Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2019) | Viewed by 83023

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Special Issue Editor

School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, Derby DE22 3DT, UK
Interests: breast cancer; breast surgery; non-operative therapy; endocrine therapy; geriatric oncology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Treatment strategies for breast cancer are wide-ranging and often based on a multi-modality approach, depending on the stage and biology of the tumour and the acceptance and tolerance of the patient. They may include surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapy (endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy). Advances in technologies such as oncoplastic surgery, radiation planning and delivery, and genomics, and the development of novel systemic therapy agents alongside their evaluation in ongoing clinical trials continue to strive for improvements in outcomes.

In this Special Issue, we welcome submissions looking at all forms of therapeutic strategies for early and advanced breast cancer, focusing on their outcomes, notably survival. It is desirable that the evaluation of survival outcomes be made against other outcome measures, such as toxicity, cost-effectiveness, and quality of life.

Prof. Kwok-Leung Cheung
Guest Editor

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Breast cancer
  • early breast cancer
  • advanced breast cancer
  • surgery
  • radiotherapy
  • endocrine therapy
  • chemotherapy
  • targeted therapy
  • survival
  • toxicities
  • cost effectiveness
  • quality of life

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 188 KiB  
Editorial
Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer
Cancers 2020, 12(3), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030735 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Treatment strategies for breast cancer are wide-ranging and often based on a multi-modality approach, depending on the stage and biology of the tumour and the acceptance and tolerance of the patient [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

16 pages, 8796 KiB  
Article
Age-Related Biology of Early-Stage Operable Breast Cancer and Its Impact on Clinical Outcome
Cancers 2021, 13(6), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061417 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
As age advances, breast cancer (BC) tends to change its biological characteristics. This study aimed to explore the natural progression of such changes. The study included 2383 women with clinically T0-2N0-1M0 BC, managed by primary surgery and optimal adjuvant therapy in a dedicated [...] Read more.
As age advances, breast cancer (BC) tends to change its biological characteristics. This study aimed to explore the natural progression of such changes. The study included 2383 women with clinically T0-2N0-1M0 BC, managed by primary surgery and optimal adjuvant therapy in a dedicated BC facility. Tissue micro-arrays were constructed from their surgical specimens and indirect immunohistochemistry was used for analysis of a large panel (n = 16) of relevant biomarkers. There were significant changes in the pattern of expression of biomarkers related to luminal (oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptors (PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2), E-cadherin, MUC1, bcl2 CK7/8, CK18 and bcl2) and basal (CK5/6, CK14, p53 and Ki67) phenotypes, lymph node stage, histological grade and pathological size when decade-wise comparison was made (p < 0.05). The ages of 40 years and 70 years appeared to be the milestones marking a change of the pattern. There were significantly higher metastasis free and breast cancer specific survival rates among older women with ER positive tumours while there was no significant difference in the ER negative group according to age. Biological characteristics of BC show a pattern of change with advancing age, where 40 years and 70 years appear as important milestones. The pattern suggests <40 years as the phase with aggressive phenotypes, >70 years as the less aggressive phase and 40–70 years being the transitional phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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12 pages, 2096 KiB  
Article
Cytoplasmic Cyclin E Is an Independent Marker of Aggressive Tumor Biology and Breast Cancer-Specific Mortality in Women over 70 Years of Age
Cancers 2020, 12(3), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030712 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3169
Abstract
Multi-cohort analysis demonstrated that cytoplasmic cyclin E expression in primary breast tumors predicts aggressive disease. However, compared to their younger counterparts, older patients have favorable tumor biology and are less likely to die of breast cancer. Biomarkers therefore require interpretation in this specific [...] Read more.
