobilization of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD) as a biorecognition element. The impedimetric immunosensor showed a linear response over a wide concentration range of 0.01–10 μg mL−1, that is, 67 pM–6.7 nM, with a low detection limit of 25.9 pM. A dual working electrode configuration with a built-in negative control unit was demonstrated for practical field applications. The immunosensor was successfully used in a real serum sample from an infected patient and showed good reproducibility and fair agreement with ELISA. An optional amplification step with secondary goat anti-human IgG antibodies was demonstrated, resulting in an extended linear range and a detection limit as low as 0.93 pM. Full article
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22 pages, 14682 KiB  
Review
Recent Advance in Cortisol Immunosensing Technologies and Devices
by Yanke Zhang, Qingteng Lai, Wei Chen, Chi Zhang, Long Mo and Zhengchun Liu
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020090 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
Well known as the “stress hormone”, cortisol plays an indispensable role in life activities. In the past few decades, accurate information about the intracorporal level of cortisol has been proven to be an important and effective indicator for evaluating physical and mental states [...] Read more.
Well known as the “stress hormone”, cortisol plays an indispensable role in life activities. In the past few decades, accurate information about the intracorporal level of cortisol has been proven to be an important and effective indicator for evaluating physical and mental states and diagnosing a series of pressure-induced diseases. Hence, various rapid and efficient cortisol sensing technologies with high sensitivity and selectivity and low detection limit have been developed. This review examines most recent works and progress in cortisol detection via immunoassay, highlighting the construction of sensitive sensor systems. We aimed to provide a comprehensive description in the aspects of general optical and electrochemical detection methods, novel immunosensing systems, and advanced portable and wearable devices. Outlooks and suggestions for the development of continuous and real-time monitoring techniques and devices were finally provided. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

14 pages, 4706 KiB  
Article
A Novel Electrochemical Sensing Platform for the Detection of the Antidepressant Drug, Venlafaxine, in Water and Biological Specimens
by Sundas Sultan, Afzal Shah, Naveeda Firdous, Jan Nisar, Muhammad Naeem Ashiq and Iltaf Shah
Chemosensors 2022, 10(10), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10100400 - 4 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
A stable bimetallic catalyst composed of Co–Pd@Al2O3 was synthesized using a wet impregnation method, followed by calcination and H2 reduction. The synthesized catalyst was thoroughly characterized using XRD, BET, SEM, EDX, and TPR techniques. The catalyst was then drop-casted [...] Read more.
A stable bimetallic catalyst composed of Co–Pd@Al2O3 was synthesized using a wet impregnation method, followed by calcination and H2 reduction. The synthesized catalyst was thoroughly characterized using XRD, BET, SEM, EDX, and TPR techniques. The catalyst was then drop-casted on a glassy carbon electrode (Co–Pd@Al2O3/GCE) and applied for the sensitive and selective electrochemical determination of a common antidepressant drug, venlafaxine (VEN). The proposed sensor (Co–Pd@Al2O3/GCE) demonstrated a remarkable catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of VEN, with a decent repeatability and reproducibility. The pH dependent responsiveness of the electro-oxidation of VEN helped in proposing the redox mechanism. A linear relationship between the peak current and concentration of VEN was observed in the range of 1.95 nM to 0.5 µM, with LOD and LOQ of 1.86 pM and 6.20 pM, respectively. The designed sensor demonstrated an adequate selectivity and significant stability. Moreover, the sensor was found to be quite promising for determining the VEN in biological specimens. Full article
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17 pages, 4290 KiB  
Article
Effects of Acidic Solution on the One-Step Electrodeposition of Prussian Blue Nanocrystals on Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Modified with Magnetite Nanoparticles
by Man-Mo Tse, Ya-Ling Su and Shu-Hua Cheng
Chemosensors 2022, 10(8), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10080325 - 11 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1733
Abstract
This study investigated the electrochemical synthesis of Prussian blue (PB) nanocrystals on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with a thin film of magnetite nanoparticles (nano-Fe3O4) in aqueous mixture solutions of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and different kinds of acids. The [...] Read more.
