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NDT, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 4 articles

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23 pages, 3663 KiB  
Review
Review of Ground Penetrating Radar Applications for Bridge Infrastructures
by Paola Boldrin, Giacomo Fornasari and Enzo Rizzo
NDT 2024, 2(1), 53-75; https://doi.org/10.3390/ndt2010004 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Infrastructure bridges play a crucial role in fostering economic and social development. However, the adverse effects of natural hazard and weather degradation, coupled with escalating rates of traffic, pose a significant threat. The resultant strain on the structure can lead to undue stress, [...] Read more.
Infrastructure bridges play a crucial role in fostering economic and social development. However, the adverse effects of natural hazard and weather degradation, coupled with escalating rates of traffic, pose a significant threat. The resultant strain on the structure can lead to undue stress, elevating the risk of a critical asset failure. Hence, non-destructive testing (NDT) has become indispensable in the surveillance of bridge infrastructure. Its primary objectives include ensuring safety, optimizing structural integrity, minimizing repair costs, and extending the lifespan of bridges. NDT techniques can be applied to both existing and newly constructed bridge structures. However, it is crucial to recognize that each NDT method comes with its own set of advantages and limitations tailored to specific tasks. No single method can provide an effective and unequivocal diagnosis on its own. Among the various NDT methods, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has emerged as one of the most widely employed techniques for monitoring bridges. In fact, recent technical regulations now mandate the use of GPR for bridge monitoring and characterization, underscoring its significance in ensuring the structural health and longevity of these critical infrastructures. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) stands out as one of the most highly recommended non-destructive methods, offering an efficient and timely assessment of the structural conditions of infrastructure. Recognizing the pivotal role of non-destructive testing (NDT) in this context, this paper aims to elucidate recent scientific endeavors related to the application of GPR in bridge engineering structures. The exploration will commence with a focus on studies conducted both at the model level within laboratory settings and on real cases. Subsequently, the discussion will extend to encompass the characterization and monitoring of the bridge’s main elements: slab, beam, and pillar. By delving into these scientific experiences, this paper intends to provide valuable insights into the efficacy and applicability of GPR in assessing and ensuring the structural integrity of bridges. This paper provides a concise survey of the existing literature on the application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in the assessment of bridges and viaducts constructed with masonry and reinforced concrete, taking into account papers of journal articles and proceedings available on open databases. Various approaches employed in both laboratory and field settings will be explored and juxtaposed. Additionally, this paper delves into discussions on novel processing and visualization approaches, shedding light on advancements in techniques for interpreting GPR data in the context of bridge and viaduct evaluations. Full article
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21 pages, 11484 KiB  
Article
Acoustic Emission Analysis of Mode II Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of 3D Reinforced CFRP
by Thiago Luiz Lara Oliveira, Daniel Brighenti Bortoluzzi, Lorena Cristina Miranda Barbosa and Antônio Carlos Ancelotti, Jr.
NDT 2024, 2(1), 32-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ndt2010003 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 925
Abstract
The use of composites in industry is increasing due to their ability to replace traditional materials. Carbon fiber-reinforced polymers offer a favorable strength-to-weight ratio, making them advantageous in numerous applications. Delamination is a common failure mode for composite materials, making it a crucial [...] Read more.