Multi-cohort analysis demonstrated that cytoplasmic cyclin E expression in primary breast tumors predicts aggressive disease. However, compared to their younger counterparts, older patients have favorable tumor biology and are less likely to die of breast cancer. Biomarkers therefore require interpretation in this specific context. Here, we assess data on cytoplasmic cyclin E from a UK cohort of older women alongside a panel of >20 biomarkers. Between 1973 and 2010, 813 women ≥70 years of age underwent initial surgery for early breast cancer, from which a tissue microarray was constructed (n = 517). Biomarker expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Multivariate analysis of breast cancer-specific survival was performed using Cox’s proportional hazards. We found that cytoplasmic cyclin E was the only biological factor independently predictive of breast cancer-specific survival in this cohort of older women (hazard ratio (HR) = 6.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.93–20.14; p = 0.002). At ten years, 42% of older patients with cytoplasmic cyclin E-positive tumors had died of breast cancer versus 8% of negative cases (p < 0.0005). We conclude that cytoplasmic cyclin E is an exquisite marker of aggressive tumor biology in older women. Patients with cytoplasmic cyclin E-negative tumors are unlikely to die of breast cancer. These data have the potential to influence treatment strategy in older patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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14 pages, 2740 KiB  
Article
HDAC5 Inhibitors as a Potential Treatment in Breast Cancer Affecting Very Young Women
Cancers 2020, 12(2), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020412 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2670
Abstract
Background: Breast cancer in very young women (BCVY) defined as <35 years old, presents with different molecular biology than in older patients. High HDAC5 expression has been associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer (BC) tissue. We aimed to analyze HDAC5 expression in [...] Read more.
Background: Breast cancer in very young women (BCVY) defined as <35 years old, presents with different molecular biology than in older patients. High HDAC5 expression has been associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer (BC) tissue. We aimed to analyze HDAC5 expression in BCVY and older patients and their correlation with clinical features, also studying the potential of HDAC5 inhibition in BC cell lines. Methods: HDAC5 expression in 60 BCVY and 47 older cases were analyzed by qRT-PCR and correlated with clinical data. The effect of the HDAC5 inhibitor, LMK-235, was analyzed in BC cell lines from older and young patients. We performed time and dose dependence viability, migration, proliferation, and apoptosis assays. Results: Our results correlate higher HDAC5 expression with worse prognosis in BCVY. However, we observed no differences between HDAC5 expression and pathological features. Our results showed greatly reduced progression in BCVY cell lines and also in all triple negative subtypes when cell lines were treated with LMK-235. Conclusions: In BCVY, we found higher expression of HDAC5. Overexpression of HDAC5 in BCVY correlates with lower survival rates. LMK-235 could be a potential treatment in BCVY. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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17 pages, 1421 KiB  
Article
Should All Patients With HR-Positive HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer Receive CDK 4/6 Inhibitor As First-Line Based Therapy? A Network Meta-Analysis of Data from the PALOMA 2, MONALEESA 2, MONALEESA 7, MONARCH 3, FALCON, SWOG and FACT Trials
Cancers 2019, 11(11), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11111661 - 26 Oct 2019
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 6983
Abstract
Background: We aim to understand whether all patients with hormonal receptor (HR)-positive (+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-negative (−) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) should receive cyclin D-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor-based therapy as a first-line approach. Methods: A network meta-analysis (NMA) using [...] Read more.
Background: We aim to understand whether all patients with hormonal receptor (HR)-positive (+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-negative (−) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) should receive cyclin D-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor-based therapy as a first-line approach. Methods: A network meta-analysis (NMA) using the Bayesian hierarchical arm-based model, which provides the estimates for various effect sizes, were computed. Results: First-line treatment options in HR+/HER2− MBC, including CDK 4/6 inhibitors combined with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) or fulvestrant (F), showed a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) in comparison with AI monotherapy, with a total of 26% progression risk reduction. In the indirect comparison across the three classes of CDK 4/6 inhibitors and F endocrine-based therapies, the first strategy resulted in longer PFS, regardless of specific CDK 4/6 inhibitor (HR: 0.68; 95% CrI: 0.53–0.87 for palbociclib + AI, HR: 0.65; 95% CrI: 0.53–0.79 for ribociclib + AI, HR: 0.63; 95% CrI: 0.47–0.86 for abemaciclib + AI) and patient’s characteristics. Longer PFS was also found in patients with bone-only and soft tissues limited disease treated with CDK 4/6 inhibitors. Conclusions: CDK 4/6 inhibitors have similar efficacy when associated with an AI in the first-line treatment of HR+ MBC, and are superior to either F or AI monotherapy, regardless of any other patients or tumor characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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13 pages, 721 KiB  
Article
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Response to First-Line Treatment Predicts Survival in Metastatic Breast Cancer: First Clues for a Cost-Effective and Dynamic Biomarker
Cancers 2019, 11(9), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091243 - 24 Aug 2019
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 7738
Abstract
Background: Elevated plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are associated with worse prognosis in various malignancies, including metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Nevertheless, no data are available on the prognostic role of LDH as a dynamic biomarker during first-line treatment in unselected MBC. Methods: We [...] Read more.
