Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This special issue belongs to the section "Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis in Cancer Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2023) | Viewed by 27225

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Imaging Institute of Southern Switzerland, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland
2. Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Università della Svizzera italiana, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland
Interests: meta-analysis; PET; nuclear medicine; systematic reviews; brain tumor imaging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland
Interests: genitourinary oncology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are evidence-based articles that are increasingly used in oncology, providing useful information for the decision-making process. These manuscripts represent the highest level of evidence in the scientific literature.

Genitourinary oncology is a specialized field of oncology focused on the diagnosis and treatment of cancers found in the urinary system and the male reproductive system. These include prostate cancer, kidney cancer, bladder cancer, testicular cancer and penile cancer.

According to literature data, the use of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in genitourinary oncology is increasing.

We are pleased to invite you to submit your contribution for this Special issue of Cancers dedicated to evidence-based manuscripts (systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses) in the field of genitourinary oncology, with a special focus on the diagnosis and therapy of genitourinary cancers.

We look forward to receiving your contributions

Prof. Dr. Giorgio Treglia
Dr. Ursula Maria Vogl
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • systematic review
  • meta-analysis
  • oncology
  • genitourinary cancers
  • diagnosis
  • therapy

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 204 KiB  
Editorial
Bone Scintigraphy versus PSMA-Targeted PET/CT or PET/MRI in Prostate Cancer: Lessons Learned from Recent Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
by Francesco Dondi, Domenico Albano, Francesco Bertagna and Giorgio Treglia
Cancers 2022, 14(18), 4470; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14184470 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) using several radiopharmaceuticals [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers)

Review

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30 pages, 821 KiB  
Review
Does Human Papillomavirus Play a Causative Role in Prostate Cancer? A Systematic Review Using Bradford Hill’s Criteria
by Ridwan Opeyemi Bello, Lily Willis-Powell, Olivia James, Avyay Sharma, Elizabeth Marsh, Libby Ellis, Kevin Gaston and Yusra Siddiqui
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3897; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153897 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
Globally, prostate cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death among men, and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has a high cancer-related mortality rate. However, the aetiology of this disease is not yet fully understood. While human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated [...] Read more.
Globally, prostate cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death among men, and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has a high cancer-related mortality rate. However, the aetiology of this disease is not yet fully understood. While human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with several types of cancer, including cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, studies investigating the relationship between HPV and prostate cancer have shown mixed results. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the causative association between HPV and prostate cancer using Bradford Hill’s criteria. A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted, and 60 out of 482 studies were included in the review. The included studies were evaluated based on nine Bradford Hill criteria, and information on the identification and transmission of the virus and potential oncogenic mechanisms was also extracted. The strength of association criterion was not met, and other criteria, such as consistency and coherence, were not fulfilled. However, biological plausibility was supported, and potential oncogenic mechanisms were identified. While some studies have reported the presence of HPV in prostate cancer tissues, the overall quality of evidence remains low, and the association between HPV and prostate cancer is weak. Nevertheless, the prostate is a potential reservoir for the transmission of HPV, and the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins and inflammation are likely to be involved in any oncogenic mechanisms. Further studies with a higher level of evidence are needed to establish a definitive link between HPV and prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers)
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17 pages, 933 KiB  
Review
The Emerging Role of PET/CT with PSMA-Targeting Radiopharmaceuticals in Clear Cell Renal Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review
by Alessio Rizzo, Manuela Racca, Sara Dall’Armellina, Pasquale Rescigno, Giuseppe Luigi Banna, Domenico Albano, Francesco Dondi, Francesco Bertagna, Salvatore Annunziata and Giorgio Treglia
Cancers 2023, 15(2), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15020355 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3827
Abstract
Background: Recent articles proposed the employment of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting radiopharmaceuticals in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods: The authors performed a comprehensive literature search of studies on the performance of PET/CT with PSMA-targeting radiopharmaceuticals [...] Read more.
