Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer Survivorship and Quality of Life".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 45151

Special Issue Editors

Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine and the Tisch Cancer Institute at Mt Sinai, 1470 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10029, USA
Interests: breast cancer; survivorship; clinical trials; novel therapeutics in breast cancer
Dr. Maryam Lustberg
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Medical Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There are an estimated 20 million cancer survivors in 2020, most of whom were diagnosed and treated for breast, prostate, and colon cancer. There are common symptoms and side-effects, and these include osteoporosis, peripheral neuropathy, cardiotoxicity, sexual dysfunction, and psychosocial concerns. We plan an issue devoted to these symptoms and side-effects.

Prof. Charles L. Shapiro
Dr. Maryam Lustberg
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cancer survivors
  • osteoporosis
  • peripheral neuropathy
  • cardiotoxity
  • sexual dysfunction and psychosocial issues

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

11 pages, 232 KiB  
Article
Use of a Cancer Registry to Evaluate Patient-Reported Outcomes of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Cancers 2021, 13(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13010103 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2464
Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are increasingly used for advanced lung cancer, but few studies have reported on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) outside the context of a clinical trial. The goal of the current study was to assess PROs in participants of a lung cancer [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are increasingly used for advanced lung cancer, but few studies have reported on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) outside the context of a clinical trial. The goal of the current study was to assess PROs in participants of a lung cancer registry who had been treated with an ICI. Patients participating in the GO2 Foundation’s Lung Cancer Registry who reported receiving atezolizumab, durvalumab, nivolumab, or pembrolizumab were invited to participate in a survey about their experiences during treatment. Quality of life was evaluated using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–General (FACT-G). Common symptomatic adverse events were evaluated using an item bank generated for ICIs. Internationally, 226 patients (mean age 61, 75% female) participated. Patients reported worse quality of life at the time of assessment than U.S. population and cancer normative samples. The most common moderate to severe adverse events during ICI treatment were fatigue (41%), aching joints (27%), and aching muscles (20%). Due to toxicity, 25% reported a treatment delay, 11% an emergency room visit, and 9% a hospitalization. This study is among the first to our knowledge to report on PROs of ICIs outside the context of a clinical trial. Results suggest higher rates of adverse events than previously reported in clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
15 pages, 908 KiB  
Article
Adverse Event Burden Score—A Versatile Summary Measure for Cancer Clinical Trials
Cancers 2020, 12(11), 3251; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113251 - 04 Nov 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2203
Abstract
This article introduces the adverse event (AE) burden score. The AE burden by treatment cycle is a weighted sum of all grades and AEs that the patient experienced in a cycle. The overall AE burden score is the total AE burden the patient [...] Read more.
This article introduces the adverse event (AE) burden score. The AE burden by treatment cycle is a weighted sum of all grades and AEs that the patient experienced in a cycle. The overall AE burden score is the total AE burden the patient experienced across all treatment cycles. AE data from two completed Alliance multi-center randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials, with different AE profiles (NCCTG 97-24-51: 176 patients, and A091105: 83 patients), were utilized for illustration. Results of the AE burden score analyses corroborated the trials’ primary results. In 97-24-51, the overall AE burden for patients on the treatment arm was 2.2 points higher than those on the placebo arm, with a higher AE burden for patients who went off treatment early due to AE. Similarly, in A091105, the overall AE burden was 1.6 points higher on the treatment arm. On the placebo arms, the AE burden in 97-24-51 remained constant over time; and increased in later cycles in A091105, likely attributable to the increase in disease morbidity. The AE burden score enables statistical comparisons analogous to other quantitative endpoints in clinical trials, and can readily accommodate different trial settings, diseases, and treatments, with diverse AE profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1899 KiB  
Article
Unraveling the Heterogeneity of Sarcoma Survivors’ Health-Related Quality of Life Regarding Primary Sarcoma Location: Results from the SURVSARC Study
Cancers 2020, 12(11), 3083; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113083 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Sarcoma patients experience physical and psychological symptoms, depending on age of onset, subtype, treatment, stage, and location of the sarcoma, which can adversely affect patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to unravel the heterogeneity of sarcoma survivors’ HRQoL regarding primary [...] Read more.
