Perspectives on Immune Cells in Allergy and Inflammation

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 7344

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, School and Operative Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
Interests: mediators of inflammation, cytokines, and biomarkers of oxidative stress; immunosenescence; immunogenetics; epigenetics; application of machine learning and deep learning in various fields of medicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Center for Advanced Studies and Technology (CAST), G. d'Annunzio University, 66100 Chieti, Italy
Interests: immunotherapy; regulatory T cells; autophagy; cytokines; biologic drugs; metal allergy; nanotoxicology; immunotoxicology; respiratory and food allergy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit and School of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
Interests: immune system; allergy; cytokines; oxidative stress; inflammation; autoimmunity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Allergies and inflammation are two sides of the same coin, which is immune system activation. In most cases, inflammation is justified by a real and present danger. External agents, biological, chemical, and physical ones, can trigger immune system cells, which consequently trigger the inflammatory process. In this condition, cytokines, interleukins, and mediators are released. If our body fails to auto-limit this massive response, tissue damage can occur. Cell destruction amplifies proinflammatory mediator recruitment via the intervention of alarmins, danger signals usually situated in the cytoplasm. An auto-sustaining inflammatory loop is a concrete possibility. If this happens, there can be two scenarios: chronic immune-related diseases and allergies. Allergies, in fact, follow the same scheme, but the targets are different. Rhinitis, eczema, urticaria, asthma, and anaphylaxis are some of the results of immune system activation due to an external and usually inert agent. In some specific cases, the stimulus could belong to the subject itself configuring autoimmunity.

The aim of this Special Issue is to focus on the role of immune cells in the inflammatory process of either chronic immune-related diseases or allergies. The description and evaluation of the interaction between two or more cellular types belonging to the immune system will be appreciated, as well as the link with tissue damages resulting from inflammation.

Prof. Dr. Sebastiano Gangemi
Prof. Dr. Mario Di Gioacchino
Dr. Marco Casciaro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • immune system
  • inflammation
  • allergy
  • asthma
  • dermatitis
  • rhinitis
  • urticaria
  • autoimmune disease
  • interleukins
  • cytokines

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 4415 KiB  
Article
Molecular Basis of Plant Profilins’ Cross-Reactivity
by María G. Terán, Benjamín García-Ramírez, Israel Mares-Mejía, Enrique Ortega, Andrea O’Malley, Maksymilian Chruszcz and Adela Rodríguez-Romero
Biomolecules 2023, 13(4), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom13040608 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Profilins are ubiquitous allergens with conserved structural elements. Exposure to profilins from different sources leads to IgE-cross-reactivity and the pollen–latex–food syndrome. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that cross-react with plant profilins and block IgE-profilin interactions are relevant for diagnosis, epitope mapping, and specific immunotherapy. We [...] Read more.
Profilins are ubiquitous allergens with conserved structural elements. Exposure to profilins from different sources leads to IgE-cross-reactivity and the pollen–latex–food syndrome. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that cross-react with plant profilins and block IgE-profilin interactions are relevant for diagnosis, epitope mapping, and specific immunotherapy. We generated IgGs mAbs, 1B4, and 2D10, against latex profilin (anti-rHev b 8) that inhibit the interaction of IgE and IgG4 antibodies from sera of latex- and maize-allergic patients by 90% and 40%, respectively. In this study, we evaluated 1B4 and 2D10 recognition towards different plant profilins, and mAbs recognition of rZea m 12 mutants by ELISAs. Interestingly, 2D10 highly recognized rArt v 4.0101 and rAmb a 8.0101, and to a lesser extent rBet v 2.0101, and rFra e 2.2, while 1B4 showed recognition for rPhl p 12.0101 and rAmb a 8.0101. We demonstrated that residue D130 at the α-helix 3 in profilins, which is part of the Hev b 8 IgE epitope, is essential for the 2D10 recognition. The structural analysis suggests that the profilins containing E130 (rPhl p 12.0101, rFra e 2.2, and rZea m 12.0105) show less binding with 2D10. The distribution of negative charges on the profilins’ surfaces at the α-helices 1 and 3 is relevant for the 2D10 recognition, and that may be relevant to explain profilins’ IgE cross-reactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on Immune Cells in Allergy and Inflammation)
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18 pages, 3174 KiB  
Article
Specific Human Milk Oligosaccharides Differentially Promote Th1 and Regulatory Responses in a CpG-Activated Epithelial/Immune Cell Coculture
by Marit Zuurveld, Veronica Ayechu-Muruzabal, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen, Belinda van‘t Land and Linette E. M. Willemsen
Biomolecules 2023, 13(2), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom13020263 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2403
Abstract
Proper early life immune development creates a basis for a healthy and resilient immune system, which balances immune tolerance and activation. Deviations in neonatal immune maturation can have life-long effects, such as development of allergic diseases. Evidence suggests that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS) [...] Read more.
Proper early life immune development creates a basis for a healthy and resilient immune system, which balances immune tolerance and activation. Deviations in neonatal immune maturation can have life-long effects, such as development of allergic diseases. Evidence suggests that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS) possess immunomodulatory properties essential for neonatal immune maturation. To understand the immunomodulatory properties of enzymatic or bacterial produced HMOS, the effects of five HMOS (2′FL, 3FL, 3′SL, 6′SL and LNnT), present in human milk have been studied. A PBMC immune model, the IEC barrier model and IEC/PBMC transwell coculture models were used, representing critical steps in mucosal immune development. HMOS were applied to IEC cocultured with activated PBMC. In the presence of CpG, 2′FL and 3FL enhanced IFNγ (p < 0.01), IL10 (p < 0.0001) and galectin-9 (p < 0.001) secretion when added to IEC; 2′FL and 3FL decreased Th2 cell development while 3FL enhanced Treg polarization (p < 0.05). IEC were required for this 3FL mediated Treg polarization, which was not explained by epithelial-derived galectin-9, TGFβ nor retinoic acid secretion. The most pronounced immunomodulatory effects, linking to enhanced type 1 and regulatory mediator secretion, were observed for 2′FL and 3FL. Future studies are needed to further understand the complex interplay between HMO and early life mucosal immune development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on Immune Cells in Allergy and Inflammation)
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Review