Background: Recent articles proposed the employment of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting radiopharmaceuticals in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods: The authors performed a comprehensive literature search of studies on the performance of PET/CT with PSMA-targeting radiopharmaceuticals in ccRCC. Original articles concerning this imaging examination were included in newly diagnosed ccRCC patients and ccRCC patients with disease recurrence. Results: A total of sixteen papers concerning the diagnostic performance of PSMA-targeted PET/CT in ccRCC (331 patients) were included in this systematic review. The included articles demonstrated an excellent detection rate of PSMA-targeting PET/CT in ccRCC. Conclusions: PSMA-targeted PET/CT seems promising in detecting ccRCC lesions as well as in discriminating the presence of aggressive phenotypes. Prospective multicentric studies are warranted to strengthen the role of PSMA-targeting PET/CT in ccRCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers)
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Other

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34 pages, 376 KiB  
Systematic Review
Interventions with Social Integration Components Addressing Psychosocial Outcomes of Young- and Middle-Aged Adult Cancer Individuals: A Systematic Review
by Pragya G. Poudel, Madeline R. Horan, Tara M. Brinkman, Zhaoming Wang, Leslie L. Robison, Melissa M. Hudson and I-Chan Huang
Cancers 2023, 15(19), 4710; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15194710 - 25 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
Background: The majority of adult cancer patients/survivors encounter social challenges (e.g., obtaining social support, maintaining social relationships, feelings of social isolation). This systematic review summarizes intervention studies addressing social integration or social connectedness issues among young- and middle-aged cancer patients/survivors. Methods: We searched [...] Read more.
Background: The majority of adult cancer patients/survivors encounter social challenges (e.g., obtaining social support, maintaining social relationships, feelings of social isolation). This systematic review summarizes intervention studies addressing social integration or social connectedness issues among young- and middle-aged cancer patients/survivors. Methods: We searched the PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases (January 2000–May 2021) to identify intervention studies that addressed social integration, social connectedness, social support, and social isolation for cancer patients/survivors in young- and middle-aged adulthood (18–64.9 years) through a randomized controlled trial (RCT). We categorized the interventions as technology-based, non-technology-based, and mixed-type (technology- and non-technology-based). Results: A total of 28 studies were identified. These interventions demonstrated improved social outcomes (e.g., increased social support, decreased loneliness), increased awareness of available cancer-related resources, and better patient-reported outcomes among patients/survivors versus controls. Specifically, the use of internet-based discussion sessions was associated with improved social cohesion and social support. Receiving social support from peers through networking sites was associated with improved physical activity. Additionally, implementing mixed-type interventions led to better social support from peer survivors, less fear of social interactions, and improved social connectedness. Conclusions: Using existing technology- and/or non-technology-based platforms to facilitate social connectedness among cancer patients/survivors in young- or middle-aged adulthood can help them cope with stressful life circumstances and improve quality-of-life. Further interventions targeting social integration (e.g., social network interventions) are needed to improve the complex social integration challenges experienced by cancer patients and survivors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers)
16 pages, 715 KiB  
Systematic Review
Methods for Evaluating the Efficacy of Medical Castration: A Systematic Review
by Adriana Aguilar, Jacques Planas, Enrique Trilla and Juan Morote
Cancers 2023, 15(13), 3479; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15133479 - 3 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Measuring serum testosterone determination during medical castration is recommended by prostate cancer (PCa) guidelines to assess its efficacy and define castration resistance. It has been suggested that other biochemical compounds, such as free testosterone or luteinising hormone (LH), could also assess castration efficacy. [...] Read more.