Background: Elevated plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are associated with worse prognosis in various malignancies, including metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Nevertheless, no data are available on the prognostic role of LDH as a dynamic biomarker during first-line treatment in unselected MBC. Methods: We reviewed data of 392 women with MBC to evaluate the association between LDH variation after 12 weeks of first-line treatment and survival. The prognostic impact was tested by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: Plasmatic LDH was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor in MBC. Patients who maintained elevated LDH levels after 12 weeks of first-line treatment experienced worse progression-free survival (PFS, HR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.40–5.89, p = 0.0038) and overall survival (OS, HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.16–5.86, p = 0.02) compared to patients with stable normal LDH levels, even after adjustment for other prognostic factors. Notably, LDH low-to-high variation emerged as an unfavorable prognostic factor for PFS (HR 3.96, 95% CI 2.00–7.82, p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Plasmatic LDH and its variation during first-line treatment predict PFS and OS in MBC, providing independent prognostic information. It would be worthwhile to prospectively evaluate the association between LDH variation and therapeutic benefit in MBC, and explore how it may affect treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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15 pages, 3987 KiB  
Article
Trends in Overall Survival and Treatment Patterns in Two Large Population-Based Cohorts of Patients with Breast and Colorectal Cancer
Cancers 2019, 11(9), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091239 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2869
Abstract
Previous studies showed substantial improvement of survival rates in patients with cancer in the last two decades. However, lower survival rates have been reported for older patients compared to younger patients. In this population-based study, we analyzed treatment patterns and the survival of [...] Read more.
Previous studies showed substantial improvement of survival rates in patients with cancer in the last two decades. However, lower survival rates have been reported for older patients compared to younger patients. In this population-based study, we analyzed treatment patterns and the survival of patients with breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients with stages I–III BC and CRC and diagnosed between 2003 and 2012 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). Trends in treatment modalities were evaluated with the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Trends in five-year overall survival were calculated with the Cox hazard regression model. The Ederer II method was used to calculate the five-year relative survival. The relative excess risk of death (RER) was estimated using a multivariate generalized linear model. During the study period, 98% of BC patients aged <75 years underwent surgery, whereas for patients ≥75 years, rates were 79.3% in 2003 and 66.7% in 2012 (p < 0.001). Most CRC patients underwent surgery irrespective of age or time period, although patients with rectal cancer aged ≥75 years received less surgery or radiotherapy over the entire study period than younger patients. The administration of adjuvant chemotherapy increased over time for CRC and BC patients, except for BC patients aged ≥75 years. The five-year relative survival improved only in younger BC patients (adjusted RER 0.95–0.96 per year), and was lower for older BC patients (adjusted RER 1.00, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.98–1.02, and RER 1.00; 95% CI 0.98–1.01 per year for 65–74 years and ≥75 years, respectively). For CRC patients, the five-year relative survival improved over time for all ages (adjusted RER on average was 0.95 per year). In conclusion, the observed survival trends in BC and CRC patients suggest advances in cancer treatment, but with striking differences in survival between older and younger patients, particularly for BC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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15 pages, 1005 KiB  
Article
ERCC1 Is a Predictor of Anthracycline Resistance and Taxane Sensitivity in Early Stage or Locally Advanced Breast Cancers
Cancers 2019, 11(8), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11081149 - 10 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2880
Abstract
Genomic instability could be a beneficial predictor for anthracycline or taxane chemotherapy. We interrogated 188 DNA repair genes in the METABRIC cohort (n = 1980) to identify genes that influence overall survival (OS). We then evaluated the clinicopathological significance of ERCC1 in [...] Read more.