The use of composites in industry is increasing due to their ability to replace traditional materials. Carbon fiber-reinforced polymers offer a favorable strength-to-weight ratio, making them advantageous in numerous applications. Delamination is a common failure mode for composite materials, making it a crucial factor in ensuring material safety during service life. While fiber orientation in composites is designed for specific directional reinforcement, out-of-plane loads are often neglected, posing a critical challenge. Implementing through-thickness reinforcement, such as tufting, can enhance out-of-plane resistance, enabling more accurate structural designs. Non-destructive testing methods, particularly acoustic emission, play a significant role in ensuring component safety by detecting early damage and flaws. This study focused on monitoring mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and end-notched flexure (ENF), using acoustic emissions to compare the performance of samples with different through-thickness reinforcements against that of nonreinforced samples. The research analyzed acoustic emission patterns during testing, revealing a strong correlation with failure stages and the resistance induced by reinforcements. This approach provided valuable insights into damage characterization, supported by fractography analysis, especially concerning the final stages of failure due to damage, and the effects of different thread reinforcements. Acoustic emission proved crucial for real-time monitoring, enabling informed decisions to be made regarding component repair and lifespan extension in composite materials. Full article
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16 pages, 2696 KiB  
Article
Reporting the Bearing Capacity of Airfield Pavements Using PCR Index
by Angeliki Armeni and Andreas Loizos
NDT 2024, 2(1), 16-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ndt2010002 - 06 Jan 2024
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Airfield pavements are important assets that have to secure the safe operation of an airport. On this basis, assessing and reporting the bearing capacity of an airfield runway pavement is a critical task. Recently, the Aircraft Classification Rating-Pavement Classification Rating (ACR-PCR) system has [...] Read more.
Airfield pavements are important assets that have to secure the safe operation of an airport. On this basis, assessing and reporting the bearing capacity of an airfield runway pavement is a critical task. Recently, the Aircraft Classification Rating-Pavement Classification Rating (ACR-PCR) system has been introduced, which uses the PCR index for expressing the bearing capacity of an airfield pavement. In order to accurately determine PCR, the mechanical characteristics and the thicknesses of the individual layers of a pavement are required. For this purpose, it is not seldom that in the absence of resources dedicated to detailed pavement evaluation procedures, assumptions for the material characteristics of the pavement considering typical materials may be made, while pavement thicknesses may be derived by pavement design records. The present paper highlights the importance of using Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for accurately assessing the in-situ condition of a flexible runway pavement and determining the PCR index. In order to achieve the goal of the investigation, measurements were performed along the flexible pavement of an airport runway. In addition, the paper focuses on the impact of the variation of the thickness and of the mechanical characteristics of the asphalt concrete layers on the PCR index and on the interpretation of the results considering the acceptance of aircraft operations by airport authorities. Full article
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15 pages, 2369 KiB  
Article
Simulation Study: Data-Driven Material Decomposition in Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography
by Moritz Weiss, Nick Brierley, Mirko von Schmid and Tobias Meisen
NDT 2024, 2(1), 1-15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ndt2010001 - 05 Jan 2024
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Material-resolving computed tomography is a powerful and well-proven tool for various clinical applications. For industrial scan setups and materials, several problems, such as K-edge absence and beam hardening, prevent the direct transfer of these methods. This work applies dual-energy computed tomography methods for [...] Read more.
Material-resolving computed tomography is a powerful and well-proven tool for various clinical applications. For industrial scan setups and materials, several problems, such as K-edge absence and beam hardening, prevent the direct transfer of these methods. This work applies dual-energy computed tomography methods for material decomposition to simulated phantoms composed of industry-relevant materials such as magnesium, aluminium and iron, as well as some commonly used alloys like Al–Si and Ti64. Challenges and limitations for multi-material decomposition are discussed in the context of X-ray absorption physics, which provides spectral information that can be ambiguous. A deep learning model, derived from a clinical use case and based on the popular U-Net, was utilised in this study. For various reasons outlined below, the training dataset was simulated, whereby phantom shapes and material properties were sampled arbitrarily. The detector signal is computed by a forward projector followed by Beer–Lambert law integration. Our trained model could predict two-material systems with different elements, achieving a relative error of approximately 1% through simulated data. For the discrimination of the element titanium and its alloy Ti64, which were also simulated, the relative error increased to 5% due to their similar X-ray absorption coefficients. To access authentic CT data, the model underwent testing using a 10c euro coin composed of an alloy known as Nordic gold. The model detected copper as the main constituent correctly, but the relative fraction, which should be 89%, was predicted to be ≈70%. Full article
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