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31 pages, 2537 KiB  
Review
Harnessing Unconventional T Cells and Innate Lymphoid Cells to Prevent and Treat Hematological Malignancies: Prospects for New Immunotherapy
by Alessandro Allegra, Marco Casciaro, Elena Lo Presti, Caterina Musolino and Sebastiano Gangemi
Biomolecules 2022, 12(6), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12060754 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2954
Abstract
Unconventional T cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) make up a heterogeneous set of cells that characteristically show prompt responses toward specific antigens. Unconventional T cells recognize non-peptide antigens, which are bound and presented by diverse non-polymorphic antigen-presenting molecules and comprise γδ T [...] Read more.
Unconventional T cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) make up a heterogeneous set of cells that characteristically show prompt responses toward specific antigens. Unconventional T cells recognize non-peptide antigens, which are bound and presented by diverse non-polymorphic antigen-presenting molecules and comprise γδ T cells, MR1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAITs), and natural killer T cells (NKTs). On the other hand, ILCs lack antigen-specific receptors and act as the innate counterpart to the T lymphocytes found in the adaptive immune response. The alteration of unconventional T cells and ILCs in frequency and functionality is correlated with the onset of several autoimmune diseases, allergy, inflammation, and tumor. However, depending on the physio-pathological framework, unconventional T cells may exhibit either protective or pathogenic activity in a range of neoplastic diseases. Nonetheless, experimental models and clinical studies have displayed that some unconventional T cells are potential therapeutic targets, as well as prognostic and diagnostic markers. In fact, cell-mediated immune response in tumors has become the focus in immunotherapy against neoplastic disease. This review concentrates on the present knowledge concerning the function of unconventional T cell sets in the antitumor immune response in hematological malignancies, such as acute and chronic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that modulating the activity of unconventional T cells could be useful in the treatment of hematological neoplasms, in the prevention of specific conditions (such as graft versus host disease), and in the formulation of an effective anticancer vaccine therapy. The exact knowledge of the role of these cells could represent the prerequisite for the creation of a new form of immunotherapy for hematological neoplasms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on Immune Cells in Allergy and Inflammation)
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