Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications

A special issue of Actuators (ISSN 2076-0825).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 23597

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
IHA-Innovative Hydraulics and Automation, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland
Interests: electro-hydraulics; electro-mechanical actuators; zonal hydraulics; direct-driven hydraulics; off-road machinery; efficiency; simulations; AI-based condition monitoring; reliability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Contributions from all fields related to actuation and control in heavy-duty applications are welcome to this Special Issue, particularly the following:

  • Twin transition technologies (zero-emission, digitalization, decarbonization, etc.);
  • Novel drives, transmissions, and actuators;
  • Efficient and intelligent components and systems (control, design, simulation, modeling, etc.);
  • Predictive analytics (monitoring, diagnosis, etc.);
  • Noise and vibration;
  • Digital and switched fluid power systems;
  • Functional safety and safety of intended functions.

On behalf of the Actuators journal, I invite you to consider this Special Issue as an excellent platform to disseminate your research results in the field of fluid power. I look forward to receiving your submissions.

As an open access journal, Actuators has an Article Processing Charge (APC) of 1800 CHF for accepted papers. The SICFP23 conference participants will receive a 50% discount on the publishing fees.

Sincerely,

Prof. Dr. Tatiana Minav
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Actuators is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • off-road machinery, heavy-duty robotics, efficiency, energy balance, losses
  • linear hydraulic actuation, self-contained hydraulic drives, throttles actuation, electro-hydrostatic actuators, electro-mechanical actuator, hydraulic actuators based on digital hydraulics
  • control, automation, functional safety, condition monitoring, predictive maintenance

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 6460 KiB  
Article
Hydraulic Hybrid Cut-to-Length Forest Harvester—Evaluation of Effects on Productivity and Fuel Efficiency
by Kalle Einola and Aleksi Kivi
Actuators 2024, 13(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13040126 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 523
Abstract
A cut-to-length (CTL) forest harvester is a purpose-built, hydraulically actuated mobile work machine used for felling, delimbing, and cross-cutting trees into dimensions and assortments. In such a machine, the diesel engine load is known to fluctuate greatly over the work cycle. To manage [...] Read more.
A cut-to-length (CTL) forest harvester is a purpose-built, hydraulically actuated mobile work machine used for felling, delimbing, and cross-cutting trees into dimensions and assortments. In such a machine, the diesel engine load is known to fluctuate greatly over the work cycle. To manage these changing power demands, a hydraulic hybrid system is implemented into a full-scale proof-of-concept machine to discover its functionality and to collect experimental results in real operating conditions. The hydraulic hybrid system installed on a CTL harvester machine was tuned to enable the collection of two actual datasets of timber harvesting, and data collection over a period of production use was carried out. In addition to updating the state-of-the-art research into heavy non-road mobile machinery regarding hybrid systems, this paper discusses the two tests carried out in actual production conditions with the studied hydraulic hybrid system. The adaptations and modifications to the studied and tested system since earlier papers are discussed—especially the improvements in the system dynamics and response as well as the control of the hybrid system. In conclusion, the tested system can be said to operate satisfactorily and shows clear advantages over the conventional system, even though it still has some limitations. The results show that the system has the potential to increase the productivity of the machine through the demonstrated higher peak power, as well as showing improvement in fuel efficiency under highly fluctuating loads, especially with heavy or large-volume tree stems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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13 pages, 2446 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of Hydrostatic Transmission in Community Wind Turbines
by Yingkun Sheng, Daniel Escobar-Naranjo and Kim A. Stelson
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110426 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
This study investigates the potential improvement of a community wind turbine through replacing the conventional drivetrain with a hydrostatic transmission (HST). Conventional wind turbines use a fixed-ratio gearbox, a variable-speed induction generator, and power electronics to match the grid frequency. Because of unsteady [...] Read more.
