Bionanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization, Toxicity and Biomedical Applications Volume II

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X). This special issue belongs to the section "Biological and Bio- Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2024 | Viewed by 5295

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: carbon nanotubes; liver fibrosis; oxidative stress; nanomaterials’ toxicity; natural compounds; the involvement of oxidative stress; inflammation; apoptosis; autophagy as mechanisms of cell death exposed to bionanomaterials
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Guest Editor
Physiology Department, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400347 Cluj Napoca, Romania
Interests: the photo chemopreventive effect of natural compounds and nanomaterials phyto-reduced with natural extracts in skin tumors; the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effect of gold and silver nanoparticles and signaling pathways involved in oral carcinogenesis; cytotoxicity of synthetic compounds and natural extracts on fibroblasts and stem cells from the dental follicle; photodynamic therapy in experimental tumors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For the past decade, nanomaterials have been a topic of interest not only for fundamental research, but also for the development of new technologies. The core reason for the scientific world’s interest regarding nanomaterials is their special properties, which make them promising materials for new applications. In addition to the natural sources of nanoparticles, nanomaterials have been engineered as tools for obtaining certain required properties in order to develop advanced nanotechnologies.

This Special Issue aims to highlight the properties of new synthesized bionanomaterials, their impact—including toxicity aspects—on living organisms and environment, and the possibility of the modulation of their toxicity through “green synthesis”, with the biomedical applications of these materials as an aim. We encourage all researchers interested in this topic to present research articles or reviews concerning bionanomaterials that can be considered attractive for fundamental study and for potential new applications in medicine and biology. This Special Issue can include articles concerning the synthesis and characterization of new bionanomaterials, the modulation of nanomaterials’ toxicity, in vitro and in vivo assessment of nanomaterials’ impact on living organisms, in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of nanomaterials’ toxicity, biological implications of nanomaterials’ toxicity, biomedical applications of bionanomaterials, the role of new nanomaterials as diagnostic and therapeutic platforms, and the involvement of bionanomaterials in carcinogenesis, wound healing, metabolic and endothelial dysfunction, dental and skin pathology, immnunomodulation, ischemia-reperfusion injury, age-related diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and neuroprotection. 

Prof. Dr. Simona Clichici
Prof. Dr. Adriana Gabriela Filip
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomolecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • nano-alloys
  • graphene
  • nanotubes
  • hybrid nanomaterials
  • green synthesis
  • cytotoxicity
  • systemic toxicity
  • modulation of the biological impact
  • nanomaterials as diagnostic and therapeutic platforms
  • potential applications in medicine