This study investigated the electrochemical synthesis of Prussian blue (PB) nanocrystals on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with a thin film of magnetite nanoparticles (nano-Fe3O4) in aqueous mixture solutions of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and different kinds of acids. The generated PB nanocrystals exhibited varied voltammetric responses that are highly related to the characteristics and properties of acids in the mixture solution. Interestingly, in the presence of glyphosate as an organic acid, surface magnetite nanoparticles were occluded within electrogenerated Prussian blue nanocubes (PBNC), which are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Furthermore, the possible reaction mechanism for the formation of PBNC is proposed in this study. The obtained PBNC was also evaluated as an electrocatalyst of hydrogen peroxide and applied to the detection of glyphosate. Full article
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22 pages, 5042 KiB  
Review
Advances in Electrochemical Techniques for the Detection and Analysis of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Analysis Based on Bibliometrics
by Yuhong Zheng, Hassan Karimi-Maleh and Li Fu
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050194 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3395
Abstract
Since the first successful transgenic plants obtained in 1983, dozens of plants have been tested. On the one hand, genetically modified plants solve the problems of agricultural production. However, due to exogenous genes of transgenic plants, such as its seeds or pollen drift, [...] Read more.
Since the first successful transgenic plants obtained in 1983, dozens of plants have been tested. On the one hand, genetically modified plants solve the problems of agricultural production. However, due to exogenous genes of transgenic plants, such as its seeds or pollen drift, diffusion between populations will likely lead to superweeds or affect the original traits. The detection technology of transgenic plants and their products have received considerable attention. Electrochemical sensing technology is a fast, low-cost, and portable analysis technology. This review interprets the application of electrochemical technology in the analysis and detection of transgenic products through bibliometrics. A total of 83 research articles were analyzed, spanning 2001 to 2021. We described the different stages in the development history of the subject and the contributions of countries and institutions to the topic. Although there were more annual publications in some years, there was no explosive growth in any period. The lack of breakthroughs in this technology is a significant factor in the lack of experts from other fields cross-examining the subject. Through keyword co-occurrence analysis, different research directions on this topic were discussed. The use of nanomaterials with excellent electrical conductivity allows for more sensitive detection of GM crops by electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, co-citation analysis was used to interpret the most popular reports on the topic. In the end, we predict the future development of this topic according to the analysis results. Full article
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17 pages, 31660 KiB  
Review
Electrochemical Sensors for Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing: Strategies and Applications
by Dongmin Kim and Seungmin Yoo
Chemosensors 2022, 10(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10020053 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3736
Abstract
Increasing awareness of the impacts of infectious diseases has driven the development of advanced techniques for detecting pathogens in clinical and environmental settings. However, this process is hindered by the complexity and variability inherent in antibiotic-resistant species. A great deal of effort has [...] Read more.
Increasing awareness of the impacts of infectious diseases has driven the development of advanced techniques for detecting pathogens in clinical and environmental settings. However, this process is hindered by the complexity and variability inherent in antibiotic-resistant species. A great deal of effort has been put into the development of antibiotic-resistance/susceptibility testing (AST) sensors and systems to administer proper drugs for patient-tailored therapy. Electrochemical sensors have garnered increasing attention due to their powerful potential to allow rapid, sensitive, and real-time monitoring, alongside the low-cost production, feasibility of minimization, and easy integration with other techniques. This review focuses on the recent advances in electrochemical sensing strategies that have been used to determine the level of antibiotic resistance/susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria. The recent examples of the current electrochemical AST sensors discussed here are classified into four categories according to what is detected and quantitated: the presence of antibiotic-resistant genes, changes in impedance caused by cell lysis, current response caused by changes in cellular membrane properties, and changes in the redox state of redox molecules. It also discusses potential strategies for the development of electrochemical AST sensors, with the goal of broadening their practical applications across various scientific and technological fields. Full article
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16 pages, 4206 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Sensing of Idarubicin—DNA Interaction Using Electropolymerized Azure B and Methylene Blue Mediation
by Anastasia Goida, Yurii Kuzin, Vladimir Evtugyn, Anna Porfireva, Gennady Evtugyn and Tibor Hianik
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10010033 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2504
Abstract
A highly sensitive electrochemical DNA sensor for detection of the chemotherapeutic drug idarubicin mediated by Methylene blue (MB) has been developed. DNA from fish sperm has been immobilized at the electropolymerized layers of Azure B. The incorporation of MB into the DNA layers [...] Read more.