This study investigates the potential improvement of a community wind turbine through replacing the conventional drivetrain with a hydrostatic transmission (HST). Conventional wind turbines use a fixed-ratio gearbox, a variable-speed induction generator, and power electronics to match the grid frequency. Because of unsteady wind, the reliability of the gearbox has been a major issue. An HST, a continuously variable transmission with a high power density, can replace a conventional transmission. The resulting wind turbine has the potential to offer the advantages of a lower cost, decreased weight, and increased reliability. For the application considered in this study, the main source of LCOE increase is due to the inefficiencies in the system. Even if the cost of the proposed HST transmission is free, because of inefficiency, the levelized cost of electricity will be higher than for a turbine with a conventional fixed-ratio gearbox. For the HST solution to be cost-competitive, increases in efficiency and reductions in cost are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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20 pages, 9136 KiB  
Article
Digitalization of Radial Piston Pumps through Internal Mechanically Actuated Designs
by Keith Pate, Israa Azzam, Farid Breidi, James R. Marschand and John H. Lumkes
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110425 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Digital hydraulics is a technology gaining perceptible growth in fluid power research. The advantages of digital fluid power systems can be realized through improved system efficiencies, energy savings, increased productivity, and system performance compared to traditional fluid power systems. Conventional check valve pumps [...] Read more.
Digital hydraulics is a technology gaining perceptible growth in fluid power research. The advantages of digital fluid power systems can be realized through improved system efficiencies, energy savings, increased productivity, and system performance compared to traditional fluid power systems. Conventional check valve pumps use differential pressures to deliver pressurized flow to the system. Digital fluid power pumps enable conventional check valve pumps to achieve variable displacements by enhancing the controllability of the inlet and outlet valves through digital hydraulic technologies and techniques. The benefit of this technology is the use of positive sealing check valves with lower leakage losses compared to typical variable displacement pumps, increasing the unit’s overall efficiency. The primary focus of prior digital pump/motor research has been on digital actuation using electronic solenoids to actuate or latch the valves. While these electrical systems provide a platform for digital hydraulic techniques, they come with a cost: added energy sources, advanced controls, and expensive data acquisition systems. Research has also shown that minor valve timing inconsistencies can limit the potential energy savings of digital pumps in electrically actuated systems. A system configuration that promotes the advantages of digital hydraulics while mitigating the disadvantages associated with electrical systems is mechanically actuated systems. This work discusses variable cams and their advantages/disadvantages in digital radial piston pump/motor technologies. The significance of this work is the investigation of the digitalization of radial piston pumps through mechanically actuated valving systems, which has yet to be implemented in prior research. This paper evaluates various design concepts for commercializing digital radial piston pumps using mechanically actuated cams. A two-quadrant pump and a four-quadrant pump/motor design are simulated to assess their potential efficiency across the bandwidth of their displacement. The results show that the two systems can achieve relatively high efficiencies across their displacement bandwidth but show room for further improvement by optimizing these systems. This study is the first step in designing an integrated mechanically actuated variable cam system in digital radial piston pumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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22 pages, 10971 KiB  
Article
Automatic Estimation of Excavator’s Actual Productivity in Trenching and Grading Operations Using Building Information Modeling (BIM)
by Amirmasoud Molaei, Antti Kolu, Niko Haaraniemi and Marcus Geimer
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110423 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1359
Abstract