Measuring serum testosterone determination during medical castration is recommended by prostate cancer (PCa) guidelines to assess its efficacy and define castration resistance. It has been suggested that other biochemical compounds, such as free testosterone or luteinising hormone (LH), could also assess castration efficacy. We aimed to analyse the current evidence for serum biochemical compounds that could be appropriate candidates for evaluating medical castration efficacy. A systematic review was conducted after two investigators independently searched the literature in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases published between January 1980 and February 2023. Their searches used the medical subject headings ‘prostatic neoplasms’, ‘testosterone and androgen antagonists’, ‘gonadotropin-releasing hormone/analogues and derivatives’, ‘free testosterone’, and ‘luteinising hormone’. Studies were selected according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria, and their eligibility was based on the Participants, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome strategy. The search was limited to original articles published in English. Among the 6599 initially identified titles, 15 original studies analysing the clinical impact of serum testosterone levels in PCa patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were selected for evidence acquisition. The risk of bias in individual studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool. All selected studies used immunoassays to measure serum testosterone, although only methods based on liquid or gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are recommended to measure low testosterone concentrations. The reported series were not uniform in clinical stage, ADT types, and the time or number of serum testosterone measurements. Only some studies found low serum testosterone levels (<20 or <32 ng/dL) associated with greater survival free of biochemical progression and castration resistance. We conclude that little current evidence justifies the measurement of serum testosterone during ADT using no appropriate methods. No reported longitudinal studies have examined the clinical impact of serum testosterone measured using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS), free testosterone, or LH in PCa patients undergoing medical castration. We conclude that well-designed longitudinal studies examining the clinical impact of serum testosterone measured with LC-MSMS, serum-free testosterone, and LH on biochemical progression and castration resistance in PCa patients undergoing neo-adjuvant castration in radiation therapy or continuous castration are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers)
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20 pages, 915 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of the Current Status of Magnetic Resonance–Ultrasound Images Fusion Software Platforms for Transperineal Prostate Biopsies
by Nahuel Paesano, Violeta Catalá, Larisa Tcholakian, Enric Trilla and Juan Morote
Cancers 2023, 15(13), 3329; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15133329 - 24 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Given this new context, our objective is to recognize the suitability of the currently available software for image fusion and the reported series using the transperineal route, as well as to generate new evidence on the complementarity of the directed and systematic biopsies, [...] Read more.
Given this new context, our objective is to recognize the suitability of the currently available software for image fusion and the reported series using the transperineal route, as well as to generate new evidence on the complementarity of the directed and systematic biopsies, which has been established through the transrectal approach. Evidence acquisition: This systematic review, registered in Prospero (CRD42022375619), began with a bibliographic search that was carried out in PubMed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria and the studied eligibility based on the Participants, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcomes (PICO) strategy were followed. Warp analysis of selected studies was performed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. In addition, a Google search of all currently available fusion platforms was performed. Our Google search found 11 different commercially available robots to perform transperineal image fusion biopsies, of which 10 devices have published articles supporting their diagnostic effectiveness in transperineal prostate biopsies. Results: A total of 30 articles were selected and the characteristics and results of the biopsies of 11,313 patients were analyzed. The pooled mean age was 66.5 years (63–69). The mean pooled PSA level was 7.8 ng/mL (5.7–10.8). The mean pooled prostate volume was 45.4 cc. (34–56). The mean pooled PSA density was 0.17 (0.12–0.27). The overall cancer detection rate for all prostate cancers was 61.4%, while for csPCa it was 47.8%. PCa detection rate was more effective than that demonstrated in the systematic transrectal biopsy. However, the detection of csPCa in the systematic biopsy was only 9.5% in the reported series. To standardize our review, we grouped prostate cancer screening results according to the population studied and the software used. When the same populations were compared between elastic and rigid software, we found that rigid biopsies had a higher csPCa detection rate than biopsies with elastic fusion systems. Conclusion: Platforms performing prostate biopsy using transperineal image fusion have better detection rates of csPCa than systematic transrectal biopsies. Rigid fusion systems have a better csPCa detection rate than elastic ones. We found no diagnostic differences between the different types of robotic systems currently available. The complementarity of systematic biopsy has also been demonstrated in transperineal imaging fusion biopsies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers)