A highly sensitive electrochemical DNA sensor for detection of the chemotherapeutic drug idarubicin mediated by Methylene blue (MB) has been developed. DNA from fish sperm has been immobilized at the electropolymerized layers of Azure B. The incorporation of MB into the DNA layers substantially increased the sensor sensitivity. The concentration range for idarubicin determination by cyclic voltammetry was from 1 fM to 0.1 nM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3 fM. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the presence of a redox probe ([Fe(CN)6]3−/4−) allowed for the widening of a linear range of idarubicin detection from 1 fM to 100 nM, retaining LOD 0.3 fM. The DNA sensor has been tested in various real and artificial biological fluids with good recovery ranging between 90–110%. The sensor has been successfully used for impedimetric idarubicin detection in medical preparation Zavedos®. The developed DNA biosensor could be useful for the control of the level of idarubicin during cancer therapy as well as for pharmacokinetics studies. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

18 pages, 3726 KiB  
Article
Electrosynthesized Poly(o-aminophenol) Films as Biomimetic Coatings for Dopamine Detection on Pt Substrates
by Rosanna Ciriello, Martina Graziano, Giuliana Bianco and Antonio Guerrieri
Chemosensors 2021, 9(10), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9100280 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2567
Abstract
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter, and its levels in the human body are associated with serious diseases. The need for a suitable detection method in medical practice has encouraged the development of electrochemical sensors that take advantage of DA electroactivity. Molecularly imprinted polymers [...] Read more.
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter, and its levels in the human body are associated with serious diseases. The need for a suitable detection method in medical practice has encouraged the development of electrochemical sensors that take advantage of DA electroactivity. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetic materials able to selectively recognize target analytes. A novel MIP sensor for DA is proposed here based on a thin film of poly(o-aminophenol) electrosynthesized on bare Pt. A fast and easy method for executing the procedure for MIP deposition has been developed based on mild experimental conditions that are able to prevent electrode fouling from DA oxidation products. The MIP exhibited a limit of detection of 0.65 μM, and appreciable reproducibility and stability. The high recognition capability of poly(o-aminophenol) towards DA allowed for the achievement of notable selectivity: ascorbic acid, uric acid, serotonin, and tyramine did not interfere with DA detection, even at higher concentrations. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for DA detection in urine samples, showing good recovery. Full article
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15 pages, 14845 KiB  
Article
Methodology of Selecting the Optimal Receptor to Create an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Equine Arteritis Virus Protein Detection
by Mateusz Brodowski, Marcin Kowalski, Wioleta Białobrzeska, Katarzyna Pałka, Rafał Walkusz, Justyna Roguszczak, Tomasz Łęga, Marta Sosnowska, Małgorzata Biedulska, Joanna Kreczko Kurzawa, Ewelina Bięga, Joanna Wysocka, Marta Lisowska, Katarzyna Niedźwiedzka, Tomasz Lipiński, Sabina Żołędowska and Dawid Nidzworski
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090265 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2181
Abstract
The study reports a methodology of selecting the optimal receptor to create an electrochemical immunosensor for equine arteritis virus (EAV) protein detection. The detection was based on antigen recognition by antibodies immobilized on gold electrodes. Modification steps were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy [...] Read more.
The study reports a methodology of selecting the optimal receptor to create an electrochemical immunosensor for equine arteritis virus (EAV) protein detection. The detection was based on antigen recognition by antibodies immobilized on gold electrodes. Modification steps were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry measurements. In order to obtain the impedance immunosensor with the best parameters, seven different receptors complementary to equine arteritis virus protein were used. In order to make the selection, a rapid screening test was carried out to check the sensor’s response to blank, extremely low and high concentrations of target EAV protein, and negative sample: M protein from Streptococcus equi and glycoprotein G from Equid alphaherpesvirus 1. F6 10G receptor showed the best performance. Full article
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12 pages, 2475 KiB  
Article
Label-Free Electrochemical Test of Protease Interaction with a Peptide Substrate Modified Gold Electrode
by Anna Wcisło, Izabela Małuch, Paweł Niedziałkowski, Tadeusz Ossowski and Adam Prahl
Chemosensors 2021, 9(8), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9080199 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
Efficient deposition of biomolecules on the surface, maintaining their full activity and stability, is a most significant factor in biosensor construction. For this reason, more and more research is focused on the development of electrochemical biosensors that have the ability to electrically detect [...] Read more.