This paper discusses the excavator’s actual productivity in trenching and grading operations. In these tasks, the quantity of material moved is not significant; precision within specified tolerances is the key focus. The manual methods for productivity estimation and progress monitoring of these operations [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the excavator’s actual productivity in trenching and grading operations. In these tasks, the quantity of material moved is not significant; precision within specified tolerances is the key focus. The manual methods for productivity estimation and progress monitoring of these operations are highly time-consuming, costly, error-prone, and labor-intensive. An automatic method is required to estimate the excavator’s productivity in the operations. Automatic productivity tracking aids in lowering time, fuel, and operational expenses. It also enhances planning, detects project problems, and boosts management and financial performance. The productivity definitions for trenching and grading operations are the trench’s length per unit of time and graded area per unit of time, respectively. In the proposed techniques, a grid-based height map (2.5D map) from working areas is obtained using a Livox Horizon® light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor and localization data from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and inertial measurement units (IMUs). Additionally, building information modeling (BIM) is utilized to acquire information regarding the target model and required accuracy. The productivity is estimated using the map comparison between the working areas and the desired model. The proposed method is implemented on a medium-rated excavator operated by an experienced operator in a private worksite. The results show that the method can effectively estimate productivity and monitor the development of operations. The obtained information can guide managers to track the productivity of each individual machine and modify planning and time scheduling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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15 pages, 2794 KiB  
Article
Concept Evaluation for the Establishment of a Firm End-Stop Feeling in an Asymmetric Hydraulic Steering Unit
by Emil N. Olesen, Torben O. Andersen and Henrik C. Pedersen
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110420 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1116
Abstract
Danfoss Power Solutions Aps has a product line focusing on hydraulic steering units for heavy-duty machines. The focus of this paper is on the end-stop torque encountered by the operator for a new asymmetrical hydraulic steering unit, referred to as sSteer. This hydraulically [...] Read more.
Danfoss Power Solutions Aps has a product line focusing on hydraulic steering units for heavy-duty machines. The focus of this paper is on the end-stop torque encountered by the operator for a new asymmetrical hydraulic steering unit, referred to as sSteer. This hydraulically asymmetric concept increases the steering responsiveness between the steering wheel input and the output. However, compared to traditional hydraulic steering units, the asymmetrical design has a drawback regarding the level of end-stop torque felt by the operator when reaching the left-side end stop. This paper investigates three different concepts for improving/increasing the end-stop torque, namely, including a bleed orifice, removing a set of suction valves, and a solution with pre-tensioned suction valves and tank line. During the investigations, these concepts were compared and benchmarked using experimental data to identify advantages and disadvantages. Based on the investigations, it is concluded that the concept with pre-tensioned suction valves and a pressurized tank line ensures the best compromise between the different design requirements and the establishment of a firm end-stop feeling for the operator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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21 pages, 10401 KiB  
Article
Mixed Reality: A Tool for Investigating the Complex Design and Mechanisms of a Mechanically Actuated Digital Pump
by Israa Azzam, Keith Pate, Farid Breidi, Minsoo Choi, Yeling Jiang and Christos Mousas
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110419 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Digital hydraulics is a discrete technology that integrates advanced dynamic system controls, digital electronics, and machine learning to enhance fluid power systems’ performance, overall efficiency, and controllability. A mechanically actuated inline three-piston variable displacement digital pump was previously proposed and designed. The inline [...] Read more.