Genomic instability could be a beneficial predictor for anthracycline or taxane chemotherapy. We interrogated 188 DNA repair genes in the METABRIC cohort (n = 1980) to identify genes that influence overall survival (OS). We then evaluated the clinicopathological significance of ERCC1 in early stage breast cancer (BC) (mRNA expression (n = 4640) and protein level, n = 1650 (test set), and n = 252 (validation)) and in locally advanced BC (LABC) (mRNA expression, test set (n = 2340) and validation (TOP clinical trial cohort, n = 120); and protein level (n = 120)). In the multivariate model, ERCC1 was independently associated with OS in the METABRIC cohort. In ER+ tumours, low ERCC1 transcript or protein level was associated with increased distant relapse risk (DRR). In ER−tumours, low ERCC1 transcript or protein level was linked to decreased DRR, especially in patients who received anthracycline chemotherapy. In LABC patients who received neoadjuvant anthracycline, low ERCC1 transcript was associated with higher pCR (pathological complete response) and decreased DRR. However, in patients with ER−tumours who received additional neoadjuvant taxane, high ERCC1 transcript was associated with a higher pCR and decreased DRR. High ERCC1 transcript was also linked to decreased DRR in ER+ LABC that received additional neoadjuvant taxane. ERCC1 based stratification is an attractive strategy for breast cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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9 pages, 1328 KiB  
Article
APOBEC3B Gene Expression in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ and Synchronous Invasive Breast Cancer
Cancers 2019, 11(8), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11081062 - 27 Jul 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2796
Abstract
The underlying mechanism of the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a non-obligate precursor of invasive breast cancer (IBC), has yet to be elucidated. In IBC, Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing Enzyme, Catalytic Polypeptide-Like 3B (APOBEC3B) is upregulated in a substantial proportion of [...] Read more.
The underlying mechanism of the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a non-obligate precursor of invasive breast cancer (IBC), has yet to be elucidated. In IBC, Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing Enzyme, Catalytic Polypeptide-Like 3B (APOBEC3B) is upregulated in a substantial proportion of cases and is associated with higher mutational load and poor prognosis. However, APOBEC3B expression has never been studied in DCIS. We performed mRNA expression analysis of APOBEC3B in synchronous DCIS and IBC and surrounding normal cells. RNA was obtained from 53 patients. The tumors were categorized based on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide (PIK3CA) mutation status. APOBEC3B mRNA levels were measured by RT-qPCR. The expression levels of paired DCIS and adjacent IBC were compared, including subgroup analyses. The normal cells expressed the lowest levels of APOBEC3B. No differences in expression were found between DCIS and IBC. Subgroup analysis showed that APOBEC3B was the highest in the ER subgroups of DCIS and IBC. While there was no difference in APOBEC3B between wild-type versus mutated PIK3CA DCIS, APOBEC3B was higher in wild-type versus PIK3CA-mutated IBC. In summary, our data show that APOBEC3B is already upregulated in DCIS. This suggests that APOBEC3B could already play a role in early carcinogenesis. Since APOBEC3B is a gain-of-function mutagenic enzyme, patients could benefit from the therapeutic targeting of APOBEC3B in the early non-invasive stage of breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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10 pages, 472 KiB  
Article
Clinical Significance of Lymph-Node Ratio in Determining Supraclavicular Lymph-Node Radiation Therapy in pN1 Breast Cancer Patients Who Received Breast-Conserving Treatment (KROG 14-18): A Multicenter Study
Cancers 2019, 11(5), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050680 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3267
Abstract
This study evaluated the clinical significance of the lymph-node ratio (LNR) and its usefulness as an indicator of supraclavicular lymph-node radiation therapy (SCNRT) in pN1 breast cancer patients with disease-free survival (DFS) outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients with pN1 [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the clinical significance of the lymph-node ratio (LNR) and its usefulness as an indicator of supraclavicular lymph-node radiation therapy (SCNRT) in pN1 breast cancer patients with disease-free survival (DFS) outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients with pN1 breast cancer who underwent partial mastectomy and taxane-based sequential adjuvant chemotherapy with postoperative radiation therapy in 12 hospitals (n = 1121). We compared their DFS according to LNR, with a cut-off value of 0.10. The median follow-up period was 66 months (range, 3–112). Treatment failed in 73 patients (6.5%) and there was no significant difference in DFS between the SCNRT group and non-SCNRT group. High LNR (>0.10) showed significantly worse DFS in both univariate and multivariate analyses (0.010 and 0.033, respectively). In a subgroup analysis, the effect of SCNRT on DFS differed significantly among patients with LNR > 0.10 (p = 0.013). High LNR can be used as an independent prognostic factor for pN1 breast cancer patients treated with partial mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy. It may also be useful in deciding whether to perform SCNRT to improve DFS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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13 pages, 2212 KiB  
Article
Dasatinib Treatment Increases Sensitivity to c-Met Inhibition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Cancers 2019, 11(4), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040548 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4612
Abstract
In pre-clinical studies, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells have demonstrated sensitivity to the multi-targeted kinase inhibitor dasatinib; however, clinical trials with single-agent dasatinib showed limited efficacy in unselected populations of breast cancer, including TNBC. To study potential mechanisms of resistance to dasatinib in [...] Read more.