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16 pages, 1909 KiB  
Systematic Review
Prostate Cancer Morphologies: Cribriform Pattern and Intraductal Carcinoma Relations to Adverse Pathological and Clinical Outcomes—Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Rafał Osiecki, Mieszko Kozikowski, Beata Sarecka-Hujar, Michał Pyzlak and Jakub Dobruch
Cancers 2023, 15(5), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15051372 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2212
Abstract
The present study aimed to assess the association between the cribriform pattern (CP)/intraductal carcinoma (IDC) and the adverse pathological and clinical outcomes in the radical prostatectomy (RP) cohort. A systematic search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to assess the association between the cribriform pattern (CP)/intraductal carcinoma (IDC) and the adverse pathological and clinical outcomes in the radical prostatectomy (RP) cohort. A systematic search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement (PRISMA). The protocol from this review was registered on the PROSPERO platform. We searched PubMed®, the Cochrane Library and EM-BASE® up to the 30th of April 2022. The outcomes of interest were the extraprostatic extension (EPE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), lymph node metastasis (LNS met), risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR), distant metastasis (MET) and disease-specific death (DSD). As a result, we identified 16 studies with 164 296 patients. A total of 13 studies containing 3254 RP patients were eligible for the meta-analysis. The CP/IDC was associated with adverse outcomes, including EPE (pooled OR = 2.55, 95%CI 1.23–5.26), SVI (pooled OR = 4.27, 95%CI 1.90–9.64), LNs met (pooled OR = 6.47, 95%CI 3.76–11.14), BCR (pooled OR = 5.09, 95%CI 2.23–11.62) and MET/DSD (pooled OR = 9.84, 95%CI 2.75–35.20, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the CP/IDC belong to highly malignant prostate cancer patterns which have a negative impact on both the pathological and clinical outcomes. The presence of the CP/IDC should be included in the surgical planning and postoperative treatment guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers)
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13 pages, 3214 KiB  
Systematic Review
Candidate Genes and Pathways in Cervical Cancer: A Systematic Review and Integrated Bioinformatic Analysis
by Marjanu Hikmah Elias, Srijit Das and Nazefah Abdul Hamid
Cancers 2023, 15(3), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15030853 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in developing countries. However, no comprehensive molecular mechanism for cervical cancer has been established, as many studies were small-cohort studies conducted with small sample sizes. A thorough literature search was performed using [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in developing countries. However, no comprehensive molecular mechanism for cervical cancer has been established, as many studies were small-cohort studies conducted with small sample sizes. A thorough literature search was performed using the PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOhost, and Science Direct databases. Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms such as “Uterine Cervical Neoplasms” and “gene expression” were used as the keywords in all fields. A total of 4027 studies were retrieved, and only clinical studies, which used the microarray method to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the cervical tissue of cervical cancer patients, were selected. Following the screening, 6 studies were selected and 1128 DEGs were extracted from the data. Sixty-two differentially expressed genes from at least two studies were selected for further analysis by DAVID, STRING, and Cytoscape software. In cervical cancer pathogenesis, three significant clusters with high intermolecular interactions from the Protein–Protein Interaction (PPI) network complex revealed three major molecular mechanisms, including cell signaling, cell cycle, and cell differentiation. Subsequently, eight genes were chosen as the candidate genes based on their involvement in the relevant gene ontology (GO) and their interaction with other genes in the PPI network through undirected first neighbor nodes. The present systematic review improves our understanding of the molecular mechanism of cervical cancer and the proposed genes that can be used to expand the biomarker panel in the screening for cervical cancer. The targeted genes may be beneficial for the development of better treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers)
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19 pages, 3728 KiB  
Systematic Review
Anastomotic Leak in Ovarian Cancer Cytoreduction Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Massimiliano Fornasiero, Georgios Geropoulos, Konstantinos S. Kechagias, Kyriakos Psarras, Konstantinos Katsikas Triantafyllidis, Panagiotis Giannos, Georgios Koimtzis, Nikoletta A. Petrou, James Lucocq, Christos Kontovounisios and Dimitrios Giannis
Cancers 2022, 14(21), 5464; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14215464 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Introduction: Anastomotic leaks (AL) following ovarian cytoreduction surgery could be detrimental, leading to significant delays in commencing adjuvant chemotherapy, prolonged hospital stays and increased morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with anastomotic leaks after ovarian cytoreduction surgery. [...] Read more.