Sarcoma patients experience physical and psychological symptoms, depending on age of onset, subtype, treatment, stage, and location of the sarcoma, which can adversely affect patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to unravel the heterogeneity of sarcoma survivors’ HRQoL regarding primary sarcoma location. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Dutch sarcoma survivors (N = 1099) aged ≥18, diagnosed 2–10 years ago. Primary sarcoma locations were head and neck, chest, abdominal including retroperitoneal, pelvis including urogenital organs, axial skeleton, extremities (upper and lower), breast, skin and other locations. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer—Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ)-C30 was used to measure HRQoL accompanied by treatment-specific HRQoL questions. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were collected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Axial skeleton sarcomas had the lowest functioning levels and highest symptoms compared to other locations. Skin sarcomas had the highest functioning levels and lowest symptoms on most scales. Bone sarcomas scored worse on several HRQoL domains compared to soft tissue sarcomas. High prevalence of treatment-specific HRQoL issues were found per location. In conclusion, sarcomas can present everywhere, which is reflected by different HRQoL outcomes according to primary sarcoma location. The currently used HRQoL measure lacks treatment-specific questions and is too generic to capture all sarcoma-related issues, emphasizing the necessity for a comprehensive sarcoma-specific HRQoL measurement strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1100 KiB  
Article
Radiation-Induced Hypothyroidism in Patients with Oropharyngeal Cancer Treated with IMRT: Independent and External Validation of Five Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models
Cancers 2020, 12(9), 2716; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092716 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2884
Abstract
We aimed to externally validate five normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for radiation-induced hypothyroidism (RIHT) in a prospectively recruited cohort of 108 patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). NTCP scores were calculated using original published formulas. Plasma thyrotropin (TSH) level was additionally assessed [...] Read more.
We aimed to externally validate five normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for radiation-induced hypothyroidism (RIHT) in a prospectively recruited cohort of 108 patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). NTCP scores were calculated using original published formulas. Plasma thyrotropin (TSH) level was additionally assessed in the short-term after RT. After a median of 28 months of follow-up, thirty one (28.7%) patients developed RIHT. Thyroid mean dose and thyroid volume were significant predictors of RIHT: odds ratio equal to 1.11 (95% CI 1.03–1.19) for mean thyroid dose and 0.87 (95%CI 0.81–0.93) for thyroid volume in univariate analyses. Two of the evaluated NTCP models, published by Rønjom et al. and by Boomsma et al., had satisfactory performance with accuracies of 0.87 (95%CI 0.79–0.93) and 0.84 (95%CI: 0.76–0.91), respectively. Three remaining models, by Cella et al., Bakhshandeh et al. and Vogelius et al., performed significantly worse, overestimating the risk of RIHT in this patient cohort. A short-term TSH level change relative to baseline was not indicative of RIHT development in the follow-up (OR 0.96, 95%CI: 0.65–1.42, p = 0.825). In conclusion, the models by Rønjom et al. and by Boomsma et al. demonstrated external validity and feasibility for long-term prediction of RIHT in survivors of OPC treated with Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 667 KiB  
Article
Male Sexual Function after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Childhood: A Multicenter Study
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071786 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2156
Abstract
There are many known endocrine complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in childhood including increased risk of biochemical hypogonadism. However, little is known about sexuality in adulthood following childhood HSCT. In this multicenter study, sexual functions and possible risk factors were [...] Read more.
There are many known endocrine complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in childhood including increased risk of biochemical hypogonadism. However, little is known about sexuality in adulthood following childhood HSCT. In this multicenter study, sexual functions and possible risk factors were assessed comprehensively in two national cohorts (Finland and Denmark) of male adult survivors of childhood HSCT. Compared to a healthy control group (n = 56), HSCT survivors (n = 97) reported less sexual fantasies, poorer orgasms, lower sexual activity with a partner and reduced satisfaction with their sex life, even in the presence of normal erectile functions and a similar frequency of autoerotic acts. Of the HSCT survivors, 35% were cohabitating/married and 66% were sexually active. Risk factors for poorer self-reported sexual functions were partner status (not cohabitating with a partner), depressive symptoms, CNS and testicular irradiation. Sexual dysfunction increased by age in the HSCT group with a pace comparable to that of the control group. However, because of the lower baseline level of sexual functions in the HSCT group, they will reach the level of clinically significant dysfunction at a younger age. Hence, male survivors of childhood HSCT should be interviewed in detail about their sexual health beyond erectile functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

25 pages, 634 KiB  
Review
Interventions to Improve Sexual Health in Women Living with and Surviving Cancer: Review and Recommendations
Cancers 2021, 13(13), 3153; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13133153 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3711
Abstract
Sexual health concerns, both physical and psychological, are common and represent an unmet need among women with and surviving cancer. Sexual challenges and conditions negatively impact body image, satisfaction, relationships, well-being, and quality of life, yet are widely reported to be under-recognized and [...] Read more.