In pre-clinical studies, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells have demonstrated sensitivity to the multi-targeted kinase inhibitor dasatinib; however, clinical trials with single-agent dasatinib showed limited efficacy in unselected populations of breast cancer, including TNBC. To study potential mechanisms of resistance to dasatinib in TNBC, we established a cell line model of acquired dasatinib resistance (231-DasB). Following an approximately three-month exposure to incrementally increasing concentrations of dasatinib (200 nM to 500 nM) dasatinib, 231-DasB cells were resistant to the agent with a dasatinib IC50 value greater than 5 μM compared to 0.04 ± 0.001 µM in the parental MDA-MB-231 cells. 231-DasB cells also showed resistance (2.2-fold) to the Src kinase inhibitor PD180970. Treatment of 231-DasB cells with dasatinib did not inhibit phosphorylation of Src kinase. The 231-DasB cells also had significantly increased levels of p-Met compared to the parental MDA-MB-231 cells, as measured by luminex, and resistant cells demonstrated a significant increase in sensitivity to the c-Met inhibitor, CpdA, with an IC50 value of 1.4 ± 0.5 µM compared to an IC50 of 6.8 ± 0.2 µM in the parental MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment with CpdA decreased p-Met and p-Src in both 231-DasB and MDA-MB-231 cells. Combined treatment with dasatinib and CpdA significantly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 parental cells and prevented the emergence of dasatinib resistance. If these in vitro findings can be extrapolated to human cancer treatment, combined treatment with dasatinib and a c-Met inhibitor may block the development of acquired resistance and improve response rates to dasatinib treatment in TNBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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12 pages, 1100 KiB  
Article
Why Has Breast Cancer Screening Failed to Decrease the Incidence of de Novo Stage IV Disease?
Cancers 2019, 11(4), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040500 - 08 Apr 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3683
Abstract
Background: Despite screening mammography, the incidence of Stage IV breast cancer (BC) at diagnosis has not decreased over the past four decades. We previously found that many BCs are small due to favorable biology rather than early detection. This study compared the [...] Read more.
Background: Despite screening mammography, the incidence of Stage IV breast cancer (BC) at diagnosis has not decreased over the past four decades. We previously found that many BCs are small due to favorable biology rather than early detection. This study compared the biology of Stage IV cancers with that of small cancers typically found by screening. Methods: Trends in the incidence of localized, regional, and distant female BC were compared using SEER*Stat. The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was then queried for invasive cancers from 2010 to 2015, and patient/disease variables were compared across stages. Biological variables including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2), grade, and lymphovascular invasion were sorted into 48 combinations, from which three biological subtypes emerged: indolent, intermediate, and aggressive. The distributions of the subtypes were compared across disease stages. Multivariable regression assessed the association between Stage IV disease and biology. Results: SEER*Stat confirmed that the incidence of distant BC increased between 1973 and 2015 (annual percent change [APC] = 0.46). NCDB data on roughly 993,000 individuals showed that Stage IV disease at presentation is more common in young, black, uninsured women with low income/education and large, biologically aggressive tumors. The distribution of tumor biology varied by stage, with Stage IV disease including 37.6% aggressive and 6.0% indolent tumors, versus sub-centimeter Stage I disease that included 5.1% aggressive and 40.6% indolent tumors (p < 0.001). The odds of Stage IV disease presentation more than tripled for patients with aggressive tumors (OR3.2, 95% CI 3.0–3.5). Conclusions: Stage I and Stage IV breast cancers represent very different populations of biologic tumor types. This may explain why the incidence of Stage IV cancer has not decreased with screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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12 pages, 851 KiB  
Article
Impact of Overdiagnosis on Long-Term Breast Cancer Survival
Cancers 2019, 11(3), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11030325 - 07 Mar 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3683
Abstract
Elucidating whether and how long-term survival of breast cancer is mainly due to cure after early detection and effective treatment and therapy or overdiagnosis resulting from the widespread use of mammography provides a new insight into the role mammography plays in screening, surveillance, [...] Read more.