Digital hydraulics is a discrete technology that integrates advanced dynamic system controls, digital electronics, and machine learning to enhance fluid power systems’ performance, overall efficiency, and controllability. A mechanically actuated inline three-piston variable displacement digital pump was previously proposed and designed. The inline three-piston pump incorporates complex mechanical and hydraulic subsystems and highly coupled mechanisms. The complexity of the utilized subsystems poses challenges when assessing the viability of the conceptual design. Therefore, this work focuses on designing, developing, and implementing a collaborative virtual platform involving a digitized module showcasing the internal mechanical structure of the digital pump utilizing mixed reality (MR) technology. MR technology is acknowledged as the forthcoming evolution of the human–machine interface in the real–virtual environment utilizing computers and wearables. This technology permits running simulations that examine the complexity of highly coupled systems, like the digital pump, where understanding the physical phenomenon is far too intricate. The developed MR platform permits multiple users to collaborate in a synchronized immersive MR environment to study and analyze the applicability of the pump’s design and the adequacy of the operated mechanisms. The collaborative MR platform was designed and developed on the Unity game engine, employing Microsoft Azure and Photon Unity Networking to set up the synchronized MR environment. The platform involves a fully interactive virtual module on the digital pump design, developed in multiple stages using Microsoft’s Mixed Reality Tool Kit (MRTK) for Unity and deployed in the synchronized MR environment through a HoloLens 2 MR headset. A research study involving 71 participants was carried out at Purdue University. The study’s objective was to explore the impact of the collaborative MR environment on understanding the complexity and operation of the digital pump. It also sought to assess the effectiveness of MR in facilitating collaboration among fluid power stakeholders in a synchronized digital reality setting to study, diagnose, and control their complex systems. Surveys were designed and completed by all 71 participants after experiencing the MR platform. The results indicate that approximately 75% of the participants expressed positive attitudes toward their overall MR platform experience, with particular appreciation for its immersive nature and the synchronized collaborative environment it provided. More than 70% of the participants agreed that the pump’s collaborative MR platform was essential for studying and understanding the complexity and intricacy of the digital pump’s mechanical structure. Overall, the results demonstrate that the MR platform effectively facilitates the visualization of the complex pump’s internal structure, inspection of the assembly of each of the involved subsystems, and testing the applicability of the complicated mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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16 pages, 11314 KiB  
Article
Load Emulation with Independent Metering for a Pump Test Bench
by Max Pfizenmaier, Thomas Pippes, Artur Bohr and Jens Falkenstein
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110413 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1319
Abstract
For the investigation of new types of internal gear pumps under realistic conditions, a test bench is presented that enables dynamic load emulation via the pressure with simultaneous dynamic speed control of the pump. For pressure control, a hydraulic half-bridge with separate control [...] Read more.
For the investigation of new types of internal gear pumps under realistic conditions, a test bench is presented that enables dynamic load emulation via the pressure with simultaneous dynamic speed control of the pump. For pressure control, a hydraulic half-bridge with separate control edges is used on both sides of the pump and a pressure control is presented. An error-based adaptive controller is used for pressure control and tested experimentally. It is shown that the error-based adaptive controller has a better performance compared to a simple PID control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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26 pages, 6639 KiB  
Article
High-Precision and Modular Decomposition Control for Large Hydraulic Manipulators
by Ruqi Ding, Zichen Liu, Gang Li and Zhikai Deng
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110405 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1183
Abstract
It is difficult to achieve a high-precision motion control in hydraulic manipulators due to their structural redundancy, strong coupling of closed-chain structures, and flow–pressure coupling. In this paper, a high-precision motion control method for hydraulic manipulators is proposed based on the traditional virtual [...] Read more.
It is difficult to achieve a high-precision motion control in hydraulic manipulators due to their structural redundancy, strong coupling of closed-chain structures, and flow–pressure coupling. In this paper, a high-precision motion control method for hydraulic manipulators is proposed based on the traditional virtual decomposition control (VDC). The method proposed avoids an excessive virtual decomposition of the hydraulic manipulator and requires fewer model parameters than the traditional VDC. Further, the control precision improved by combining an adaptive real-time update of the inertial parameters. Compared with MBC, the proposed control method improved the motion accuracy of the hydraulic manipulator by more than 40% and 20% under elliptical and triangular trajectories. The simulation results showed that the proposed control method reduced the maximum position errors in Cartesian space by 90.4%, 86.8%, 23.6%, and 44.3% compared with PID and model-based control (MBC) in the absence of disturbances. The maximum position error in Cartesian space was reduced by 76.5% compared with that of MBC in a simulation with external disturbances. It can be seen from all the simulation results that with the proposed control method, the position error of the manipulator was less than 50 mm. The proposed control method effectively improved the motion precision of the examined hydraulic manipulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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16 pages, 4658 KiB  
Article
A New Approach to Study the Effect of Complexity on an External Gear Pump Model to Generate Data Source for AI-Based Condition Monitoring Application
by Abid Abdul Azeez, Pietro Mazzei, Tatiana Minav, Emma Frosina and Adolfo Senatore
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110401 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1369
Abstract
The external gear pump, like any other hydraulic component, is vulnerable to failure, which may lead to downtime as well as the failure of other components linked to it, thereby causing production loss. Therefore, establishing a condition monitoring system is crucial in identifying [...] Read more.