Sexual health concerns, both physical and psychological, are common and represent an unmet need among women with and surviving cancer. Sexual challenges and conditions negatively impact body image, satisfaction, relationships, well-being, and quality of life, yet are widely reported to be under-recognized and undertreated. To guide clinical care and future research on sexual function in women with cancer, we performed a scoping review of interventions for sexual health concerns, including sexual function, body image, genitourinary symptoms, and hot flashes. Relevant publications between 2005 and 2020 were identified by searching PubMed with a combination of medical subject headings and keywords. Articles were included if they focused on the aforementioned topics, were primary research publications, and included female cancer survivors. Studies focusing on women receiving hormone therapy for breast cancer were also included. A total of 91 investigations conducted in the US and abroad were reviewed. Most commonly, interventions included a component of psychoeducation, although pharmacologic, exercise, and other approaches have been evaluated. Many studies have focused on survivors of breast or gynecologic cancer, among other sampling and methodological limitations. These limitations underscore the need for more work on this vital survivorship issue. Recommendations for future research in this area are also offered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1757 KiB  
Review
Iatrogenic Ocular Surface Diseases Occurring during and/or after Different Treatments for Ocular Tumours
Cancers 2021, 13(8), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081933 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3710
Abstract
The ocular surface represents a finely regulated system that allows the protection of the eye. It is particularly susceptible to different treatments for intraocular tumours, such as uveal melanoma and conjunctival cancers. Traditionally, the management of ocular tumours depends on the characteristics of [...] Read more.
The ocular surface represents a finely regulated system that allows the protection of the eye. It is particularly susceptible to different treatments for intraocular tumours, such as uveal melanoma and conjunctival cancers. Traditionally, the management of ocular tumours depends on the characteristics of the lesion, and is based on a combination of selective surgery, topical chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy delivered through different mechanisms (e.g., charged-particle radiotherapy or brachytherapy). Possible complications involving the ocular surface range from transient dry eye disease or keratitis up to corneal melting and perforation, which in any case deserve careful evaluation for the risk of permanent sigh-threatening complications. Clinicians involved in the management of these patients must be aware of this risk, in order to reach an early diagnosis and promptly set up an adequate treatment. The present review of the literature will summarize acute and chronic complications affecting the ocular surface following different therapies for the treatment of ocular tumours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 744 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Potential Role of the Gut Microbiome in Chemotherapy-Induced Neurocognitive Disorders and Cardiovascular Toxicity
Cancers 2021, 13(4), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040782 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4443
Abstract
Chemotherapy, targeting not only malignant but also healthy cells, causes many undesirable side effects in cancer patients. Due to this fact, long-term cancer survivors often suffer from late effects, including cognitive impairment and cardiovascular toxicity. Chemotherapy damages the intestinal mucosa and heavily disrupts [...] Read more.
Chemotherapy, targeting not only malignant but also healthy cells, causes many undesirable side effects in cancer patients. Due to this fact, long-term cancer survivors often suffer from late effects, including cognitive impairment and cardiovascular toxicity. Chemotherapy damages the intestinal mucosa and heavily disrupts the gut ecosystem, leading to gastrointestinal toxicity. Animal models and clinical studies have revealed the associations between intestinal dysbiosis and depression, anxiety, pain, impaired cognitive functions, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a possible link between chemotherapy-induced gut microbiota disruption and late effects in cancer survivors has been proposed. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of preclinical and clinical findings regarding the emerging role of the microbiome and the microbiota–gut–brain axis in chemotherapy-related late effects affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and heart functions. Importantly, we provide an overview of clinical trials evaluating the relationship between the gut microbiome and cancer survivorship. Moreover, the beneficial effects of probiotics in experimental models and non-cancer patients with neurocognitive disorders and cardiovascular diseases as well as several studies on microbiota modulations via probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation in cancer patients are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 1086 KiB  
Review
Emerging Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Therapeutics for Prevention and Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy
Cancers 2021, 13(4), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040766 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4235
Abstract
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common adverse event of several first-line chemotherapeutic agents, including platinum compounds, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, thalidomide, and bortezomib, which negatively affects the quality of life and clinical outcome. Given the dearth of effective established agents for preventing or [...] Read more.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common adverse event of several first-line chemotherapeutic agents, including platinum compounds, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, thalidomide, and bortezomib, which negatively affects the quality of life and clinical outcome. Given the dearth of effective established agents for preventing or treating CIPN, and the increasing number of cancer survivors, there is an urgent need for the identification and development of new, effective intervention strategies that can prevent or mitigate this debilitating side effect. Prior failures in the development of effective interventions have been due, at least in part, to a lack of mechanistic understanding of CIPN and problems in translating this mechanistic understanding into testable hypotheses in rationally-designed clinical trials. Recent progress has been made, however, in the pathogenesis of CIPN and has provided new targets and pathways for the development of emerging therapeutics that can be explored clinically to improve the management of this debilitating toxicity. This review focuses on the emerging therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of CIPN, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies, and calls for fostering collaboration between basic and clinical researchers to improve the development of effective strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1368 KiB  
Review
Cardiovascular Health during and after Cancer Therapy
Cancers 2020, 12(12), 3737; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123737 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2861
Abstract
Certain cancer treatments have been linked to specific cardiovascular toxicities, including (but not limited to) cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, and myocarditis. Radiation, anthracyclines, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2)-directed therapies, fluoropyrimidines, platinums, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and proteasome inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, [...] Read more.