Elucidating whether and how long-term survival of breast cancer is mainly due to cure after early detection and effective treatment and therapy or overdiagnosis resulting from the widespread use of mammography provides a new insight into the role mammography plays in screening, surveillance, and treatment of breast cancer. Given information on detection modes, the impact of overdiagnosis due to mammography screening on long-term breast cancer survival was quantitatively assessed by applying a zero (cured or overdiagnosis)-inflated model design and analysis to a 15-year follow-up breast cancer cohort in Dalarna, Sweden. The probability for non-progressive breast cancer (the zero part) was 56.14% including the 44.34% complete cure after early detection and initial treatment and a small 11.80% overdiagnosis resulting from mammography screening program (8.94%) and high awareness (2.86%). The 15-year adjusted cumulative survival of breast cancer was dropped from 88.25% to 74.80% after correcting for the zero-inflated part of overdiagnosis. The present findings reveal that the majority of survivors among women diagnosed with breast cancer could be attributed to the cure resulting from mammography screening and accompanying effective treatment and therapy and only a small fraction of those were due to overdiagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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14 pages, 2118 KiB  
Article
Cell-Free DNA Variant Sequencing Using CTC-Depleted Blood for Comprehensive Liquid Biopsy Testing in Metastatic Breast Cancer
Cancers 2019, 11(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020238 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 6358
Abstract
Liquid biopsy analytes such as cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) exhibit great potential for personalized treatment. Since cfDNA and CTCs are considered to give additive information and blood specimens are limited, isolation of cfDNA and CTC in an “all from [...] Read more.
Liquid biopsy analytes such as cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) exhibit great potential for personalized treatment. Since cfDNA and CTCs are considered to give additive information and blood specimens are limited, isolation of cfDNA and CTC in an “all from one tube” format is desired. We investigated whether cfDNA variant sequencing from CTC-depleted blood (CTC-depl. B; obtained after positive immunomagnetic isolation of CTCs (AdnaTest EMT-2/Stem Cell Select, QIAGEN)) impacts the results compared to cfDNA variant sequencing from matched whole blood (WB). Cell-free DNA was isolated using matched WB and CTC-depl. B from 17 hormone receptor positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HR+/HER2−) metastatic breast cancer patients (QIAamp MinElute ccfDNA Kit, QIAGEN). Cell-free DNA libraries were constructed (customized QIAseq Targeted DNA Panel for Illumina, QIAGEN) with integrated unique molecular indices. Sequencing (on the NextSeq 550 platform, Illumina) and data analysis (Ingenuity Variant Analysis) were performed. RNA expression in CTCs was analyzed by multimarker quantitative PCR. Cell-free DNA concentration and size distribution in the matched plasma samples were not significantly different. Seventy percent of all variants were identical in matched WB and CTC-depl. B, but 115/125 variants were exclusively found in WB/CTC-depl. B. The number of detected variants per patient and the number of exclusively detected variants per patient in only one cfDNA source did not differ between the two matched cfDNA sources. Even the characteristics of the exclusively detected cfDNA variants in either WB or CTC-depl. B were comparable. Thus, cfDNA variants from matched WB and CTC-depl. B exhibited no relevant differences, and parallel isolation of cfDNA and CTCs from only 10 mL of blood in an “all from one tube” format was feasible. Matched cfDNA mutational and CTC transcriptional analyses might empower a comprehensive liquid biopsy analysis to enhance the identification of actionable targets for individual therapy strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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13 pages, 255 KiB  
Article
Mastectomy or Breast-Conserving Therapy for Early Breast Cancer in Real-Life Clinical Practice: Outcome Comparison of 7565 Cases
Cancers 2019, 11(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020160 - 31 Jan 2019
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 6672
Abstract
Although the organ preservation strategy by breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiation therapy (BCT) has revolutionized the treatment approach of early stage breast cancer (BC), the choice between treatment options in this setting can still vary according to patient preferences. The aim of [...] Read more.