The external gear pump, like any other hydraulic component, is vulnerable to failure, which may lead to downtime as well as the failure of other components linked to it, thereby causing production loss. Therefore, establishing a condition monitoring system is crucial in identifying failure at an early stage. Traditional condition monitoring approaches rely on experimental data that are collected by means of sensors. However, the sensors utilized in the experiments may have calibration issues, which lead to inaccurate measurements. The availability of experimental data is also limited as it is difficult and expensive to create and detect a fault in a component. Hence, it is essential to develop a simulation model that mimics the performance of the actual system. The data generated from the model can be utilized to create the data source required for automated condition monitoring. A new methodology based on a detailed geometric model for simulating the External Gear Pump is described and compared to two models analyzed in the authors’ previous work, namely Schlosser’s loss model and simple geometric model. In this paper, the three models are compared with experimental data and the method utilized for fault injection. Schlosser’s loss model, as well as the detailed geometric model, are found to be suitable in terms of validation; however, the latter is a better candidate in terms of fault injection. Hence, the detailed geometric model can be implemented as a tool to generate the data source for condition monitoring applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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20 pages, 7888 KiB  
Article
Electromechanical Actuator-Based Solution for a Scissor Lift
by Łukasz Stawiński, Viacheslav Zakharov, Andrzej Kosucki and Tatiana Minav
Actuators 2023, 12(10), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12100394 - 21 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1770
Abstract
Electrification and hybridization in non-road mobile machinery have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Normally, these green solutions concentrate on drivetrains, slowly penetrating to the implements or, as they are commonly known, working hydraulics. The primary difficulties associated with drivetrains were successfully addressed [...] Read more.
Electrification and hybridization in non-road mobile machinery have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Normally, these green solutions concentrate on drivetrains, slowly penetrating to the implements or, as they are commonly known, working hydraulics. The primary difficulties associated with drivetrains were successfully addressed through the implementation of electric solutions and the utilization of hydraulic configurations. However, existing hydraulics solutions are typically challenged by innovative pure electromechanical solutions to perform the same work. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to illustrate the impact of replacing a conventional hydraulic topology with an electromechanical actuator (EMA) solution. This paper presents a case study of the electrification of a scissor lift, which was evaluated by simulation and experimental works from an energy perspective. The simulation study demonstrated the energy consumption and power requirements in conventional hydraulic (i.e., non-efficient in comparison with advanced systems) and EMA-based topologies for a single lifting cycle. Finally, an average of 35–50% of the consumed energy was saved, which is confirmed based on a completed simulation study case for the scissor lift application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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24 pages, 8732 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Optimization of Two-Stage Helical Pairs in Helical Hydraulic Rotary Actuator Using Ensemble of Metamodels and NSGA-II
by Song Liu, Baoren Li, Runlin Gan, Yue Xu and Gang Yang
Actuators 2023, 12(10), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12100385 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1225
Abstract
This paper aims to optimize the two-stage helical pairs (TSHPs) in a helical hydraulic rotary actuator (HHRA) in terms of volume, transmission efficiency, and maximum contact stress. Volume and transmission efficiency can be determined through analytical mathematical models. However, calculating the contact stress [...] Read more.