Introduction: Anastomotic leaks (AL) following ovarian cytoreduction surgery could be detrimental, leading to significant delays in commencing adjuvant chemotherapy, prolonged hospital stays and increased morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with anastomotic leaks after ovarian cytoreduction surgery. Material and methods: The MEDLINE (via PubMed), Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Scopus bibliographical databases were searched. Original clinical studies investigating risk factors for AL in ovarian cytoreduction surgery were included. Results: Eighteen studies with non-overlapping populations reporting on patients undergoing cytoreduction surgery for ovarian cancer (n = 4622, including 344 cases complicated by AL) were included in our analysis. Patients undergoing ovarian cytoreduction surgery complicated by AL had a significantly higher rate of 30-day mortality but no difference in 60-day mortality. Multiple bowel resections were associated with an increased risk of postoperative AL, while no association was observed with body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, age, smoking, operative approach (primary versus interval cytoreductive, stapled versus hand-sewn anastomoses and formation of diverting stoma), neoadjuvant chemotherapy and use of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Discussion: Multiple bowel resections were the only clinical risk factor associated with increased risk for AL after bowel surgery in the ovarian cancer population. The increased 30-day mortality rate in patients undergoing ovarian cytoreduction complicated by AL highlights the need to minimize the number of bowel resections in this population. Further studies are required to clarify any association between neoadjuvant chemotherapy and decreased AL rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers)
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18 pages, 1747 KiB  
Systematic Review
Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Predictive Models for Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review
by Marina Triquell, Miriam Campistol, Ana Celma, Lucas Regis, Mercè Cuadras, Jacques Planas, Enrique Trilla and Juan Morote
Cancers 2022, 14(19), 4747; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14194747 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
MRI can identify suspicious lesions, providing the semi-quantitative risk of csPCa through the Prostate Imaging-Report and Data System (PI-RADS). Predictive models of clinical variables that individualise the risk of csPCa have been developed by adding PI-RADS score (MRI-PMs). Our objective is to analyse [...] Read more.
MRI can identify suspicious lesions, providing the semi-quantitative risk of csPCa through the Prostate Imaging-Report and Data System (PI-RADS). Predictive models of clinical variables that individualise the risk of csPCa have been developed by adding PI-RADS score (MRI-PMs). Our objective is to analyse the current developed MRI-PMs and define their clinical usefulness. A systematic review was performed after a literature search performed by two independent investigators in PubMed, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases, with the Medical Subjects Headings (MESH): predictive model, nomogram, risk model, magnetic resonance imaging, PI-RADS, prostate cancer, and prostate biopsy. This review was made following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria and studied eligibility based on the Participants, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcomes (PICO) strategy. Among 723 initial identified registers, 18 studies were finally selected. Warp analysis of selected studies was performed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. Clinical predictors in addition to the PI-RADS score in developed MRI-PMs were age, PCa family history, digital rectal examination, biopsy status (initial vs. repeat), ethnicity, serum PSA, prostate volume measured by MRI, or calculated PSA density. All MRI-PMs improved the prediction of csPCa made by clinical predictors or imaging alone and achieved most areas under the curve between 0.78 and 0.92. Among 18 developed MRI-PMs, 7 had any external validation, and two RCs were available. The updated PI-RADS version 2 was exclusively used in 11 MRI-PMs. The performance of MRI-PMs according to PI-RADS was only analysed in a single study. We conclude that MRI-PMs improve the selection of candidates for prostate biopsy beyond the PI-RADS category. However, few developed MRI-PMs meet the appropriate requirements in routine clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers)
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35 pages, 1629 KiB  
Systematic Review
Association between Energy Balance-Related Factors and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Ovarian Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Stephanie Stelten, Christelle Schofield, Yvonne A. W. Hartman, Pedro Lopez, Gemma G. Kenter, Robert U. Newton, Daniel A. Galvão, Meeke Hoedjes, Dennis R. Taaffe, Luc R. C. W. van Lonkhuijzen, Carolyn McIntyre and Laurien M. Buffart
Cancers 2022, 14(19), 4567; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14194567 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized evidence in patients with ovarian cancer at diagnosis and/or during first-line treatment on; (i) the association of body weight, body composition, diet, exercise, sedentary behavior, or physical fitness with clinical outcomes; and (ii) the effect of [...] Read more.
Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized evidence in patients with ovarian cancer at diagnosis and/or during first-line treatment on; (i) the association of body weight, body composition, diet, exercise, sedentary behavior, or physical fitness with clinical outcomes; and (ii) the effect of exercise and/or dietary interventions. Methods: Risk of bias assessments and best-evidence syntheses were completed. Meta-analyses were performed when ≥3 papers presented point estimates and variability measures of associations or effects. Results: Body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis was not significantly associated with survival. Although the following trends were not supported by the best-evidence syntheses, the meta-analyses revealed that a higher BMI was associated with a higher risk of post-surgical complications (n = 5, HR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.06–2.51, p = 0.030), a higher muscle mass was associated with a better progression-free survival (n = 3, HR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.04–1.91, p = 0.030) and a higher muscle density was associated with a better overall survival (n = 3, HR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.62–2.79, p < 0.001). Muscle measures were not significantly associated with surgical or chemotherapy-related outcomes. Conclusions: The prognostic value of baseline BMI for clinical outcomes is limited, but muscle mass and density may have more prognostic potential. High-quality studies with comprehensive reporting of results are required to improve our understanding of the prognostic value of body composition measures for clinical outcomes. Systematic review registration number: PROSPERO identifier CRD42020163058. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers)
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25 pages, 980 KiB  
Systematic Review
Prostate Cancer and Sleep Disorders: A Systematic Review
by Davide Sparasci, Ilenia Napoli, Lorenzo Rossi, Ricardo Pereira-Mestre, Mauro Manconi, Giorgio Treglia, Laura Marandino, Margaret Ottaviano, Fabio Turco, Dylan Mangan, Silke Gillessen and Ursula Maria Vogl
Cancers 2022, 14(7), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14071784 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3455
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) treatment involves multiple strategies depending on the disease’s stage. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the gold standard for advanced and metastatic stages. Sleep quality has been suggested as being additionally influenced also by local radiotherapy, prostatectomy and androgen-receptor (AR)-targeted agents. [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) treatment involves multiple strategies depending on the disease’s stage. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the gold standard for advanced and metastatic stages. Sleep quality has been suggested as being additionally influenced also by local radiotherapy, prostatectomy and androgen-receptor (AR)-targeted agents. We performed a systematic review exploring the landscape of studies published between 1 January 1990 and 31 July 2021, investigating sleep disturbances in PCa patients receiving active treatments, including the influence of hormonal therapy on sleep quality as a factor affecting their quality of life. Out of 45 articles identified, 16 studies were selected, which recruited patients with PCa, undergoing active treatment in either a prospective longitudinal or cross-sectional study. Development of sleep disorders or changes in sleep quality were reported in 14 out of 16 trials included. Only five trials included objective measurements such as actigraphy, mostly at one time point and without a baseline assessment. Limitations to be addressed are the small number of existing trials, lack of randomized trials and heterogeneity of methodologies used. This systematic review outlines the lack of prospective trials investigating sleep disorders, with a rigorous methodology, in homogeneous cohorts of PCa patients. Future trials are needed to clarify the prevalence and impact of this side effect of PCa treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Genitourinary Cancers)
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