Efficient deposition of biomolecules on the surface, maintaining their full activity and stability, is a most significant factor in biosensor construction. For this reason, more and more research is focused on the development of electrochemical biosensors that have the ability to electrically detect adsorbed molecules on electrode surface with high selectivity and sensitivity. The presented research aims to develop an efficient methodology that allows quantification of processes related to the evaluation of enzyme activity (proprotein convertase) using electrochemical methods. In this study we used impedance spectroscopy to investigate the immobilization of peptide substrate (Arg-Val-Arg-Arg) modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid on the surface of gold electrode. Both the synthesis of the peptide substrate as well as the full electrochemical characteristics of the obtained electrode materials have been described. Experimental conditions, including concentration of peptide substrate immobilization, modification time, linker, and the presence of additional blocking groups have been optimized. The main advantages of the described method is that it makes it possible to observe the peptide substrate–enzyme interaction without the need to use fluorescent labels. This also allows observation of this interaction at a very low concentration. Both of these factors make this new technique competitive with the standard spectrofluorimetric method. Full article
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17 pages, 6831 KiB  
Article
Monitoring of Lactate in Interstitial Fluid, Saliva and Sweat by Electrochemical Biosensor: The Uncertainties of Biological Interpretation
by Anna-Maria Spehar-Délèze, Salzitsa Anastasova and Pankaj Vadgama
Chemosensors 2021, 9(8), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9080195 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5369
Abstract
Lactate electrochemical biosensors were fabricated using Pediococcus sp lactate oxidase (E.C. 1.1.3.2), an external polyurethane membrane laminate diffusion barrier and an internal ionomeric polymer barrier (sulphonated polyether ether sulphone polyether sulphone, SPEES PES). In a needle embodiment, a Pt wire working electrode was [...] Read more.
Lactate electrochemical biosensors were fabricated using Pediococcus sp lactate oxidase (E.C. 1.1.3.2), an external polyurethane membrane laminate diffusion barrier and an internal ionomeric polymer barrier (sulphonated polyether ether sulphone polyether sulphone, SPEES PES). In a needle embodiment, a Pt wire working electrode was retained within stainless steel tubing serving as pseudoreference. The construct gave linearity to at least 25 mM lactate with 0.17 nA/mM lactate sensitivity. A low permeability inner membrane was also unexpectedly able to increase linearity. Responses were oxygen dependent at pO2 < 70 mmHg, irrespective of the inclusion of an external diffusion barrier membrane. Subcutaneous tissue was monitored in Sprague Dawley rats, and saliva and sweat during exercise in human subjects. The tissue sensors registered no response to intravenous Na lactate, indicating a blood-tissue lactate barrier. Salivary lactate allowed tracking of blood lactate during exercise, but lactate levels were substantially lower than those in blood (0–3.5 mM vs. 1.6–12.1 mM), with variable degrees of lactate partitioning from blood, evident both between subjects and at different exercise time points. Sweat lactate during exercise measured up to 23 mM but showed highly inconsistent change as exercise progressed. We conclude that neither tissue interstitial fluid nor sweat are usable as surrogates for blood lactate, and that major reappraisal of lactate sensor use is indicated for any extravascular monitoring strategy for lactate. Full article
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14 pages, 3331 KiB  
Article
PANI-Based Wearable Electrochemical Sensor for pH Sweat Monitoring
by Francesca Mazzara, Bernardo Patella, Chiara D’Agostino, Maria Giuseppina Bruno, Sonia Carbone, Francesco Lopresti, Giuseppe Aiello, Claudia Torino, Antonio Vilasi, Alan O’Riordan and Rosalinda Inguanta
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070169 - 5 Jul 2021
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 6144
Abstract
Nowadays, we are assisting in the exceptional growth in research relating to the development of wearable devices for sweat analysis. Sweat is a biofluid that contains useful health information and allows a non-invasive, continuous and comfortable collection. For this reason, it is an [...] Read more.
Nowadays, we are assisting in the exceptional growth in research relating to the development of wearable devices for sweat analysis. Sweat is a biofluid that contains useful health information and allows a non-invasive, continuous and comfortable collection. For this reason, it is an excellent biofluid for the detection of different analytes. In this work, electrochemical sensors based on polyaniline thin films deposited on the flexible substrate polyethylene terephthalate coated with indium tin oxide were studied. Polyaniline thin films were abstained by the potentiostatic deposition technique, applying a potential of +2 V vs. SCE for 90 s. To improve the sensor performance, the electronic substrate was modified with reduced graphene oxide, obtained at a constant potential of −0.8 V vs. SCE for 200 s, and then polyaniline thin films were electrodeposited on top of the as-deposited substrate. All samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, static contact angle and FT-IR/ATR analysis to correlate the physical-chemical features with the performance of the sensors. The obtained electrodes were tested as pH sensors in the range from 2 to 8, showing good behavior, with a sensitivity of 62.3 mV/pH, very close to a Nernstian response, and a reproducibility of 3.8%. Interference tests, in the presence of competing ions, aimed to verify the selectivity, were also performed. Finally, a real sweat sample was collected, and the sweat pH was quantified with both the proposed sensor and a commercial pH meter, showing an excellent concordance. Full article
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