This paper aims to optimize the two-stage helical pairs (TSHPs) in a helical hydraulic rotary actuator (HHRA) in terms of volume, transmission efficiency, and maximum contact stress. Volume and transmission efficiency can be determined through analytical mathematical models. However, calculating the contact stress of helical pairs necessitates complex and time-consuming finite element simulation. To address this issue, a method for predicting the maximum contact stress using an ensemble of metamodels (EMs) is proposed, with an automated finite element simulation process developed for data provision. The superiority of the EMs is validated through comparative analysis with three stand-alone metamodels. The optimization is carried out using the NSGA-II algorithm, including four combinations of the three objectives, and global sensitivity is analyzed over the objectives. The results indicate a trade-off relationship between maximum contact stress and volume in the optimal space. Moreover, considering multiple combinations enhances the robustness of the optimization results. The method is effectively applied to the design of the TSHPs and provides a new idea for the related actuator design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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22 pages, 1433 KiB  
Article
Investigation and Optimization of Energy Consumption for Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator with an Innovative Powertrain
by Van Hien Nguyen, Tri Cuong Do and Kyoung Kwan Ahn
Actuators 2023, 12(10), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12100382 - 10 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
This paper presents an innovative powertrain design and an energy regeneration system for hybrid hydraulic excavators to reduce energy consumption and emissions. The proposed system is designed to maximize engine efficiency and make full use of the energy gained from boom and arm [...] Read more.
This paper presents an innovative powertrain design and an energy regeneration system for hybrid hydraulic excavators to reduce energy consumption and emissions. The proposed system is designed to maximize engine efficiency and make full use of the energy gained from boom and arm retraction. The powertrain features an innovative design that incorporates a continuously variable transmission (CVT), which drives the main pump. It enables precise control of both the engine’s speed and torque, ensuring that the engine operates within the high-efficiency range. The energy regeneration system is applied to regenerate the potential energy of the boom and arm, which can be used to either charge the battery or directly supply power to the main pump. Moreover, an energy management strategy based on an equivalent consumption minimization strategy is used to distribute the power while offering maximum engine efficiency. When compared with the existing hybrid system and conventional system, the simulation results indicated that the proposed approach achieves energy-saving efficiencies of 16.9% and 77.1%, respectively, at high velocities and 22.25% and 53.5%, respectively, at medium velocities. This research signifies a promising advancement for sustainable and efficient hydraulic excavator operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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16 pages, 8073 KiB  
Article
Selection of Design Scheme for an Ultrahigh-Pressure Hydrostatic Extrusion Cylinder
by Jian Yang, Lei Zhang, Jun Zhang, Hao Wang, Dong Zhang, Yuanxin Luo and Yongqin Wang
Actuators 2023, 12(10), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12100369 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 949
Abstract
In this study, the mechanical models of a multilayer combined extrusion cylinder and a steel-wire-winding extrusion cylinder were established and compared using a finite element simulation and existing experimental cases. This work provides theoretical support for the selection of an ultrahigh-pressure extrusion cylinder. [...] Read more.
In this study, the mechanical models of a multilayer combined extrusion cylinder and a steel-wire-winding extrusion cylinder were established and compared using a finite element simulation and existing experimental cases. This work provides theoretical support for the selection of an ultrahigh-pressure extrusion cylinder. Comparative analysis of an ultrahigh-pressure extrusion structure was carried out. The mathematical optimization model is established based on the mechanical model, and the ultimate bearing capacities of the schemes are compared. Additionally, the winding mode and the number of core layers of the extrusion cylinder are compared and analyzed, which provides a theoretical basis for the parameter design of the steel-wire-winding ultrahigh-pressure extrusion cylinder. This work holds good theoretical significance and practical value for the promotion and application of ultrahigh-pressure hydrostatic extrusion technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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16 pages, 13419 KiB  
Article
Mining Electric Shovel Working Device Configuration Synthesis and Performance Analysis
by Chenhao Guo, Juan Wu, Yinnan Feng, Xin Wang and Yuliang Wang
Actuators 2023, 12(8), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12080317 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1303
Abstract
Mining electric shovels (MES) are one of the key pieces of equipment for mining, and their comprehensive performance plays an important role in mining efficiency. Based on the screw theory, this paper proposes a comprehensive configuration method for an MES working device and [...] Read more.