Although the organ preservation strategy by breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiation therapy (BCT) has revolutionized the treatment approach of early stage breast cancer (BC), the choice between treatment options in this setting can still vary according to patient preferences. The aim of the present study was to compare the oncological outcome of mastectomy versus breast-conserving therapy in patients treated in a modern clinical setting outside of clinical trials. 7565 women diagnosed with early invasive BC (pT1/2pN0/1) between 1998 and 2014 were included in this study (median follow-up: 95.2 months). In order to reduce selection bias and confounding, a subgroup analysis of a matched 1:1 case-control cohort consisting of 1802 patients was performed (median follow-up 109.4 months). After adjusting for age, tumor characteristics and therapies, multivariable analysis for local recurrence-free survival identified BCT as an independent predictor for improved local control (hazard ratio [HR]:1.517; 95%confidence interval:1.092–2.108, p = 0.013) as compared to mastectomy alone in the matched cohort. Ten-year cumulative incidence (CI) of lymph node recurrences was 2.0% following BCT, compared to 5.8% in patients receiving mastectomy (p < 0.001). Similarly, 10-year distant-metastasis-free survival (89.4% vs. 85.5%, p = 0.013) was impaired in patients undergoing mastectomy alone. This translated into improved survival in patients treated with BCT (10-year overall survival (OS) estimates 85.3% vs. 79.3%, p < 0.001), which was also significant on multivariable analysis (p = 0.011). In conclusion, the present study showed that patients treated with BCS followed by radiotherapy had an improved outcome compared to radical mastectomy alone. Specifically, local control, distant control, and overall survival were significantly better using the conservative approach. Thus, as a result of the present study, physicians should encourage patients to receive BCS with radiotherapy rather than mastectomy, whenever it is medically feasible and appropriate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
17 pages, 3324 KiB  
Article
Liver Kinase B1—A Potential Therapeutic Target in Hormone-Sensitive Breast Cancer in Older Women
Cancers 2019, 11(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020149 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3757
Abstract
Background: The role of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a serine/threonine kinase, has been described in the development of PeutzJagher’s syndrome, where a proportion (~45%) of patients have developed breast cancer in their lifetime. Cell line studies have linked LKB1 with oestrogen receptors [...] Read more.
Background: The role of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a serine/threonine kinase, has been described in the development of PeutzJagher’s syndrome, where a proportion (~45%) of patients have developed breast cancer in their lifetime. Cell line studies have linked LKB1 with oestrogen receptors (ER) and with the Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway for energy metabolism. However, limited studies have investigated protein expression of LKB1 in tumour tissues and its intracellular relationships. This study aimed to investigate the intracellular molecular relationships of LKB1 in older women with early operable primary breast cancer and its correlation with long-term clinical outcome. Methods: Between 1973 and 2010, a consecutive series of 1758 older (≥70 years) women with T0-2N0-1M0 breast carcinoma were managed in a dedicated facility. Of these, 813 patients underwent primary surgery, and 575 had good quality tumour samples available for tissue microarray construction. LKB1 was assessed in 407 cases by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). Tumours with 30% or more of cells with cytoplasmic LKB1 expression were considered positive. LKB1 expression was compared with tumour size, histological grade, axillary lymph node stage, ER, PgR, EGFR, HER2, HER3, HER4, BRCA1&2, p53, Ki67, Bcl2, Muc1, E-Cadherin, CD44, basal (CK5, CK5/6, CK14 and CK17) and luminal (CK7/8, CK18 and CK19) cytokeratins, MDM2 and MDM4, and correlated with long-term clinical outcome. Results: Positive LKB1 expression was seen in 318 (78.1%) patients, and was significantly associated with high tumour grade, high Ki67, over-expression of HER2, VEGF, HER4, BRCA2, MDM2 and negative expression of CD44 (p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation with tumour size, axillary lymph node status, ER, PgR, p53, basal or luminal cytokeratins, Bcl2, Muc1, EGFR, HER3, MDM4, E-cadherin and BRCA1. LKB1 did not show any significant influence on survival in the overall population; however, in those patients receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy for ER positive tumours, those with positive LKB1 had significantly better 5-year breast cancer specific survival when compared to those without such expression (93% versus 74%, p = 0.03). Conclusion: LKB1 expression has shown association with poor prognostic factors in older women with breast cancer. However, LKB1 expression appears to be associated with better survival outcome among those patients receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy. Further research is required to explore its potential role as a therapeutic target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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13 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
Therapy Landscape in Patients with Metastatic HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: Data from the PRAEGNANT Real-World Breast Cancer Registry
Cancers 2019, 11(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11010010 - 21 Dec 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6728
Abstract
This study presents comprehensive real-world data on the use of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) therapies in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Specifically, it describes therapy patterns with trastuzumab (H), pertuzumab + trastuzumab (PH), lapatinib (L), and trastuzumab emtansine [...] Read more.
This study presents comprehensive real-world data on the use of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) therapies in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Specifically, it describes therapy patterns with trastuzumab (H), pertuzumab + trastuzumab (PH), lapatinib (L), and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). The PRAEGNANT study is a real-time, real-world registry for MBC patients. All therapy lines are documented. This analysis describes the utilization of anti-HER2 therapies as well as therapy sequences. Among 1936 patients in PRAEGNANT, 451 were HER2-positive (23.3%). In the analysis set (417 patients), 53% of whom were included in PRAEGNANT in the first-line setting, 241 were treated with H, 237 with PH, 85 with L, and 125 with T-DM1 during the course of their therapies. The sequence PH → T-DM1 was administered in 51 patients. Higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores, negative hormone receptor status, and visceral or brain metastases were associated with more frequent use of this therapy sequence. Most patients received T-DM1 after treatment with pertuzumab. Both novel therapies (PH and T-DM1) are utilized in a high proportion of HER2-positive breast cancer patients. As most patients receive T-DM1 after PH, real-world data may help to clarify whether the efficacy of this sequence is similar to that in the approval study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

19 pages, 258 KiB  
Review
Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy in Women with Unilateral Breast Cancer Who Are Genetic Carriers, Have a Strong Family History or Are just Young at Presentation
Cancers 2020, 12(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010140 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4393
Abstract
The uptake of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy is rising with increasing trends that are possibly highest in the USA. Whilst its role is generally accepted in carriers of recognized high-risk predisposition genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 when the affected individual is premenopausal, controversy [...] Read more.
The uptake of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy is rising with increasing trends that are possibly highest in the USA. Whilst its role is generally accepted in carriers of recognized high-risk predisposition genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 when the affected individual is premenopausal, controversy surrounds the benefit in less understood risk-profile clinical scenarios. This comprehensive review explores the current evidence underpinning the role of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and its impact on contralateral breast cancer risk and survival in three distinct at-risk groups affected by unilateral breast cancer: known genetic carriers, those with strong familial risk but no demonstrable genetic mutation and women who are of young age at presentation. The review supports the role of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in “high risk” groups where the evidence suggests a reduction in contralateral breast cancer risk. However, this benefit is less evident in women who are just young at presentation or those who have strong family history but no demonstrable genetic mutation. A multidisciplinary and personalized approach to support individuals in a shared-decision making process is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
19 pages, 3916 KiB  
Review
Exercise Intervention Improves Clinical Outcomes, but the “Time of Session” is Crucial for Better Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Cancers 2019, 11(5), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050706 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5193
Abstract
This study examined the effects of exercise intervention on the quality of life (QoL), social functioning (SF), and physical functioning (PF) of breast cancer survivors, and identified the responsible and optimal exercise characteristics for amelioration of outcomes. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that adopted [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of exercise intervention on the quality of life (QoL), social functioning (SF), and physical functioning (PF) of breast cancer survivors, and identified the responsible and optimal exercise characteristics for amelioration of outcomes. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that adopted exercise intervention and measured the QoL, SF, and PF of breast cancer patients were included. We used meta-analysis to calculate the pooled effect, and meta-regression to identify the responsible exercise characteristics (type, frequency, duration, and time). Subgroup analysis assessed the optimal “time of session” for an improved QoL. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool was used to determine the quality of studies. In the systematic review, we included 26 RCTs with a total of 1892 breast cancer patients, whilst 18 trials were considered for meta-analysis (exercise = 602; control = 603). The pooled effect showed that exercise intervention substantially improved the QoL (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.35; I2 = 61%; 95% confidence internal (CI): 0.15–0.54; p = 0.0004), SF (SMD = 0.20; I2 = 16%; 95% CI:0.08–0.32; p = 0.001), and PF (SMD = 0.32; I2 = 32%; 95% CI:0.20–0.44; p < 0.00001). Meta-regression analysis showed that improved QoL was associated (p = 0.041) with the “time of session”. More specifically, sessions conducted for medium-time (>45 to ≤60 min; p = 0.03) and longer-time (>60 to 90 min; p = 0.005) considerably improved the QoL, whilst shorter-time (≤45 min; p = 0.15) did not. To summarize, exercise interventions improved the QoL, SF, and PF of breast cancer survivors, where the “time of session” appeared to be crucial for an effective improvement in the QoL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer)
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