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 4881 KiB  
Article
Biological Synthesis, Characterization, and Therapeutic Potential of S. commune-Mediated Gold Nanoparticles
by Yaser E. Alqurashi, Sami G. Almalki, Ibrahim M. Ibrahim, Aisha O. Mohammed, Amal E. Abd El Hady, Mehnaz Kamal, Faria Fatima and Danish Iqbal
Biomolecules 2023, 13(12), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom13121785 - 13 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Green-synthesized gold nanoparticles demonstrate several therapeutic benefits due to their safety, non-toxicity, accessibility, and ecological acceptance. In our study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were created using an extracellular extract from the fungus Schizophyllum commune (S. commune). The reaction color was observed to [...] Read more.
Green-synthesized gold nanoparticles demonstrate several therapeutic benefits due to their safety, non-toxicity, accessibility, and ecological acceptance. In our study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were created using an extracellular extract from the fungus Schizophyllum commune (S. commune). The reaction color was observed to be a reddish pink after a 24 h reaction, demonstrating the synthesis of the nanoparticles. The myco-produced nanoparticles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and UV–visible spectroscopy. The TEM pictures depicted sphere-like shapes with sizes ranging from 60 and 120 nm, with an average diameter of 90 nm, which is in agreement with the DLS results. Furthermore, the efficiency of the AuNPs’ antifungal and cytotoxic properties, as well as their production of intracellular ROS, was evaluated. Our findings showed that the AuNPs have strong antifungal effects against Trichoderma sp. and Aspergillus flavus at increasing doses. Additionally, the AuNPs established a dose-dependent activity against human alveolar basal epithelial cells with adenocarcinoma (A549), demonstrating the potency of synthesized AuNPs as a cytotoxic agent. After 4 h of incubation with AuNPs, a significant increase in intracellular ROS was observed in cancer cells. Therefore, these metallic AuNPs produced by fungus (S. commune) can be used as an effective antifungal, anticancer, and non-toxic immunomodulatory delivery agent. Full article
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16 pages, 4982 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Material Based on Vaccinium myrtillus L. Extract and Gold Nanoparticles Reduces Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hepatic Stellate Cells Exposed to TGF-β
by Mara Filip, Ioana Baldea, Luminita David, Bianca Moldovan, Gabriel Cristian Flontas, Sergiu Macavei, Dana Maria Muntean, Nicoleta Decea, Adrian Bogdan Tigu and Simona Valeria Clichici
Biomolecules 2023, 13(8), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom13081271 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
(1) Background: The study aimed to investigate the impact of gold nanoparticles capped with Cornus sanguinea (NPCS) and mixed with a fruit extract (Vaccinum myrtillus L.—VL) on human hepatic stellate cells (LX-2) exposed to TGF-β. (2) Methods: NPCS were characterized by UV-Vis, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The study aimed to investigate the impact of gold nanoparticles capped with Cornus sanguinea (NPCS) and mixed with a fruit extract (Vaccinum myrtillus L.—VL) on human hepatic stellate cells (LX-2) exposed to TGF-β. (2) Methods: NPCS were characterized by UV-Vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The cytotoxic effects of VL, NPCS and of the hybrid compounds obtained by mixing the two components in variable proportions (NPCS-VL) were assessed. LDH activity, MDA levels, secretion of inflammation markers, the expression of fibrogenesis markers and collagen I synthesis were estimated after treating the cells with a mixture of 25:25 μg/mL NPCS and VL. (3) Results: TEM analysis showed that NPCS had spherical morphology and homogenous distribution, while their formation and elemental composition were confirmed by XRD and EDX analysis. TGF-β increased cell membrane damage as well as secretion of IL-1β, IL-1α and TLR4. It also amplified the expression of α-SMA and type III collagen and induced collagen I deposition. NPCS administration reduced the inflammation caused by TGF-β and downregulated α-SMA expression. VL diminished LDH activity and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The NPCS-VL mixture maintained IL-1β, IL-1α, TLR4 and LDH at low levels after TGF-β exposure, but it enhanced collagen III expression. (4) Conclusions: The mixture of NPCS and VL improved cell membrane damage and inflammation triggered by TGF-β and mitigated collagen I deposition, but it increased the expression of collagen III, suggestive of a fibrogenetic effect of the hybrid material. Full article
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26 pages, 4509 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Polyhydroxyalkanoate/Graphene Oxide/Nanoclay Bionanocomposites: Experimental Results and Theoretical Predictions via Machine Learning Models
by Elizabeth Champa-Bujaico, Ana M. Díez-Pascual and Pilar García-Díaz
Biomolecules 2023, 13(8), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom13081192 - 30 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Predicting the mechanical properties of multiscale nanocomposites requires simulations that are costly from a practical viewpoint and time consuming. The use of algorithms for property prediction can reduce the extensive experimental work, saving time and costs. To assess this, ternary poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)-based bionanocomposites [...] Read more.
Predicting the mechanical properties of multiscale nanocomposites requires simulations that are costly from a practical viewpoint and time consuming. The use of algorithms for property prediction can reduce the extensive experimental work, saving time and costs. To assess this, ternary poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)-based bionanocomposites reinforced with graphene oxide (GO) and montmorillonite nanoclay were prepared herein via an environmentally friendly electrochemical process followed by solution casting. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of different Machine Learning (ML) models, namely Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Decision Tree (DT), and Support Vector Machine (SVM), in predicting their mechanical properties. The algorithms’ input data were the Young’s modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break for various concentrations of the nanofillers (GO and nanoclay). The correlation coefficient (R2), mean absolute error (MAE), and mean square error (MSE) were used as statistical indicators to assess the performance of the models. The results demonstrated that ANN and SVM are useful for estimating the Young’s modulus and elongation at break, with MSE values in the range of 0.64–1.0% and 0.14–0.28%, respectively. On the other hand, DT was more suitable for predicting the tensile strength, with the indicated error in the range of 0.02–9.11%. This study paves the way for the application of ML models as confident tools for predicting the mechanical properties of polymeric nanocomposites reinforced with different types of nanofiller, with a view to using them in practical applications such as biomedicine. Full article
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17 pages, 7231 KiB  
Article
Biosynthesis, Spectrophotometric Follow-Up, Characterization, and Variable Antimicrobial Activities of Ag Nanoparticles Prepared by Edible Macrofungi
by Mohamed S. Youssef, Sanaa Ibrahim Ahmed, Ibrahim M. A. Mohamed and Marwa M. Abdel-Kareem
Biomolecules 2023, 13(7), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom13071102 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1281
Abstract
The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) could play a significant role in the development of commercial antimicrobials. Herein, the biosynthesis of Ag NPs was studied using the edible mushroom Pleurotus floridanus, and following its formation, spectrophotometry was used to detect the best [...] Read more.
The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) could play a significant role in the development of commercial antimicrobials. Herein, the biosynthesis of Ag NPs was studied using the edible mushroom Pleurotus floridanus, and following its formation, spectrophotometry was used to detect the best mushroom content, pH, temperature, and silver concentration. After that, the morphology was described via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nanoscale-size particles were found ranging from 11 to 13 nm. The best conditions of Ag content and pH were found at 1.0 mM and 11.0, respectively. In addition, the best mushroom extract concentration was found at 30 g/L. According to XRD analysis, the crystal structure of the formed amorphous Ag NPs is cubic with a space group of fm-3m and a space group number of 225. After that, the function groups at the surface of the prepared Ag NPs were studied via FTIR analysis, which indicated the presence of C=O, C-H, and O-H groups. These groups could indicate the presence of mushroom traces in the Ag NPs, which was confirmed via the amorphous characteristics of Ag NPs from the XRD analysis. The prepared Ag NPs have a high impact against different microorganisms, which could be attributed to the ability of Ag NPs to penetrate the cell bacterial wall. Full article
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