Mining electric shovels (MES) are one of the key pieces of equipment for mining, and their comprehensive performance plays an important role in mining efficiency. Based on the screw theory, this paper proposes a comprehensive configuration method for an MES working device and selects a new mining electric shovel working device with a larger excavation range, taking the working device as an example for dimensional optimization and simulation analysis. Firstly, based on the closed-loop vector equation, the position inverse solution of the mechanism is analyzed, and the correctness of the position equation is verified by the simulation and by numerical solutions. Then, the constraints of the mechanism are analyzed, and the numerical method and the position equation are combined to solve for the workspace of the mechanism. The dimensional parameters of the mechanism are optimized by genetic algorithms. The workspace of the optimized working device is increased by 13.4789%. Finally, the mining results of the two MES, the working devices, are simulated and verified by experiment. It is shown that the experimental results are basically consistent with the simulation results. The excavation quality difference of the two working devices are 2.02% and 2.20%, which verifies the correctness of the kinematics equation of the working device and the feasibility of the new working device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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22 pages, 8177 KiB  
Article
Research on Positioning Control Strategy for a Hydraulic Support Pushing System Based on Iterative Learning
by Tengyan Hou, Ziming Kou, Juan Wu, Tianyi Jin, Kaiyuan Su and Binghua Du
Actuators 2023, 12(8), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12080306 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
At present, the positioning control of the hydraulic support pushing systems in fully mechanized mining faces uses an electrohydraulic directional valve as the control component, while the current research mainly focuses on servo valves, proportional valves, high−speed on−off valves, and electromagnetic directional valves. [...] Read more.
At present, the positioning control of the hydraulic support pushing systems in fully mechanized mining faces uses an electrohydraulic directional valve as the control component, while the current research mainly focuses on servo valves, proportional valves, high−speed on−off valves, and electromagnetic directional valves. At present, the positioning control for electrohydraulic directional valves is only a simple logical control. Therefore, in order to improve the positioning control accuracy of the hydraulic support pushing system, a predictive positioning control strategy based on iterative learning was designed. Firstly, mathematical modeling of the hydraulic support pulling process was carried out, and its state−space equation was established. Secondly, an iterative learning controller with a state observer was designed, in which the iterative learning method was used to predict the control advance in the positioning process, and the state observer was used to estimate the parameters that could not be measured by the system, so as to improve the control accuracy in the broaching process. Then, a SimulationX–Simulink joint simulation model of the position control system of a multi−cylinder pulling hydraulic support was built, and the designed iterative learning controller was compared with the BP neural network controller. Finally, a test platform for the hydraulic support pushing system was built, and the proposed control strategy was experimentally verified. The research results show that the iterative learning control strategy proposed for the electrohydraulic directional valve not only simplifies the design process of the controller but also has higher positioning control accuracy. The single−cylinder positioning control accuracy can be controlled within 10 mm, and the multi−cylinder coordinated positioning control accuracy can be controlled within 15 mm, which meets the accuracy requirements of the site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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15 pages, 969 KiB  
Article
Constrained Motion Control of an Independent Metering System with Uncertain Loads
by Bobo Helian, Marco Wydra and Marcus Geimer
Actuators 2023, 12(8), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12080304 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
Independent metering systems (IMSs) have been applied and researched in mobile machinery due to their advantages of reduced throttling energy losses and remarkable advances under negative load through decoupling actuator throttling control. Although IMSs have the control flexibility to deal with negative workloads, [...] Read more.
Independent metering systems (IMSs) have been applied and researched in mobile machinery due to their advantages of reduced throttling energy losses and remarkable advances under negative load through decoupling actuator throttling control. Although IMSs have the control flexibility to deal with negative workloads, the control performance of the IMSs is challenged by uncertain loads in mobile operations, limiting the control accuracy. In addition, if the motion reference is improperly specified and exceeds the constraints, the pressure of the actuator may oscillate significantly and potentially result in control instability. In this study, a constrained adaptive robust control strategy is proposed for an IMS. An adaptive robust control strategy is designed for the meter-in and meter-out throttling to achieve precision motion control despite the nonlinearities and uncertainties of the electro-hydraulic IMS. The value of the uncertain workload is estimated in real-time and utilized in the model-based controller to improve control accuracy. In addition, a constrained trajectory planning approach is presented to handle out-of-constraint references and ensure motion tracking performance. This effectively prevents pressure fluctuations caused by the inappropriate reference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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16 pages, 4977 KiB  
Article
Robust Output Feedback Position Control of Hydraulic Support with Neural Network Compensator
by Haigang Ding, Yunfei Wang and He Zhang
Actuators 2023, 12(7), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12070263 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Hydraulic support is important equipment in the fully mechanized mining face, and the control performance of the hydraulic support multi-cylinder system directly affects the smooth progress of coal mining process, which is the basis for the continuous advancement of the coal face. However, [...] Read more.
Hydraulic support is important equipment in the fully mechanized mining face, and the control performance of the hydraulic support multi-cylinder system directly affects the smooth progress of coal mining process, which is the basis for the continuous advancement of the coal face. However, the friction force of the hydraulic support in the process of pulling the frame is complex due to the underground environmental load. Moreover, the parameters of the moving cylinder are uncertain, and the state of the system cannot be fully measured, which increases the difficulty of control. A proportional-integral-derivative controller is usually used in electro-hydraulic closed-loop control systems because of its computational complexity, but its robustness is poorly adapted to variable load conditions in the coal mine. Therefore, a robust output feedback position controller is proposed in this paper to improve control accuracy and system robustness with only position signal. The multi-cylinder system of hydraulic support is modeled as a standard type, and then a high-order differentiator is proposed to estimate the immeasurable system states using the output position signal. A neural network compensator is applied to estimate and compensate for the external disturbance of the moving cylinder. Furthermore, the parameters of the ZY3200/08/18D hydraulic support are adopted to analyze the effectiveness of the designed controller in simulations. Finally, a real-time control system of hydraulic support is built, and the experimental results show that the novel robust output feedback controller has improved by 47.2% and 30.6% in tracking accuracy compared to PI controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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21 pages, 12929 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigations of Partially Valve-, Partially Displacement-Controlled Electrified Telehandler Implements
by David Fassbender, Christine Brach and Tatiana Minav
Actuators 2023, 12(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12020050 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
The next generation of electrified heavy-duty mobile machines (HDMMs) requires more efficient hydraulic systems—to save energy and to compensate for the limited capacities of available mobile electric energy sources. This study is experimentally demonstrating the functionality, dynamic performance, and efficiency of such a [...] Read more.
The next generation of electrified heavy-duty mobile machines (HDMMs) requires more efficient hydraulic systems—to save energy and to compensate for the limited capacities of available mobile electric energy sources. This study is experimentally demonstrating the functionality, dynamic performance, and efficiency of such a more efficient but also cost-effective system. The demonstrator is a conventional nine-tonne telehandler that has been transformed by replacing the diesel engine with an electric machine (EM) and changing the boom function from valve to displacement control. Since the system control and the resulting dynamics are not trivial, key aspects of it are explained in the paper. With the functional system, achievable consumption reductions could be obtained by measuring five different representative work cycles repeatedly and comparing the average consumption values to the consumption of a purely valve-controlled but also electrified reference version. In four of five cycles, an average reduction of 21–31% was achieved, which confirms the simulation results from previous studies and the effectiveness of the concept. However, one cycle—characterized by serial movements and longer breaks of the boom movement—showed a reduction of only 3% and that the effectiveness of the concept can also be lower in certain cases that depend mainly on the operator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
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