Certain cancer treatments have been linked to specific cardiovascular toxicities, including (but not limited to) cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, and myocarditis. Radiation, anthracyclines, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2)-directed therapies, fluoropyrimidines, platinums, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and proteasome inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and chimeric antigen-presenting (CAR)-T cell therapy can all cause cardiovascular side effects. Management of cardiovascular dysfunction that occurs during cancer therapy often requires temporary or permanent cessation of the risk-potentiating anti-neoplastic drug as well as optimization of medical management from a cardiovascular standpoint. Stem cell or bone marrow transplant recipients face unique cardiovascular challenges, as do patients at extremes of age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 1902 KiB  
Review
Living with Metastatic Cancer: A Roadmap for Future Research
Cancers 2020, 12(12), 3684; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123684 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4341
Abstract
Living with metastatic cancer, or metavivorship, differs from cancer survivorship and has changed as novel treatments have increased survival time. The purpose of this narrative review is to describe factors that impact challenges in metavivorship within a conceptual framework to guide future research. [...] Read more.
Living with metastatic cancer, or metavivorship, differs from cancer survivorship and has changed as novel treatments have increased survival time. The purpose of this narrative review is to describe factors that impact challenges in metavivorship within a conceptual framework to guide future research. This review focuses on the specific metavivorship outcomes of progressive disease, survival time, symptoms, distress, financial toxicity, and quality of life. We describe the predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating (3P) model of metavivorship. Understanding the biological, psychological, and social 3P factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of challenges in metavivorship provides a roadmap for future research. Implications of this model include prevention by targeting predisposing factors, management of precipitating factors after onset of metastatic disease, and treatment of perpetuating factors to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life during the chronic phase of metavivorship. This can be accomplished through biopsychosocial screening efforts, monitoring of patient-reported outcomes, education and communication interventions, interdisciplinary symptom management, advance care planning, and behavioral interventions to cultivate psychological resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1932 KiB  
Review
Osteoporosis: A Long-Term and Late-Effect of Breast Cancer Treatments
Cancers 2020, 12(11), 3094; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113094 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5604
Abstract
Osteoporosis is both a long-term effect (occurs during treatment and extends after treatment) and a late-effect (occurs after treatment ends) of breast cancer treatments. The worldwide prevalence of osteoporosis is estimated to be some 200 million patients. About one in three postmenopausal women [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is both a long-term effect (occurs during treatment and extends after treatment) and a late-effect (occurs after treatment ends) of breast cancer treatments. The worldwide prevalence of osteoporosis is estimated to be some 200 million patients. About one in three postmenopausal women will experience an osteoporotic (or fragility) fracture of the hip, spine, or wrist. breast cancer treatments, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure (CIOF), and aromatase inhibitors (AIs), cause bone loss and increase the risks of osteoporosis. Also, breast cancer is a disease of aging, and most of the “one in eight” lifetime risks of breast cancer are in women in their sixth, seventh, and eighth decades. The majority of women diagnosed with breast cancers today will be long-term survivors and experience personal cures. It is the coalescence of osteoporosis with breast cancer, two common and age-related conditions that make osteoporosis relevant in women with breast cancer throughout the continuum from diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. It is critical to remember that women (and men) will lose bone after age thirty years. However, only certain women will lose bone of sufficient magnitude to merit treatment with anti-osteoporosis drugs. The narrative review is intended for medical, surgical, radiation oncologists, and other mid-level providers, and provides an overview of bone loss and the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 719 KiB  
Review
Assessment and Management of Platinum-Related Ototoxicity in Children Treated for Cancer
Cancers 2020, 12(5), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051266 - 17 May 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 3720
Abstract
Platinum compounds are a group of chemotherapeutic agents included in many pediatric and adult oncologic treatment protocols. The main platinum compounds are cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin. Their use in clinical practice has greatly improved long-term survival of pediatric patients, but they also cause [...] Read more.
Platinum compounds are a group of chemotherapeutic agents included in many pediatric and adult oncologic treatment protocols. The main platinum compounds are cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin. Their use in clinical practice has greatly improved long-term survival of pediatric patients, but they also cause some toxic effects: ototoxicity, myelosuppression, nephrotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Hearing damage is one of the main toxic effects of platinum compounds, and it derives from the degeneration of hair cells of the ear, which, not having self-renewal capacity, cannot reconstitute themselves. Hearing loss from platinum exposure is typically bilateral, sensorineural, and permanent, and it is caused by the same mechanisms with which platinum acts on neoplastic cells. According to available data from the literature, the optimal timing for the audiological test during and after treatment with platinum compounds is not well defined. Moreover, no substances capable of preventing the onset of hearing loss have been identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Side Effects in Cancer Survivors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop